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POPULAR EDITION OF 



"OUR LIVING WORLD," 

A NATURAL HISTORY 

BY 

THE REV. J. G. WOOD. 



REVISED AND ADAPTED TO 



ZOOLO&Y, 



BY 



JOSEPH B. HOLDER, M.D., 

Fellow of the J^Tew York Academy of Sciences ; Jtfemier of the Bociety of JJaturalists, E. U. 8. ; Jvfember 

of the American Ornithologists' Union ; Curator of Vertebrate Zoology, jlmerican 

Jtfuseum of Jfatural History, Central (Park, JJew York. 



FULLY ILLUSTRATED WITH SCIENTIFIC ACCURACY. 



VOL. 1. 



NEW YORK: 
SELMAR HESS 



COPYRIGHT, 

1S85, 
Bf SELM.AR HEi;S. 





PREFATORY NOTE. 




HE original text of the Rev. Dr. Wood's Work on Natural History, well known as 
the most fascinating collection of description and anecdote ever published, was 
most wisely selected as a basis of a new issue, entitled "Our Living World." 

With the original text the writer has no connection, excepting so far as 
relates to American animals. Where the latter are treated the subject matter is revised, the 
latest information is added in full, and the classification and nomenclature now most 
approved is adopted. 

The "Compendium of Generic Distinctions," at the end of each volume, determines the 
classification adopted for the original work by the author. Besides this, we introduce at the 
end of each volume a table of classification, embracing the latest and best approved views, as 
applied to American Zoology. Thus, the reader finds, in addition to the charming descriptive 
text of Dr. Wood, instructive modern views of Zoology of peculiar service to the student. 

The classification adopted by the writer for the American subjects, is as follows : 

For the Mammals, Prof. Flower, of London Zoological Society ; .for Birds, Robert Ridg- 
way ; Nomenclature of Birds of North America, Smithsonian Publication. Works of Dr. 
Coues and Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway have been freely utilized. 

For Fishes and Reptiles, the works of Jordan and Gilbert have proved of great service, 
well-nigh indispensable. 

The Invertebrate Animals having during the last ten years received especial attention from 
officers of the U. S. Fish Commission, we have availed ourselves of their valuable publications 
and Yearly Reports. The immense amount of original work done by Prof. Verrill and hia 
assistants in the Commission, and the exceptional opportunities for such work accorded natu- 
ralists by the courtesy of Prof. Baird, Chief of the Commission, are highly appreciated. 

For the very liberal use made of the above-mentioned works, the editor of this edition 
would express his grateful acknowledgments. 

J. B. H. 



Tot, L 



111 



PREFACE. 




IN the present Volume I have endeavored to carry out, on a more extended scale, the principle which 
has been partially indicated in several of my smaller works ; namely, to present to the reader the outlines 
of zoologic knowledge in a form that shall be readily comprehended, while it is as intrinsically valuable as 
if it were couched in the most repellent vocabulary of conventional technicalities. In acting thus, an 
author must voluntarily abnegate the veneration which attaches itself to those who are the accredited pos- 
sessors of abstruse learning, and must content himself with the satisfaction of having achieved the task 
which has been placed in his hands. In accordance with this principle, the technical language of scientific 
zoology has been carefully avoided, and English names have been employed wherever practicable in the 
place of Greek or Latin appellatives. 

The body of the work has been studiously preserved in a simple and readable form, and the more 
strictly scientific portions have been removed to the "Compendium of Generic Distinctions" at the end of 
the volume. In this Compendium the reader will find a brief notice of the various characteristics which 
are employed by our best systematic naturalists, such as Owen, Gray, Van der Hoeven, and others, for the 
purpose of separating the different genera from each other ; and by its aid he will be enabled to place every 
animal in that position which it is at present supposed to occupy. Even in that Compendium simplicity 
of diction has been maintained. -For example, the word " five-toed " has been substituted for "pentedac- 
tylous ;" "pointed" for "acuminate;" "ringed" for "annulate;" together with innumerable similar 
instances which need no separate mention. 

Owing to the inordinate use of pseudo-classical phraseology, the fascinating study of animal life has 
been too long considered as a profession or a science restricted to a favored few, and interdicted to the 
many until they have undergone a long apprenticeship to its preliminary formulae. So deeply rooted is 
this idea, that the popular notion of a scientific man is of one who possesses a fund of words, and not of 
one who has gathered a mass of ideas. There is really not the least reason why any one of ordinary capa- 
bilities and moderate memory should not be acquainted with the general outlines of zoology, and possess 
some knowledge of the representative animals, which serve as types of each group, tribe, or family ; for 
when relieved of the cumbersome diction with which it is embarrassed, the study of animal life can be 
brought within the comprehension of all who care to examine the myriad varieties of form and color 
with which the Almighty clothes His living poems. 

The true object of Zoology is not, as some appear to fancy, to arrange, to number, and to ticket 
animals in a formal inventory, but to make the study an inquiry into the Life-nature, and not only an 
investigation of the lifeless organism. I must not, however, be understood to disparage the outward form, 
thing of clay though it be. For what wondrous clay it is, arid how marvellous the continuous miracle by 
which the dust of earth is transmuted into the g^wing colors and graceful forms which we most imper- 
fectly endeavor to preserve after the soul has departed therefrom. It is a great thing to be acquainted with 
the material framework of any creature, but it is a far greater to know something of the principle which 
gave animation to that structure. The former, indeed, is the consequence of the latter. The lion, for 
example, is not predaceous because it possesses fangs, talons, strength, and activity ; on the contrary, it 

VOL. I. 



Ti PREFA CE. 

possesses these qualities because its inmost nature is predaceous, and it needs these appliances to enable it 
to carry put the innate principle of its being ; so that the truest description of the lion is that which treats 
of the animating spirit, and not only of the outward form. In accordance with this principle, it has been 
my endeavor to make the work rather anecdotal and vital than merely anatomical and scientific. The 
object of a true zoologist is to search into the essential nature of every being, to investigate, according to 
his individual capacity, the reason why it should have been placed on earth, and to give his personal service 
to his Divine Master in developing that nature in the best manner and to the fullest extent. 

What do we know of Man from the dissecting room ? Of Man, the warrior, the statesman, the poet, 
or the saint ? In the lifeless corpse there are no records of the burning thoughts, the hopes, loves, and 
fears that once animated that now passive form, and which constituted the very essence of the being. 
Every nerve, fibre, and particle in the dead bodies of the king and the beggar, the poet and the boor, the 
saint and the sensualist, may be separately traced, and anatomically they shall all be alike, for neither of 
the individuals is there, and on the dissecting table lies only the cast-off attire that the spirit no longer 
needs. What can an artist learn, even of the outward form of Man, if he lives only in the dissecting room, 
and studies the human frome merely through the medium of scalpel and scissors ? He may, indeed, obtain 
an accurate muscular outline, but it will be an outline of a cold and rigid corpse, suggestive only of the 
charnel-house, and devoid of the soft and rounded form, the delicate tinting, and breathing grace which 
invest the living human frame. A feeling eye will always discover whether an artist has painted even his 
details cf attire from a lay figure instead of depicting the raiment as it rests upon and droops from the 
breathing form of a living model ; for such robes are not raiment, but a shroud. So it is with the animal 
kingdom. The zoologist will never comprehend the nature of any creature by the most careful investi- 
gation of its interior structure or the closest inspection of its stuffed skin, for the material structure tells 
little of the vital nature, and the stuffed skin is but the lay figure stiffly fitted with its own cast coat. 

The true study of Zoology is of more importance than is generally conceived, for although " the proper 
study of mankind is Man," it is impossible for us to comprehend the loftiness and grandeur of humanity, el- 
even its individual and physical nature, without possessing some knowledge of the earlier forms of God's 
animated organizations. We must follow the order of creation, and as far as our perceptions will permit, 
begin where the Creator began. We shall then find that no animal leads an isolated existence, for the 
minutest atom of animated life which God has enfranchised with an individual existence, forms, though 
independent in itself, an integral and necessary portion of His ever-changing yet eternal organic universe. 
Hence every being which draws the breath of life forms a part of one universal family, bound together by 
the ties of a common creaturehood. And as being ourselves members of that living and breathing family, 
we learn to view with clearer eyes and more reverent hearts those beings which, although less godlike than 
ourselves in their physical or moral natures, demand for that very reason our kindliest sympathies and 
most indulgent care. For we, being made in the image of God, are to them the visible representations of 
that Divine Being who gave the Sabbath alike for man and buast, and who takes even the sparrows under 
His personal protection. 



You L 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Order QUADKUMANA ; OB THE MONKEY TRIBE. 



PAGB 
1 



u 



Family SIMIAD^B : 

Gorilla Troglodytes Gorilla 15 

Orang-Outang Simia satyrus 33 

Siamang Siamanga syndactyla 28 

Gibbons Hylobates 30 

ColobiiB Colobus 36 

Macaques Macaou 44 

Baboons Cynocephalw 55 

family CEBID^E : 

American Monkeys 72 

Family LEMUKIDJB : 

Lemurs Lemur 92 

Family GALEOPITHECHXE : 

Colugo Qaleojyithecus volltans 101 

Order CHEIROPTERA ; OB WING-HANDED ANIMALS. 102 

Vampire Bat Vampyrus spectrum 104 

Great Horseshoe BatJiMnolophusferrum equinum.. 107 
Flying Fox Pteropus rubricollis 113 

Order FER^E. 

Family FELID^E ; OK THE CAT TBIB'E 116 

Lions Leo 117 

Tigers Tigris 130 

Leopards Leopardus 137 

Cats Fells : 158 

Lynxes Lyncus 166 

Chetah Oueparda jitbata 171 

Samily VIVEBBID^B : 

Hyenas Hyana 178 

Civets Proteles 182 

Genetts Oenetta 187 

Ichneumon Herpestes 189 

Family CANID.E ; OB THE DOG TBIBE 198 

Domesticated Dogs Canis familiaris 200 

Wild Dogs Canis 255 

Wolves Canis ... 260 

Fo*es Vtdpes 267 

Family MUSTE'LID^E ; OB THE WEASEL TBIBE 275 

Polecat Putortus 279 

Weasels Mustela 28* 

Ratels MeUimra 297 

Glutton Gulo 299 

Skunk Mephitis S 00 

Badger-Jteks 

Otters Lutra 305 



BEAU FAMILY URSID^E 311 

True Bears Ursus 312 

Sun Bears Helarctos 324 

Aswail, or Lipped-Bear U. labiatus 826 

Sea-Bears T/ialussarctos 328 

Racoons Procyon 332 

Coaitis Xasua 335 

Kiukajou Ccrcolep/es 836 

Cat-Bears Ailurus 337 

INSECTIVORA ; OB INSECT-EATERS. 

Family TALPID^E : 

Moles Talpa 338 

Tupaia-Tana Cladobales tana 844 

Pen-Tail Ptilocercus Low'd 345 

Long-Nosed and Long-Legged Shrews MacrosceHdes. 346 

Shrews Sorex 347 

Water-Shrews Crossopus 350 

Solenodon Solenodon paradoxum 352 

True Hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus 354 

Thorny Hedgehogs Centetes 361 



Tribe MABSUPIALIA ; POUCHED AKIHALS. . 



Family MACBOPODIDJB : 

Squirrel Petaurns Petaurus scinreus 365 

Taguan Petaurista 366 

Vulpine Phalangiet PJialangista vulpina 870 

Koala Pliascolarctos ciiweus 871 

Tree Kangaroo Dendrdogus ursin>ts 878 

Kangaroo-Rats Hyp&iprymnui 874 

True Kangaroos Jfacropus 376 

Whallabee Halmaturus ualabatus 380 

Rock-Kangaroo Petrogate pfnicillata 880 

Wombat Phascohmys lattfroru 881 

Sub-Family SALTATOKIA : 

Bandicoots 383 

Chicropus Chceropus castanotus 884 

Sub-Family DABTUBID^B ; DASYCBIHBS 385 

Tasmanian Wolf Thylacinus cynocephaliu 385 

Tasmanian Devil Diabolm urairms 387 

Common Dasyure Dasyurus viverrinus 389 

Tapoa TafzPhascogale penicittata 389 

Pouched Mice Antechinus 391 

Myrmecobius 3fyrmecobius fasciatus 391 

Opossums Didelphys 392 

Tapock Opossum Cheironectes variegatus 397 



Order PINNIPEDIA. 

Family PHOCIDJS ; Common Seals. . 



398 



VOL. I. 



Til 



YIN 



CONTENTS. 



Sub-Family PHOCINA : 

Sea Leopard Leplonyx leopardinui 400 

Crested Seal Cystophora cristata 402 

Common Seal Phoca vitulina 404 

Walrus Trichecus rosmarus 410 

Sea Elephant Cystophora proboscidea 413 

Family OTARIID^E ; EARED SEALS : 

Sea Lion Olaria jubala 416 

Sea Bear Arctocephalus ursinus 417 

Order CETACEA. 

Family BAL^ENID^E ; Whales 418 

Greenland Whale Salcena mysticetus 421 

Hump-Backed Whales Megaptera 425 

True Carnivorous Whales Baltenoptera 426 

Rorqual Physalus antiguoritm 427 

Sub- Order ODONTOCETI ; Toothed and Sperm Whales 430 

Spermaceti Whale Catodon mucrocephalus 481 

Black Fish Physeter tursia 434 

family DELPHINID^E ; Dolphins 435 

Narwhal Monodon monoceros 436 

White Whale Beluga Imcas 439 

Sea Hog Phoccena communis 441 

Grampus Orca gladiator 443 

Dolphin Delphinus Delphi* 444 

Soosoo Platanista gangetica 446 

Sub- Order SIRENIA. 

Manatees Manatus 447 

Dugongs Halicore 448 

Kytina Bytlna Stelleri 449 



Order RODENTIA ; GNAWING ANIMALS. 



450 



Mouse Family ; MURUXE: 

Black Rat Mus rattus 451 

Harvest Mouse Mifromys minutus 455 

Hamster Cricetus frumentarius 461 

Lemming Myodes lernmus 462 

Sub-Family CASTORINA : 

Beavers Castor 463 

Racoonda Myopotamus coypu 466 

Ondatra Fiber zibethicus 467 

Beaver Rat Hydromys chrysogaster 469 

Sub-Family ECHIMYNA ; PORCUPINES : 

Ground Pig Avlacodus Swinderianus 469 

Family HYSTBICID.E ; Sub-Family HTSTBICINA : 

Porcupine ffystrix cristata 469 



Sub-Family CERCOLABINA : 

Urson Erethizon dorsatum 471 

Coendoo Cercolabe* urchensttis 473 

Sub-Family SUBUNGULATA : 

Agouti Dasyprocta agutl 474 

Dusky Paca Coflogenys paca 476 

Capy bara ffydrochterus capybara 477 

Guinea Pig Cavia aperea 478 



Family LEPORID^ ; HARES : 
Hare Lepus timid us . 



479 



Family JERBOIDJE ; Sub-Family CHINCILLINA : 

Chinuilla Chincilla laniger 484 

Lagotis Lagotis Cuvieri , . . 485 



Sub-Family DIPINA : 

Spring Haas Pedetes coffer 486 

Gerboa Dipui ceyyptius 487 

Sub-Family MYOXINA ; DORMICE : 

Loire Myoxus glis 488 

Common Dormouse Muscardinus avettanarius 489 

Sub-Family SCIURINA : 

Taguan Pleromys petaur'usta 491 

Assapan Sciuropterus volucetta 492 

Black Squirrel Sciurus niger 493 

Chipmuck Tamias Lysteri 494 

Prairie Dog Cynomys ludovicianus 496 

Hood's Marmot SpermophUus Hoodii 498 

Bobac Arctomys bobac 499 

Family ASPAI/ACID^E ; MOLE RATS 501 

Slepez Spalax iyphlus 502 

Canada Pouched Rat Oeomys bursarius 564 



Order UNGULATA; CATTLE, SHEEP, ETC. 



507 



Tribe BOVINA ; Sub-Tribe BOVE^E : 

Domestic Ox Eos .................................. 508 

Zebu Bos indicus .................................. 512 

Buffalo .&W bubalus ................................ 514 

Gaur Bos Gaurus .................................. 517 

Bison -Bos americanus .............................. 518 

Yak Boa grunniens ................................. 520 

Musk Ox Ovlbos moschatus ......................... 521 

Musk yheep Ovibos moschatus ...................... 523 

Sub-Tribe ANTILOPE^ ; Antelopes .......................... 523 

Gazelle Oazella dorcas .............................. 524 

Spring-Bok Antilope euchore ........................ 526 

Chouka Tetracerus quadricornis .................... 527 

Duy ker-Bok Cephalophus mergens .................. 528 

Kookam Oi~yx Gazella ............................. 529 

Cabrit AntUocapra americana ...................... 532 

Gnoo Conncchetes Gnu ............................. 534 

Hartebeest Bubalis caama .......................... 535 

Bubale Alcephalus bubalis .......................... 535 

Sasin Antilope bozoartica ............................ 536 

Eainsi Oreotrayus saltatrix ......................... 538 

Madoqua Neotragus sallianus ....................... 538 

Natal Bush Buck Cephalophus natalensis ............ 539 

Sub-Tribe CAPBE^; ; GOATS AND SHEEP : 

Jemlah Goat Hemitragus jemlaicus .................. 643 

Ibex Capra Ibex ................................... 544 

Angora Goat Capra hircus angorensif ............... 546 



Sub-Tribe 

Sheep Ovis aries ................................... 547 

Argali Caprovis Argali ............................ 551 

Aoudacl Ammotragus tragelaphut ................... 553 

Tribe GIHAFFINA ; Giraffes .................................. 556 

Tribe CEHVINA ; Deer ....................................... 558 

Sub-Tribe ALCE^B : 

Elk Alee americanui ............................... 559 

Sub-Tribe RANGERIKE DEER : 

Reindeer Rangifer larandus ........................ 561 

Wapiti Cervus canadensis .......................... 564 

Fallow Deer Dama vulgarit ........................ 596 



Sub-Tribe RUSINE DEER : 

Axis Ueer Axis maculata. 



667 



VOL. I. 



I 



CONTENTS. 



Sub- Tribe CAPREOLINE DEER : 

Roebuck Capreolus caprcera 567 

Carjacou Variants virginianux 569 

Tribe MOSOHINA : 

Mask Deer Moschus moscfitferus 571 

Kanchil Tragylus pygnueus 572 

Tribe CAMELINA : 

The Camel 573 

Bactrian Camel Camelus bactrianus 576 

Llama Auchenia lama 577 

Family EQUIIJ.K : 

Horses Equi 581 

Ass EI/UUS asinui 589 

Famtty ELEPIIANTID^E 597 

Sub-Family ELEPHANTIN.B : 

Asiatic Elephant Eltphas indicia 599 

Sub-Family TAPIRINA ; Tapirs 606 

American Tapir Tapints terrestris 607 

Sub-Family SUINA ; SWINE : 

Swine Sus 608 

Emgalla Phacochcerus africanus 613 

Peccary Dicotyles torquatus 615 



Sub-Family RuiNOCEKiNA : 

Rhiuoceros 617 

Hyrax Hyrax abyssinicta 683 

Sub-Family HIPPOPOTAMINA : 

Hippopotamus 633 

Order EDENTATA ; ARMADILLOS, ANT-EATERS, ETC. 636 

Sub-Family MANINA : 

Phatagin Mania longicavdota 637 



Sub-Family DASTPINA : 

Armadillo Dasypus sexeinctus. 
A para Tatuiia tricincta 



Sub-Family MYRMECOPHAGINA : 

Aard Vark Orycteropus capemit 632 

Tamandua Myrmecophaga tetradactyla 634 

Family BRADYPID^E ; SLOTH : 

Two-Toed Sloth Ckolatpus didactylu* 636 

Family OBNITHOKHYNCINA ; MONOTBEMES : 

Mullingong Ornithorhynchus paradoxut 637 

Echidna Echidna hystrix 639 




You i. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS PRINTED IN COLORS. 



Chimpanzee 20 

Tiger 134 

Leopard 138 

Puma... 150 



Sea Lion 416 

Harvest Mouse 466 

Porcupine , 470 



Chillingham Cattle 508 

Stag, or Red Deer 558 

Rhinoceros... .. 618 



FULL-PAGE WOOD ENGRAVINGS. 



Gorilla 18 

Green Monkeys 38 

Kra, or Dog- Like Macaque 44 

Barbary Lion 130 

Jaguar 144 

Striped Hyena 174 

Wolf... 262 



Polar Bear 328 

Kangaroo 376 

Walrus 410 

Beaver 464 

Bison 518 

Chamois 530 

Koodoo .. 542 



Giraffe 556 

Moose, or Elk 560 

Fallow Deer 566 

Camel 574 

Asiatic Elephant 600 

Wild Boar 610 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. 



MONKEYS. 

4 PAGE 

Skeleton of Man and Gorilla 14 

Bushman 19 

Orang-Outan 24 

Lar Gibbon 30 

Silvery Gibbon 31 

Budeng 32 

Entellus S3 

Kahau 85 

Ursine Colobus and Black Colobus 37 

Guereza 88 

Patas 41 

Diana 43 

Sooty Mangabey 44 

Macaques 45 

Rhesus, or Bhunder Monkey 47 

Magot, or Barbary Ape 49 

Black Macaque 51 

Pig-Tailed Macaque 52 

Wanderoo 54 

Baboons 56 

Gelada. 57 

Chacma 58 

Black Macaque 60 

Baboons 65 

Mandrill 68 

Drill 71 

Chamcck 73 

Coaita 74 

Miriki 78 

Howling Monkeys 81 

Capucin Monkeys 83 

Sai 84 

Tee-Tee 85 

Saimiri 86 

Black Yarke 87 

Cuxio, or Bearded Saki 88 

Kight Monkey, or Douroucouli 89 

VOL. I. ANIMATE CREATION. 



Group of Marmosets 90 

Pinche 91 

Marikina 92 

Ruffed Lemur 93 

Ring-Tailed Lemur 94 

Propithece, or Diadem Lemur 95 

Slender Loris 96 

Kukang, or Slow-Paced Loris 97 

Avahi, or Indri. 98 

Galago 98 

Tarsier 99 

Aye-Aye 100 

Colugo 101 

WING-HANDED ANIMALS. 

Group of Water Bats 102 

Skeleton of Bat 103 

Vampire Bat 104 

Great Horseshoe Bat 107 

Barbastelle ... 108 

Long-Eared Bat 109 

Noetule, or Great Bat Ill 

Edible Kalong 113 

Hair of Indian Bat 114 

FELINES. 

Jaws and Teeth of Lion 116 

Claw of Lion 116 

Tongue of Lion 117 

South African Lion 118 

Root and Nerves of Lion's Whisker 

Hair 120 

Tiger 131 

Leopard 137 

Black Leopard 140 

Ounce 143 

Serval 148 

xi 



Puma 149 

Tagouarondi 152 

Marbled Cat 152 

Ocelot 153 

Margay 155 

Rimau-Dahan 156 

Chati 157 

Pampas Cat 157 

Egyptian Cat 158 

Wild Cat 160 

Domestic Cat 162 

Manx Cat and Angola Cat 163 

Chaus 165 

Caracal 167 

European Lynx 168 

Southern Lynx 169 

Canada Lynx 170 

Booted Lynx 171 

Chetah 172 

HYENAS, CIVETS, GENETTS, AND 
ICHNEUMONS. 

Striped or Crested Hyena 176 

Brown Hyena 177 

Spotted Hyena, or Tiger Wolf 178 

Aard Wolf. 182 

Civet 183 

Zibeth 185 

Rasse 186 

Delundung 186 

Blotched Genett 187 

Caxomixle 188 

Banded Mungous 189 

Garangan 189 

Urva, or Crab-Eating Ichneumon 190 

Ichneumon 191 

Moongus 198 



XII 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Meerkat 192 

Zenick 193 

Mampalon 194 

Masked Paguma 195 

Luwack 196 

Musang 197 

DOGS. 

Bun usual i 200 

Thibet Dog 201 

Great Danish Dog 203 

Greyhound 203 

Irish Greyhound 203 

Italian Greyhound 205 

Newfoundland Dog 207 

Esquimaux Dogs 209 

Pomeranian Dog 211 

Water Spaniel 213 

St. Bernard's Dog 215 

Poodle 216 

Bloodhound 218 

Staghound 219 

Foxhound 220 

Beagle 223 

Pointer 224 

Dalmatian or Coach Dog 227 

English Setter 228 

Retriever 230 

Shepherd's Dog 233 

Lurcher 236 

Otterhound 23S 

Boarhound 240 

Bull-Dog 241 

Mastiff 243 

Skye Terrier 247 

Turnspit 251 

Pug-Dog 252 

Dingo 255 

Jackal 257 

Black-Backed Jackal 259 

WOLVES, FOXES, ETC. 

Wolf 280 

South American Wolf 261 

Black Wolf 263 

Prairie Wolf 264 

Group of Foxes 267 

Silver Fox of our Southern States 269 

Arctic Fox 271 

Otocyon 272 

Fennec 273 

Hyena Dog, or Hnnting-Dog 275 

WEASELS, SKUNKS, BADGERS, ETC. 

Pine Marten 276 

Beech Marten 277 

Sable 278 

Wood-Shock, or Pekan 279 

Polecat 280 

Ferret 281 

Mink 283 

Weasel 285 

S^Dat, or Ermine 290 

Tayra 295 

Honey Ratel 297 

Skunk 300 

Sand-Bear, or Balisaur 303 

Badger 304 

Sea Otter, or Kalan 305 

BEARS. 

Brown Bear 314 

Musquaw, or American Black Bear.. .. 318 

Grizzly Bear 320 

Bruang, or Malayan Sun-Bear 325 

RACOONS, COATTI, ETC. 

Coaiti 332 

Racoon 333 

Kinkajou, or Potto 336 

Panda, or Wah S37 

VOL. L 



INSECT-EATING ANIMALS. 



Mole. 



PAGE 

. 338 



Cape ChrysocMore, or Changeable Mole 343 

Radiate Mole, or Star-Nosed Mole 344 

Tupaia-Tana 345 

Elephant Shrew 346 

Erd Shrew and Sondeli 347 

Agouta, or Solenodon 352 

Daesman 353 

Hedgehog 354 

Tanrec 363 

KANGAROOS, OPOSSUMS, ETC. 
Sugar Squirrel, or Squirrel Petaurus. . . 365 

Vulpine Phalangist 370 

Koala, or Australian Bear 373 

Tree Kangaroo 373 

Young Kangaroo in its Mother's Pouch 378 

Whallabee 380 

Wombat 382 

Long-Nosed Bandicoot 383 

Chaeropus 384 

Tasmanian Wolf 386 

Tasmanian Devil 387 

Opossum 392 

Crab-Eating Opossum 396 

Tapock Opossum 397 

SEALS, WHALES, ETC. 

Sea Leopard 401 

Crested Seal 403 

Skeleton and Teeth of Common Seal. . . 407 

Harp Seal, or Atak 408 

Skull of Walrus 411 

Sea Elephant 413 

Sea Lion 416 

Sea Bear, or Ursine Seal 417 

Skull of Greenland Whale 431 

Atlantic Right Whale 424 

Hump-Backed Whale 426 

Pike Whale 427 

Rorqual 428 

Skeleton of Rorqual 429 

Spermaceti Whale 431 

Skull of Spermaceti Whale 433 

Narwhal 437 

Beluga 440 

Porpoise 441 

Grampus 443 

Dolphin 444 

Bottle-Nosed Dolphin 446 

Soosoo 446 

Manatee 447 

Dugong 449 

GNAWING ANIMALS. 

Black Rat and Brown Rat. 451 

Barbary Mouse 456 

Hamster 461 

Lemming 463 

Copyu Rat, or Racoonda 467 

Ondatra, or Musk Rat 468 

Tufted-Tailed Porcupine 471 

Canadian Porcupine, or Urson 473 

Coendoo, or Brazilian Porcupine 473 

Agouti 474 

Mara 475 

Dusky Paea 476 

Capybara 477 

Guinea Pig 478 

Hare 480 

Alpine Hare 481 

Rabbit 483 

Chinchilla 485 

Lagotis 486 

Spring Haas 487 

Gerboa. 488 

Loire, or Fat Dormouse 489 

Common Dormouse 490 

Taguan 491 



Assapau 492 

Black Squirrel 493 

hipmuek 495 

Prairie Dog 497 

flood's Marmot 498 

Bobac 500 

Mole Rat, or Slepez 502 

Canada Pouched Rat 504 

CATTLE, SHEEP, DEER AND 
ANTELOPES. 

Banting 607 

Skull of Ox 508 

Zebu 513 

Yak 521 

Musk Ox 523 

Group of South African Antelopes 523 

Gazelle 524 

Spring-Bok. 526 

Chousmgha, or Chouka. 537 

Duyker-Bok. 528 

Gems-Bok. 529 

Oryx 530 

American Spring-Buck 533 

Gnoo 534 

Hartebcest 535 

Ibex, or Steinbock 544 

Angora Goat 546 

Sheep 547 

Sardinian Mouflon 551 

Argali 552 

Big-Horn 553 

Aoudad 554 

Rocky Mountain Goat 555 

Giraffe Grazing upon Level Ground 557 

Reindeer 561 

Caribou 563 

Axis Deer. 568 

Carjaeou, or Virginian Deer 569 

Musk Deer 571 

Kanchil, or Pigmy Musk Deer 5J3 

CAMELS. 

Bactrian Camel 573 

Vicugna 576 

Yamma, or Llama 577 

Alpaca, or Paco 578 

HORSES, ASSES, ETC. 

Tarpan 580 

Mustang 581 

Arab Horse 583 

Hunter 584 

Shetland Pony 588 

Ass 590 

Dziggetai, or Koiilnn 593 

African Wild Ass 594 

Quagga 595 

Zebra 596 

TAPIRS, SWINE, ARMADILLOS, AND 
SLOTHS. 

American Tapir 607 

Kuday-Ayer, or Malayan Tapir 608 

Babyroussa 612 

Bosch Vark 613 

Vlacke Vark 614 

Peccary 615 

Hyrax, or Rock Rabbit 623 

Phatagin 627 

Bajjerkeit 628 

Armadillo 628 

Apara, or Mataco 630 

Taton 631 

Pichiciago 631 

Aard Vark 632 

Tamandua 634 

Little Ant-Eater 635 

Two-Toed Sloth 636 

Duck-Bill, or Mullingong 638 

Echidna. 639 




INTRODUCTION. 



' N order to understand any science rightly, it needs that the student should proceed 
* I* 8 contemplation in an orderly manner, arranging in his mind the various 
portions of which it is composed, and endeavoring, as far as possible, to follow 
that classification which best accords with nature. The result of any infringement 
of this rule is always a confusion of ideas, which is sure to lead to misappre- 
hension. So, in the study of living beings, it is necessary to adhere to some 
determinate order, or the mind becomes bewildered among the countless myriads 
of living creatures that fill earth, air, and water. 

That some determinate order exists is evident to any thinking mind, but the discovery of 
the principle on which this order is founded is a problem that as yet has received but a partial 
solution. We already know some of the links of that wondrous chain that connects Man with 
the microscopic animalcule, but the one plan on which the Animal Kingdom is formed, has 
yet to be made known. 

It is impossible to contemplate the vast mass of animal life without the conviction that the 
most supreme harmony has been observed in their creation, and the most perfect order exists 
in their connection one with the other. Whatever may be the key to this enigma, and it is 
of a certainty a very simple one, possibly eluding us from its very simplicity from the days 
of Aristotle to the present time zoologists have been diligently seeking for the true system of 
animated nature ; and until that auspicious discovery be achieved, we must be content with 
making as near an approximation as possible. 

As a general arranges his army into its greater divisions, and each division into regiments 
and companies, so does the naturalist separate the host of living beings into greater and smaller 
groups. The present state of zoological science gives five as the number of divisions of which 
the animal kingdom is composed, the highest of which is that in which Man himself is, by 
some, placed. These are called Vertebrates, Molluscs, Articulates, Radiates, and Protozoa. 
Of each of these divisions a slight description will be given, and each will be considered more 
at length in -its own place. 

1st. The VERTEBRATES include Man and all the Mammalia, the Birds, the Reptiles, and 
the Fish. 

The term Vertebrate is applied to them because they are furnished with a succession of 
bones called "vertebra," running along the body and forming a support and protection to the 
nervous cord that connects the body with the brain by means of numerous branches. The 
Vertebrates, with one or two known exceptions, have red blood and a muscular heart. 

2d. The MOLLUSCA, or soft-bodied animals, include the Cuttle-fish, the Snails, Slugs, 
Mussels, &c. Some of them possess shells, while others are entirely destitute of such defence. 
Their nervous system is arranged on a different plan from that of the Vertebrates. They have 
no definite brain, and no real spinal cord, but their nerves issue from certain masses of nervous 
substance technically called ganglia. 

3d. The ARTICULATES, or jointed animals, form an enormously large division, comprising 
the Crustaceans, such as the Crabs and Lobsters, the Insects, Spiders, Worms, and very 
many creatures so different from each other, that it is scarcely possible to find any common 
characteristics. It is among these lower animals that the want of a true classification is most 
severely felt, and the present arrangement can only be considered as provisional. 

4th. The next division, that of the RADIATED animals, is so named on account of the 




2 VERTEBRATES. 

radiated or star-like form of the body, so well exhibited in the Star-fishes and the Sea-anemones. 
Their nervous system is very obscure, and in many instances so slight as to baffle even the 
microscope. Many of the Radiates possess the faculty of giving out a phosphorescent light, 
and it is to these animals that the well-known luminosity of the sea is chiefly owing. 

5th. The PROTOZOA, or primitive animals, are, as far as we know, devoid of internal organs 
or external limbs, and in many of them the signs of life are so feeble, that they can scarcely 
be distinguished from vegetable germs. The Sponges and Infusorial Animalcules are familial- 
examples of this division. 

VERTEBRATES. 

The term Vertebrate is derived from the Latin word vertere, signifying to turn ; and the 
various bones that are gathered round and defend the spinal cord are named vertebrae, because 
they are capable of being moved upon each other in order to permit the animal to flex its body. 
Were the spinal cord to be defended by one long bone, the result would be that the entire 
trunk of the animal would be stiff, graceless, and exceedingly liable to injury from any sudden 
shock. In order, therefore, to give the body latitude of motion, and at the same time to afford 
effectual protection to the delicate nerve-cord, on which the welfare of the entire structure 
depends, the bony spine is composed of a series of distinct pieces, varying in form and number 
according to the species of animal, each being affixed to its neighbor in such a manner as to 
permit the movement of one upon the other. The methods by which these vertebrae are con- 
nected with each other vary according to the amount of flexibility required by the animal of 
which they form a part. For example, the heavy elephant would find himself prostrate on the 
ground if his spine were composed of vertebrae as flexible as those of the snakes ; while the 
snake, if its spine were stiff as that of the elephant, would be unable to move from the spot 
where it happened to lie. But in all animals there is some power of movement in the spinal 
column, although in many creatures it is very trifling. 

' Anatomy shows us that, in point of fact, the essential skeleton is composed of vertebrae, 
and that even the head is formed by the development of these wonderful bones. The limbs 
can but be considered as appendages, and in many Vertebrated animals, such as the common 
snake of our fields, the lamprey, and others, there are no true limbs at all. 

The perfect VERTEBRA consists of three principal portions. Firstly, there is a solid, bony 
mass, called the centre, which is the basis of the whole vertebra. From this centre springs an 
arch of bone, through which runs the spinal cord, and directly opposite to this arch a second 
arch springs, forming the guardian of the chief blood-vessel of the body. Each arch is called 
by a name significative of its use ; those through which the spinal cord runs being termed the 
neural, or nerve arch, and that for the passage of the blood-vessel is named the haemal, 
or blood arch. There are other portions of the vertebrae which are developed into the 
bones, called "processes," some of which we can feel by placing a hand on any part of the 
spine. 

It will be seen that, strictly speaking, the vertebrae are not of so much importance in the 
animal as the spinal cord, of which the vertebrae are but guardians, and that the division should 
rather have been defined by the character of the nerve than by that of the bone which is built 
around it. 

Indeed, wherever the chief nervous column lies, it seems to gather the bony particles, 
and to arrange them round itself as its clothing or armor. This may be seen in a very 
young chicken, if the egg in which it is formed is opened dating the first few days of incu- 
bation. 

The position of the spinal cord is always along the back in every Vertebrate animal. The 
insects, the lobster, and other invertebrate animals exhibit the principal nerve-cords running 
along the abdomen ; the position, therefore, of the chief nervous cord settles the division to 
which the animal belongs. This rule is of great importance in classification, because in every 
group of animals there are some in whom the distinguishing characteristics are so slight that 
they hardly afford a real criterion by which to judge. In the lower divisions the number of 



MAMMALIA. 3 

these enigmatical animals is very considerable, and even in the highest of all, namely, the Ver- 
tebrates, there are one or two individuals whose position is but dubious. The best known of 
these creatures is the Amphioxus, a small, transparent fish, not uncommon on sandy coasts. 
In this curious animal the vertebral column is composed of, or rather represented by, a jelly- 
like cord, on which the divisions of the vertebrje are indicated by very slight markings. The 
spinal cord lies on the upper surface of this gelatinous substance, and there is no distinct brain, 
the nervous cord simply terminating in a rounded extremity. The blood is unlike that of the 
generality of Vertebrate animals, being transparent like water, instead of bearing the red hue 
that is so characteristic of their blood. Neither is there any separate heart, the circulation 
seeming to be effected by the contraction of the arteries. 

On account of these very great divergencies from the usual vertebrate characteristics, its 
claim to be numbered among the Vertebrates appears to be a very hopeless one. But the spinal 
cord is found to run along the 'back of the creature, and this one fact settles its position in the 
Animal Kingdom. 

It must be remembered that the Amphioxus is to be considered an exceptional being, and 
that when the anatomy of Vertebrate animals is described, the words "with the exception of 
the Amphioxus" must be supplied by the reader. The character of the nerves, bones, blood, 
and other structures, will be shown, in the course of the work, in connection with the various 
animals of which they form a part. 

MAMMALIA. 

The Vertebrated animals fall naturally into four great classes, which are so clearly marked 
that, with the exception of a few singularly constructed creatures, such as the Lepidosiren, or 
Mud-fish of the Gambia, any vertebrate animal can be without difficulty referred to its proper 
class. These four classes are termed MAMMALS, BIRDS, REPTILES, and FISHES, their prece- 
dence in order being determined by the greater or less development of their structure. 

Mammals, or Mammalia, as they are called more scientifically, comprise Man, the Monkey 
tribes, the Bats, the Dogs and Cats, all the hoofed animals, the Whales and their allies, and* 
other animals, amounting in number to some two thousand species, the last on the list being 
the Sloth. The name by which they are distinguished is derived from the Latin word mamma, 
a breast, and is given to them because all the species belonging to this class are furnished with 
a set of organs, called the MAMMARY GLANDS, secreting the liquid known as milk, by which 
the young are nourished. 

The number of the mammae varies much, as does their position. Many animals that produce 
only one, or at the most two, young at the same birth, have but two mammae, such as the 
monkey, the elephant, and others ; while some, such as the cat, the dog, and the swine, 
are furnished with a sufficient number of these organs to afford sustenance to their numerous 
progeny. Sometimes the mammae are placed on the breast, as in the monkey tribe ; some- 
times by the hind legs, as in the cow and the horse ; and sometimes, as in the swine, along 
the abdomen. 

The glands that supply the mammae with milk lie under the skin, and by the microscope are 
easily resolvable into their component parts. Great numbers of tiny cells, or cellules, as they 
are named, are grouped together in little masses, something like bunches of minute grapes, and 
by means of very small tubes pour their secretions into vessels of a larger size. As the various 
tube-branches join each other they become larger, until they unite in five or six principal vessels, 
which are so constructed as to- be capable of enlargement according to the amount of liquid 
which they are called upon to hold. In some animals, such as the cow, these reservoirs are 
extremely large, being capable of containing at least a quart of milk. The reservoirs are much 
smaller towards the mamma itself, and serve as tubes for the conveyance of the milk into the 
mouth of the young. Of the milk itself we shall speak in another part of the work. 

The BLOOD of the Vertebrate animals is of a light red color when freshly drawn from the 
arteries. This wondrous fluid, in which is hidden the life principle that animates the being, 
is of a most complex structure, as may be imagined when it is remembered that all the parts of 



4 DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOOD. 

the body are formed from the blood ; and therefore to give a full description of that fluid 
would occupy more space than can be afforded to one subject. It is, however, so important a 
substance that it demands some notice. 

When it is freshly drawn, the blood appears to be of a uniform consistence, but if poured 
into a vessel and suffered to remain undisturbed it soon begins to change its aspect. A com- 
paratively solid and curd-like mass, of a deep red color, rises to the surface, and there forms a 
kind of cake, while the liquid on which it floats is limpid and almost colorless. The solid 
mass is called the clot, and the liquid is known by the name of serum. The whole time con- 
sumed in this curious process is about twenty minutes. While thus coagulating the blood 
gives out a peculiar odor, which, although far from powerful, can be perceived at some distance, 
and to many persons is inexpressibly revolting. 

The upper part of the clot is covered with a thick film of an elastic and tenacious nature, 
which can be washed free from the red coloring substance, and then appears of a yellowish 
white tint. It can be drawn out and spread between the fingers, as if it were an organic mem- 
brane ; and, as its particles arrange themselves into fibres, the substance is called fibrin. 
When a portion of fibrin is drawn out until it is much lengthened, the fibres are seen crossing 
each other in all directions, sometimes forming themselves into regular lines. 

The red mass, which remains after the fibrin and serum have been removed, is almost wholly 
composed of myriads of small rounded bodies, called corpuscules, which can be readily seen 
by spreading a drop of blood very thinly on glass, and examining it with a microscope. 
Some of the disc-like corpuscules are seen scattered about, while others have run together and 
adhered by their flat sides, until they look somewhat like rouleaux of coin. There is sufficient 
distinction between the blood corpuscules of the various Mammalia to indicate to a practised 
eye the kind of animal from which they were taken ; while the blood of the four great divisions 
of the Vertebrates is so strongly marked, that a casual glance will detect the ownership of the 
object under the microscope. The blood corpuscules of the Mammalia are circular, while those 
of the other three divisions are more or less elliptical. 

That the blood contains within itself the various substances of which the body is composed, 
is evident to the intellect, although as yet no investigator has discovered the mode of its 
operation. 

How the blood corpuscules are generated from the vegetable and animal substances taken 
into the stomach, we know not ; but we do know that each globule possesses life, passing 
through its regular stages of birth, development, age, and death. When yet in their first 
stages of existence, the blood corpuscules are colorless, not taking the well-known ruddy tint 
until they have attained their full development. The living current that passes through our 
bodies is truly a fathomless ocean of wonders ! Even the material formation of this fluid is 
beyond our present sight, which cannot penetrate through the veil which conceals its mysteries. 
Much less can we explain the connection of the blood with the mind, or know how it is that 
one thought will send the blood coursing through the frame with furious speed, crimsoning 
the face with hot blushes ; or another cause the vital fluid to recoil to the heart, leaving the 
countenance pallid, the eyes vacant, and the limbs cold and powerless, as if the very life had 
departed from the body. 

Not without reason do the earlier Scriptures speak so reverently of the blood, 
accepting the outpoured life of beasts as an atonement for the sin, and witness of the 
penitence of man, and forbid its use for any less sacred office. Nor was it without a still 
mightier meaning that the later Scriptures endue the blood with a sacramental sense, giving 
even to its vegetable symbol, the blood of the grape, a dignity greater than that of the former 
sacrifices. 

A few words must also be given to the mode by which the blood is kept continually run- 
ning its appointed course through the animal frame. This process, commonly called CIRCULA- 
TION, takes place in the following manner, Man being an example : 

In the centre of the breast lies the heart, an organ composed of four chambers, the two 
upper being termed auricles, and the two lower being distinguished by the title of ventricles. 
These are only conventional terms, and do not express the office of the parts. The auricles are 



THE CAPILLARY VESSELS. 5 

comparatively slight in structure, but the ventricles are extremely powerful, and contract with 
great force, by means of a curiously spiral arrangement of the muscular fibres. These latter 
chambers are used for the purpose of propelling the blood through the body, while the auricles 
serve to receive the blood from the vessels, and to throw it jinto the ventricles when they are 
ready for it. 

By the systematic expansion and contraction of the heart-chambers, the blood is sent on 
its mission to all parts of the body, through vessels named arteries, gradually diminishing 
in diameter as they send forth their branches, until they terminate in branchlets scarcely 
so large as hairs, and which are therefore called "capillaries," from the Latin word capittus, 
a hair. 

In the capillaries the blood corpuscules would end their course, were they not met and wel- 
comed by a second set of capillaries. These vessels take up the wearied and weakened globules, 
carrying them off to the right-hand chambers of the heart, whence they are impelled through 
a vessel known by the name of the " pulmonary artery," to be refreshed by the air which is 
supplied to them in the beautiful structure known as the lungs. Meeting there with 
new vitality if it may so be called the blood corpuscules throw off some of their effete 
portions, and so, brightened and strengthened, are again sent through the arteries from the 
heart to run their round of existence, and again to be returned to the heart through the 
veins. 

It is indeed a marvellous system, this constant circular movement, that seems to be in- 
herent in the universe at large, as well as in the minute forms that inhabit a single orb. The 
planets roll through their appointed courses in the macrocosmal universe, as the blood globules 
through the veins of the microcosm, man : each has its individual life, while it is inseparably 
connected with its fellow-orbs, performing a special and yet a collective work in the vast body 
to which it belongs ; darkening and brightening in its alternate night and day until it has com- 
pleted its career. 

In order to prevent other organs from pressing on the heart, and so preventing it from 
playing freely, a membranous envelope, called from its office the "pericardium," surrounds 
the heart and guards it. 

The various operations which are simultaneously conducted in our animal frame are so 
closely connected with each other that it is impossible to describe one of them without trench- 
ing upon the others. Thus, the system of the circulatory movement, by which the blood passes 
through the body, is intimately connected with the system of RESPIRATION, by which the blood 
is restored to the vigor needful for its many duties. 

In order to renew the worn-out blood, there must be some mode of carrying off its effete 
particles, and of supplying the waste with fresh nourishment. For this purpose the .air must 
be brought into connection with the blood without permitting its escape from the vessels in 
which it is confined. The mode by which this object is attained, in the Mammalia, is briefly 
as follows : 

A large tube, appropriately and popularly called the "windpipe," leads from the back of 
, the mouth and nostrils into the interior of the breast. Just as it enters the chest it divides 
into two large branches, each of which subdivides into innumerable smaller branchlets, thus 
forming two large masses, or lobes. In these lobes, or lungs, as they are called, the air-bear- 
ing tubes become exceedingly small, until at last they are but capillaries which convey air 
instead of blood, each tube terminating in a minute cell. The diameter of these cells is very 
small, the average being about the hundred and fiftieth of an inch. Among these air-bearing 
capillaries the blood-bearing capillaries are so intermingled that the air and blood are separated 
from each other only by membranes so delicate that the comparatively coarse substance of the 
blood cannot pass through, although the more ethereal gases can do so. So, by the presence 
of the air, the blood is renewed in vigor, and returns to its bright florid red, which had been 
lost in its course through the body, while the useless parts are rejected, and gathered into the 
air-tubes, from whence they are expelled by the breath. 

The heart is placed between the two lobes of the lungs, and is in a manner embraced by 
them. The lungs themselves are enclosed in a delicate membrane called the " pleura." These 



6 NUTRITION. 

two great vital organs are situated in the breast, and separated from the digestive and other 
systems by a partition, which is scientifically known by the name of "diaphragm," and in 
popular language by the term "midriff." This structure does not exist in the Birds ; and its 
presence, together with that of the freely-suspended lungs, is an unfailing characteristic of the 
Mammalian animal. 

Thus the entire structure bears the closest resemblance to a tree, growing with its root 
upwards and its leaves downward, the trachea being the trunk, the branchial tubes the limbs, 
the smaller tubes are the branches, and the air-cells the leaves. A similar idea runs through 
the nerve system and that of the blood ; all three being intenvoven with each other in a manner 
most marvellous and beautiful. 

The ORGANS OF NUTRITION occupy the greater part of the space between the diaphragm 
and the lower limbs, and are composed of the following parts. The mouth receives and, in 
most cases, grinds the food until it is sufficiently soft to be passed onwards into the general 
receptacle, called the stomach. Here begins the process of digestion, which is chiefly carried 
on by means of a liquid called the gastric juice, which is secreted by glands within the stomach, 
and dissolves the food until it is of a uniform soft consistency. In this state the food is called 
"chyme," and passes from the stomach into a tube called the "duodenum." Here the chyme 
begins to separate into two portions ; one, an indigestible and useless mass, and the other, 
a creamy kind of liquid, called "chyle." The former of these substances is propelled 
through the long and variously-formed tube, called the intestinal canal, and rejected at its 
outlet ; while the chyle is taken up by numerous vessels that accompany the intestines, 
and is finally thrown into one of the large veins close by the heart, and there mixes with the 
blood. 

There is another curious system called the "lymphatic," on account of the limpid appear- 
ance of the liquid which is conveyed through the lymphatic vessels. These are analogous to 
the lacteals, but instead of belonging to the intestines, they are spread over the whole frame, 
being thickly arranged just under the skin. They are curiously shaped, being studded with 
1 small knotty masses, and fitted with valves which keep the contained liquid in its proper 
course. Both the lacteal and lymphatic vessels pour their contents into one large trunk, called 
from its position the thoracic duct. This vessel is about twenty inches in length, and when 
distended, is in its widest part as large as a common lead pencil. 

All these wonderful forms and organs would, however, be but senseless masses of matter, 
differing from each other by the arrangement of their component parts, but otherwise dead 
and useless. It needs that the being which is enshrined in this bodily form (whether it be 
man or beast) should be able to move the frame at will, and to receive sensations from the 
outer world. 

More than this. As all vertebrated animals are forced at short intervals to yield their 
wearied bodies to repose, and to sink their exhausted minds in the temporary oblivion of sleep, 
there must of necessity be a provision for carrying on the vital functions without the active 
co-operation of the mind. Were it otherwise, the first slumber of every being would become 
its death sleep, and all the higher classes of animals would be extirpated in a few days. The 
mind would be always on the stretch to keep the heart to its constant and necessary work 
to watch the play of the lungs in regenerating the blood ; to aid the stomach in digesting the 
food, and the intestinal canal in sifting its contents ; together with many other duties of a 
character quite as important. 

Supposing such a state of things to be possible, and to be put in practice for one single 
hour, how terrible would be the result to humanity ! We should at once degenerate into a 
mass of separate, selfish individuals, each thinking only of himself, and forced to give the 
whole of his intellectual powers to the one object of keeping the animal frame in motion. 
Society would vanish, arts cease from the face of the earth, and the whole occupation of man 
would be confined to living an isolated and almost vegetable life. 

This being the case with man, the results to the lower portions of the animal kingdom 
would be still more terrible. For their intellect is infinitely below that of the dullest of the 
human race, and they would not even possess the knowledge that any active exertion would 



SENSATION. 7 

be necessary to preserve their lives. And for all living beings the wandering of the mind but 
for a few seconds would cause instantaneous death. 

All these difficulties are removed, and the animal kingdom preserved and vivified, by 
means of certain vital organs, known by the name of nerves. 

It is clear enough that mind does not act directly upon the muscles and the various organs 
of the material body, but requires a third and intermediate substance, by which it is enabled 
to convey its mandates and to receive information. The necessarily multitudinous channels 
through which this substance is conveyed are called "nerves," and are of a consistency more 
delicate than that of any other portions of the animal frame. There is a rather striking and close 
analogy between the mode in which the three systems of mind, nerve, and muscle act together, 
and the working of a steam-engine. In the engine we may take the fire as the analogue of the 
mind ; the water, of the nervous substance the water-tubes representing the nerves ; and the 
iron and brass machine as the representative of the bone and muscle. Thus we may make as 
large a fire as we like, heap on coals, and urge a fierce draught of air through the furnace, 
until the grate is filled with a mass of glowing white-hot matter. But the fire cannot act on 
the wheels without the intermediate substance, the water. This medium being supplied, the 
fire acts on the water, and the water on the metallic bars and wheels, so that the three become 
one harmonious whole. 

Towards the great nerve mass, called by the name of "brain," tend the nerve-cords that 
supply the body with vital energy. It seems to be the nerve-heart, so to speak. From the 
brain, a cord of nervous matter, called the "spinal cord," runs along the back, under the 
guardianship of the vertebrae, continually giving off branches of various sizes, according to the 
work which they have to fulfil. These branches ramify into smaller twigs, subdividing until 
they become so small that they almost even baffle the microscope. A familiar proof may be 
given of the wonderfully minute subdivision of the nerves, by trying to probe the skin with 
the point of a fine needle, and to discover any spot so small that the needle-point does not 
meet with a nerve. 

The cause of the peculiarly delicate sensibility of the finger tips is shown by the accom- 
panying engraving, which exhibits the mode in which the nerve-loops are distributed. The> 
object is greatly magnified, the two ridges being the enlarged representations of the minute 
raised lines which appear on the tips of the fingers and thumbs. 

That the nerves all find their way to the brain and issue from thence, is plainly shown by 
the well-known fact that if the spinal cord be injured all sensation ceases in the parts of the 
body that lie below the injury. And it is possible to deprive any limb of sensation by dividing 
the chief nerve that supplies that member with nerve-fibres. 

There seem to be two sets of nerves for the two purposes of conveying motive-power to 
the body and of bringing to the nervous centres the sensations of pain or pleasure felt by any 
part of the body. These are appropriately known as nerves of motion and nerves of sensation. 

Connected with these nerves is a second system of a very curious nature, known by the 
name of the " sympathetic nerve." The greater portion of the sympathetic nerve in the human 
frame "communicates with the other nerves immediately at their exit from the cranium and 
vertebral canal. It is called the ganglionic nerve, from being constituted of a number of 
ganglia, and from the constant disposition which it evinces in its distribution to communicate 
and form small knots of ganglia." * It is wonderfully interwoven with the vital organs, and 
from this disposition it is sometimes termed the "organic nerve." Its functions are closely 
connected with the phenomena of organic life, and it seems to be especially sensitive to emo- 
tional disturbances. There are several aggregations of the ganglia in various portions of the 
body ; the largest, which is known by the name of the "solar plexus," is placed in the pit of 
the stomach or "epigastrium." Its importance may be easily inferred from the extreme 
agony that is caused by the slightest blow near the region of that group of ganglia. A con- 
cussion that would hardly be felt upon any other portion of the body, will, if it takes place 
on the epigastrium, at once cause the injured person to fall as if shot, bring on collapse, deprive 

* Wilson. 



8 STRUCTURE OF BONE. 

him of breath for some time, and leave Mm gasping and speechless on the ground ; while a 
tolerably severe blow in that region causes instantaneous death. 

Anxiety seems to fix its gnawing teeth chiefly in the solar plexus, causing indigestion and 
many other similar maladies, and deranging the system so thoroughly that even after the 
exciting cause is removed the effects are painfully evident for many a sad year. 

By means of this complicated system of nerves the entire body, with its vital organs, is 
permeated in every part by the animating power that gives vitality and energy to the frame 
so long as the spirit abides therein. 

This is the portion of the nervous system that never slumbers nor sleeps, knowing no rest, 
and never ceasing from its labors until the time comes when the spirit finally withdraws from 
the material temple in which it has been enshrined. It is the very citadel of the nerve forces, 
and is the last stronghold that yields to the conquering powers of death and decay. 

Thus it will be seen that each animal is a complex of many animals, interwoven with each 
other, and mutually aiding each other. In the human body there is, for example, the nerve- 
man, which has just been described ; there is a blood-man, which, if separated from the other 
part of the body, is found to present a human form, perfect in proportions, and composed of 
large trunk-vessels, dividing into smaller branches, until they terminate in their capillaries. 
A rough preparation of the blood -being maybe made by filling the vessels with wax, and 
dissolving away the remaining substances, thus leaving a waxen model of the arteries and 
veins with their larger capillaries. 

Again, there is the fibrous and muscular man, composed of forms more massive and solid 
than those which we have already examined. 

Lastly, there is the bone-man, which is the least developed of the human images, and 
which, when stripped of the softer coverings, stands dense, dry, and lifeless ; the grim 
scaffolding of the human edifice. Although the bones are not in themselves very pleasing 
objects, yet their mode of arrangement, their adaptation to the wants of the animal whose 
frame they support, and the beautiful mechanism of their construction, as revealed by the 
microscope, give a spirit and a life, even to the study of dry bones. 

The larger hollows are caused by the minute blood-vessels which penetrate the bone 
throughout its substance, and serve to deposit new particles, and to remove those whose work 
is over. They are, in fact, a kind of lungs of the bones, through which the osseous system is 
regenerated in a manner analogous to the respiration which regenerates the blood. In order 
to supply a sufficient volume of blood to these various vessels, several trunk vessels enter the 
bones at different parts of their form, and ramify out into innumerable branchlets, which 
again separate into the hair-like vessels that pass through the above-mentioned canals. These 
are termed, from their discoverer, C. Havers, the Haversian canals, and their shape and com- 
parative size are most important in determining the class of beings which furnished the portion 
of bone under examination. 

In the human bone these canals run so uniformly, that their cut diameters always afford 
a roundish outline. But in the bird -bone, the Haversian canals frequently turn off abruptly 
from their course, and running for a short distance at right angles, again dip and resume 
their former direction. 

The reptiles possess very few Haversian canals, which, when they exist, are extremely 
large, and devoid of that beautiful regularity which is so conspicuous in the mammalia, and 
to a degree in the birds. 

The fish-bone is often totally destitute of these canals, while, in other cases, the bone is 
thickly pierced with them, and exhibits also a number of minute tubes, white and delicate, 
as if made of ivory. 

Returning to the human bone, the Haversian canals are seen to be surrounded with a 
number of concentric bony rings, varying much in number and shape, on which are placed 
sundry little black objects that somewhat resemble ants or similar insects. These latter 
objects are known by the name of bone-cells ; and the little dark lines that radiate from them 
are the indications of very minute tubes, the number and comparative dimensions of which 
are extremely various in different animals. 



STRUCTURE OF BONE. 9 

Thus, it will be seen, how easily the observer can, in a minute fragment of bone, though 
hardly larger than a midge's wing, read the class of animal of whose framework it once formed 
a part, as decisively as if the former owner were present to claim his property ; for each 
particle of every animal is imbued with the nature of the whole being. The life-character is 
enshrined in and written upon every sanguine disc that rolls through the veins ; is manifested 
in every fibre and nervelet that gives energy and force to the breatlu'ng and active body ; and 
is stereotyped upon each bony atom that forms part of its skeleton framework. 

Whoever reads these hieroglyphs rightly is truly a poet and a prophet ; for to him the 
"valley of dry bones" becomes a vision of death passed away, and a prevision of a resurrec- 
tion and a life to come. As he gazes upon the vast multitude of dead, sapless memorials of 
beings long since perished, " there is a shaking, and the bones come together" once again; 
their fleshly clothing is restored to them ; the vital fluid courses through their bodies ; the 
spirit of life is breathed into them ; "and they live, and stand upon their feet." Ages upon 
ages roll back their tides, and once more the vast reptile epoch reigns on earth. The huge 
saurians shake the ground with their heavy tread, -wallow in the slimy ooze, or glide sinuous 
through the waters ; while winged reptiles flap their course through the miasmatic vapors that 
hang dank and heavy over the marshy world. As with them, so with us, an inevitable pro- 
gression towards higher stages of existence, the effete and undeveloped beings passing away to 
make room for new, and loftier, and more perfect creations. What is the volume that has 
thus recorded the chronicles of an age so long past, and prophecies of as far distant a future ? 
Simply a little fragment of mouldering bone, tossed aside contemptuously by the careless 
laborer as miners' "rubbish." 

Not only is the past history of each being written in every particle of which its material 
fi-ame is constructed, but the past records of the universe to which it belongs, and a prediction 
of its future. God can make no one thing that is not universal in its teachings, if we would 
only be so taught ; if not, the fault is with the pupils, not with the Teacher. He writes his 
ever-living words in all the works of his hand ; He spreads this ample book before us, always 
ready to teach, if we will only leam. We walk in the midst of miracles with closed eyes and 
stopped ears, dazzled and bewildered with the Light, fearful and distrustful of the Word ! 

It is not enough to accumulate facts as misers gather coins, and then to put them away on 
our bookshelves, guarded by the bars and bolts of technical phraseology. As coins, the facts 
must be circulated, and given to the public for their use. It is no matter of wonder that the 
generality of readers recoil from works on the natural sciences, and look upon them as mere 
collections of tedious names, irksome to read, unmanageable of utterance, and impossible to 
remember. Our scientific libraries are filled with facts, dead, hard, dry, and material as the 
fossil bones that fill the sealed and caverned libraries of the past. But true science will breathe 
life into that dead mass, and fill the study of zoology with poetry and spirit. 




..(All A 





<^> 



OUB LIVING WOBLD 




QUADRUMANA; 

OR, THE MONKEY TRIBE. 

'HE QUADKTTMANOTJS, or Four-handed animals, are familiarly known by the titles 
of Apes, Baboons, and Monkeys. There is another family of Quadrumana, 
called Lemurs, which bear but little external resemblance to their more man-like 
relations, are comparatively little known, and have even been popularly termed 
" rats," " cats," or " dogs," by travellers who have come in contact with them. 
Although these animals are capable of assuming a partially erect position, 
yet their habitual attitude is on all fours, like the generality of the mammalia. 
Even the most accomplished ape is but a bad walker when he discards the use 
of his two upper limbs, and trusts for support and progression to the hinder legs only. There 
are many dogs which can walk, after the biped manner, with a firmer step and a more assured 
demeanor than the apes, although they do not so closely resemble the human figure. 

However carefully a monkey may be educated, yet it never can assume an attitude truly; 
erect, like that of man. The construction of its whole frame is such, that its knees are always 
bent more or less, so that a firm and steady step is rendered impossible. When in the enjoy- 
ment of liberty among their native haunts, none of the monkey tribes seem to use their hind 
legs exclusively for walking, although they often raise themselves in a manner similar to that 
of the bears, and other animals, when they wish to take a more extended view of the sur- 
rounding localities. 

On account of the structure of the limbs, the term "hand" is given to their extremities ; 
but hardly with perfect fitness. It must be borne in mind that the thumb is not invariably 
found on the fore extremities of these animals. In several genera of the monkeys, the fore- 
paws are destitute of effective thumbs, and the hand-like grasp is limited to the hinder feet. 
The so-called hands of the monkey tribes will not bear comparison with those of man. 
Although the thumb possesses great freedom of motion, and in many species can be opposed 
to the fingers in a manner resembling the hand of man, yet there is no intellectual power in 
the monkey hand ; none of that characteristic contour which speaks of the glorious human 
soul so strongly, that an artist can sketch a single hand, and in that one member exhibit the 
individuality of its owner! The monkey's "hand" is a paw a thieving, crafty, slinking 
paw, and not a true hand. So is his foot but a paw, and not a true foot, formed for grasping 
and not for walking. Man seems to be the only earthly being that possesses true feet and 
hands. Some animals patter along upon their paws, some trot and gallop upon hoofs, others 
propel themselves with paddles, but Man alone can walk. Man is never so much Man as when 
erect, whether standing or walking. It is no mere figure of speech to say that man walks 
with God. 

In order to bring this point more clearly before the eyes of the reader, the skeleton of a 
man is contrasted with that of the gorilla, the most highly organized of all the apes. The 
heavy, ill-balanced form of the ape ; its head sunk upon its shoulders ; its long, uncouth arms, 



14 



MEN AND APES. 



with those enormous paws at their extremities ; its short, bowed, and tottering legs, unable to 
support the huge body without the help of the arms ; the massive jaw-bones and protruding 
face, put the creature at an unappreciable distance from humanity, even though it is repre- 
sented in an attitude as similar to that of the human being as the organization of the bones 
will permit. Any one who could fancy himself to be descended, however remotely, from such 
a being, is welcome to his ancestry. 

Contrast with the skeleton of the gorilla, that of man. Light in structure, and perfectly 
balanced on the small and delicate feet ; the slender arms, with their characteristic hands ; the 

smooth and rounded 
skull ; the small jaw- 
bones and regular teeth, 
all show themselves as 
the framework of a be- 
ing whose strength is to 
lie in his intellect, and 
not in the mere brute 
power of bone and mus- 
cle. There seems to be 
a strange eloquence in 
form, which speaks at 
once to the heart in Ian-, 
guage that can only be 
felt, and is beyond the 
power of analysis to re- 
solve. Thus, the con- 
trasted shapes of these 
two frames speak more 
forcibly of the immeas- 
urable distance between 
the two beings of which 
they form a part, than 
could be expressed in 
many pages of careful 
description. Strength 
for strength, the ape is 
many times the man's 
superior, and could rend 
him to pieces in sin- 
gle combat. But that 
slender human frame 




SKELETON-MAN. 



SKELETON-GORILLA. 



can be so intellectually 
strengthened, that a single man could destroy a troop of apes, if he so desired, and without 
offering them the possibility of resistance. 

One great cause of the awkward bipedal walk of the monkey tribes, is the position of the 
orifice in the skull, through which the spinal cord enters the brain. In the human skull this 
orifice is so placed that the head is nearly equally balanced, and a considerable portion of the 
skull projects behind it ; but in the lower animals, this orifice called the " occipital foramen " 
is set so far back, that the whole weight of the brain and skull is thrown forwards, and so 
overbalances the body. 

Another cause is seen in the structure of the hind limbs. These members are intended 
for progression among the branches of trees, and are so formed that, when the animal uses 
them for terrestrial locomotion, it is forced to tread, not upon their soles, but upon their sides. 
The muscular calves, which brace the foot and limb, are wanting in the Quadrumanous 
animals ; and even when they are standing as uprightly as possible, the knees are always 



HANNffS VOYAGE. 



15 



partially bent. The monkeys, then, are just quadrupeds, although their paws are more per- 
fectly developed than those of the generality of animals. 

We will now proceed to our examples of the Quadrumanous animals. 



SIMIAD^E, OR APES. 

The Apes are at once distinguished from the other Quadrumana by the absence of those 
cheek-pouches which are so usefully employed as temporary larders by those monkeys which 
possess them ; by the total want of tails, and of those callosities on the hinder quarters which 
are so conspicuously characteristic of the baboons. Besides these external differences there 
are several distinctions to be found in the interior anatomy both of the bones and the vital 
organs. 

The first in order, as well as the largest of the Apes, is the enormous ape from Western 
Africa, the Gorilla, the skeleton of which has already been given. This animal is compara- 
tively new to modern zoologists, and very little is at present known of its habits. The first 
modern writer who brought the Gorilla before the notice of the public, seems to be Mr. Bow- 
dich, the well-known African traveller ; for it is evidently of the Gorilla that he speaks under 
the name of Ingheena. The natives of the Gaboon and its vicinity use the name Gina, when 
mentioning the Gorilla. The many tales, too, that are told of the habits, the gigantic strength, 
and the general appearance of the Ingheena, are precisely those which are attributed to the 
Gorilla. 

Of the Ingheena, Mrs. Lee (formerly Mrs. Bowdich) speaks as follows: "It is in equa- 
torial Africa that the most powerful of all the Quadrumana live, far exceeding the orang- 
outan, and even the pongo of Borneo. 

" Mr. Bowdich and myself were the first to revive and confirm a long-forgotten and vague 
report of the existence of such a creature, and many thought that, as we ourselves had not 
seen it, we had been deceived by the natives. They assured us that these huge creatures 
walk constantly on their hind feet, and never yet were taken alive ; that they watch the 
actions of men, and imitate them as nearly as possible. Like the ivory hunters, they pick up 
the fallen tusks of elephants, but not knowing where to deposit them, they carry their burdens 
about until they themselves drop, and even die from fatigue ; that they built huts nearly in 
the shape of those of men, but live on the outside ; and that when one of their children dies, 
the mother carries it in her arms until it falls to pieces ; that one blow of their paw will kill 
, a man, and that nothing can exceed their ferocity." 

Its existence was evidently known to some adventurous voyagers more than two thousand 
years ago, and a record has been preserved of these travels. 

Somewhere about the year 350 B. c., the Carthaginians, then a most powerful and flourish- 
ing nation, organized a naval expedition for the purpose of examining the coasts and of 
founding colonies. The command of the fleet, which consisted of sixty large vessels contain- 
ing nearly thirty thousand men and women, together with provisions and other necessaries, 
was entrusted to Hanno, who wrote memoirs of the voyage in a small work that is well known 
by the title of the "Periplus," or the Circumnavigation of Hanno. In the course of this 
voyage he founded seven colonies, and after advancing as far as the modern Sierra Leone, was 
forced to return for want of provisions. 

The whole treatise is one of great interest, especially in the present day, when travels of 
discovery in Africa have been prosecuted with so much energy. The passage, however, which 
bears on the present question is briefly as follows. After narrating the meeting with these 
creatures on an island off the west coast of Africa, he proceeds to say : "There were many 
more females than males, all equally covered with hair on all parts of the body. The inter- 
preters called them GORILLAS. On pursuing them we could not succeed in taking a single 
male ; they all escaped with astonishing swiftness, and threw stones at us ; but we took three 
females, who defended themselves with so much violence that we were obliged to kill them, 
hut we brought their skins stuffed with straw to Carthage." It is evident that Hanno (or 




16 HABITS OF THE GORILLA. 

Annon, as Ms name is sometimes given) considered these Gorillas to be the veritable savage 
human inhabitants of the island ; perhaps rather more savage and powerful than ordinary, 
and rather less given to clothing ; which latter deficiency, however, was supplied by the 
natural covering of hair. 

Imperfect as is his description, yet it is of much interest, as it proves the existence of 
extraordinarily huge apes hitherto unknown even to the Carthaginians, the stuffed skins 
being visible tests. 

For two thousand years nothing was heard of the Gorilla except certain floating rumors 
of satyr-haunted woods, and of wild men who used to make their appearance at distant inter- 
vals and then to disappear ; "of which kind," it is said, "there are still in Ethiopia." But 
by degrees the truthfulness of the narrative was made clear ; detached bones were discovered 
and sent to Europe, and at last the complete animal made its appearance. Indeed, we are 
much indebted to this straightforward and simple-minded sailor, for his unadorned narrative, 
which forms such a favorable contrast to the travellers' tales of later voyagers, who on some 
small substratum of truth raised such enormous fictions as the monopods, the pigmies and 
cranes, the acephali, and other prodigies. For a vivid description, and graphic though rude 
figures of these and many other monsters, the reader is referred to the "Nuremberg Chronicle." 

Perhaps it may be of this animal that the following history is narrated : 

"A certain ape after a shipwreck, swimming to land, was seen by a countryman, and 
thinking him to be a man in the water, gave him his hand to save him, yet in the meantime 
asked him what countryman he was, who answered he was an Athenian. 'Well,' said the 
man, 'dost thou know Pirceus ?' (which is a port in Athens). 

'"Very well,' said the ape, 'and his wife, friends, and children ; ' whereat the man being 
moved, did what he could to drown him." 

At present we have but a very slight acquaintance with the mode of life adopted by the 
Gorilla in a wild state, or even with its food. For a knowledge of the habits of animals is 
only to be gained by a long residence in their vicinity, and by careful watching. With some 
creatures this is an easy task, but there are some which are so wary, so active, and so fierce, 
that a close inspection is almost an impossibility. Among the worst of such objects is the 
Gorilla. In the first place, it is only to be found in the thickest jungles of the Gaboon, far 
from man and his habitations. Then, it is wary, as are all the apes, and is said to be so fero- 
cious, that if it sees a man, it immediately attacks him, so that there would be little time for 
gaining any knowledge of the creature's domestic habits, and scarcely any likelihood of 
surviving to tell the result of the investigation. 

To judge by the structure of the skeleton, and of the entire form, the strength of an adult 
male must be prodigious. The teeth are heavy and powerful, and the great canines or tusks 
are considerably more than an inch in their projection from the jaw. The jaw-bone, too, is 
enormously developed, and the strength of the muscles that move it, is indicated by the deep 
bony ridges that run over the top of the skull, and in different parts of the head. As is usual 
among such animals, the tusks of the male Gorilla are nearly double the size of those of the 
female ape. 

Although the body is comparatively small, as are the hinder legs, yet the breadth of 
shoulder and length of arm are singularly great ; while an ordinary human hand placed on 
that of the ape, dwindles down to insignificance before the huge muscular paw. The thumb 
of the hinder paws is enormously large, as is well shown in the engraving. 

There is a treacherous and cruel aspect about this hind foot, with its enormous thumb ; 
and if all tales be true, the foot belies not its character. The natives of the Gaboon country 
hold the Gorilla in great dread, fearing it even more than the lion itself, on account of its 
furtively murderous disposition. 

Concealed among the thick branches of the forest trees, the Gorilla, itself unseen, watches 
the approach of the unsuspecting negro. Should he pass under the tree, woe betide him ; for 
the Gorilla lets down its terrible hind foot, grasps its victim round the throat, lifts him from 
the earth, and finally drops him on the ground, dead. 

Sheer malignity must prompt the animal to such a deed, for it cares not to eat the dead 



THE GORILLA. 17 

man's flesh ; but finds a fiendish gratification in the mere act of killing. It is a kind of sport- 
ing ; though the game is of a better quality than that which is usually chased over the fields, 
shot in the air, or hooked out of the water ; not to be eaten, but for the sport. 

Such a deed as the capture of an adult Gorilla has never been attempted, and much 
less achieved, by the human inhabitants of the same land. There are many reasons for this 
circumstance. 

Yet it does not follow that although the Africans have failed, Europeans should not 
,, succeed. The native Africans have not dared to attempt the capture of the elephant, although 
Europeans have succeeded in that endeavor, and have subdued the terrible foe, converting it 
into a docile servant, and even making it an attached and intelligent friend. 

Once or twice, the young Gorillas have been captured, in spite of the furious resistance 
which is made by their male friends ; but from some reason they have always died in a 
very short time. 

Cunning as is the Gorilla, and ingenious in some things to a striking degree, its intelli- 
gence is but limited, and the animal exhibits such unexpected instances of fatuity, that it 
well shows the distinction between cunning and wisdom, and proves itself to be but an animal, 
and nothing more. 

If it finds the remnant of a fire which has been relinquished by the persons who kindled 
it, the Gorilla is greatly charmed with the novel sensation produced by artificial warmth, and 
sits by the bright wonder with much satisfaction. As the fire fails, and the glowing brands 
sink into white ashes, the animal draws closer to the expiring embers, and does not leave 
them until all heat has left the spot. But it never thinks of keeping up the fire by placing 
fresh fuel iipon it, and does not even learn to imitate that action, which it may often have 
seen performed by the hunters who kindled the fire, and kept it well supplied with fuel during 
the night. It is most providential that the beast is devoid of this faculty, for, with the usual 
perseverance of the monkey race in such cases, it would probably continue to heap fuel until 
the forest itself was ablaze. 

It is said also, that when the Gorilla makes an incursion into a sugar plantation, it has 
sufficient sense to bite off a number of the canes, and to twist them into a bundle for better 
conveyance. But it frequently includes several of the growing canes in its faggot, and then 
feels woefully discomfited because it cannot carry away the parcel which had cost so much 
trouble in making. 

' The natives of Africa have an idea that these, and other large apes, are really men ; but 
that they pretend to be stupid and dumb, in order to escape impressment as slaves. Work, 
indeed, seems to be the summum malum in the African mind, and a true African never works 
if he can help it. As to the necessary household labors, and the task of agriculture, he will 
not raise a finger, but makes his wives work, he having previously purchased them for that 
purpose. In truth, in a land where the artificial wants are so few unless the corruptions of 
pseudo-civilization have made their entrance and where unassisted nature is so bountiful, 
there is small need of work. The daily life of a "black fellow" has been very graphically 
described in a few words. He gets a large melon ; cuts it in two and scoops out the inside ; 
one half he puts on his head, he sits in the other half, and eats the middle. 

It is rather singular that this legendary connection of apes and indolence should prevail 
on the continents of Africa and Asia. 

The outline of the Gorilla's face is most brutal in character, and entirely destroys the 
slight resemblance to the human countenance, which the full form exhibits. As in the Chim- 
panzee, an ape which is placed in the same genus with the Gorilla, the color of the hair is 
nearly black ; but in some lights, and during the life of the animal, it assumes a lighter tinge 
of grayish brown, on account of the admixture of variously colored hairs. On the top of the 
head, and the side of the cheeks, it assumes a grizzly hue. The length of the hair is not very 
great, considering the size of the animal, and is not more than tw r o or three inches in length. 
On the arms it is arranged in a rather curious manner, the hair from the shoulder to the 
elbow points downwards, while that from the elbow to the fingers points upwards, so that the 
two sets of hairs meet at the elbow, and make a pendent tuft. A similar structure is found 



18 THE GORILLA. 

in other large apes, but the object of so curious a disposition is not yet known. One reason 
for this arrangement of the hair, may be that if their long hairs were to hang along the arm 
and wrist, they would get into the hand, and interfere with the grasp, while by their reverted 
growth such an embarrassment is removed. The color of the eye is dark brown, glowing with 
a baleful emerald light, when the fierce passions are roused. 

It will be seen, on referring to the two engravings, which represent the skeleton of this 
animal, and the living creature itself, that the paws of the four extremities are not precisely 
alike in their development. On the two fore-paws, the fingers are enormous, the thumbs being 
comparatively trifling in dimensions ; while the corresponding members of the hinder paws 
are just reversed in their size. The figure of the Gorilla, opposite, marks these peculiarities 
with great fidelity, and in the action of the creature shows the reason for the extraordinary 
and gigantic thumbs of the hinder limbs. 

As to the size of a full grown Gorilla, accounts vary much. The specimen which is best 
known in England is five feet six inches high, when placed erect. From shoulder to shoulder 
it measures nearly three feet, while the body is only two feet four inches, measured from the 
hip-joint. It is possible, however, that there may be much larger individuals. Independent, 
however, of the impression made on the minds of the spectators by the sight of an infuriated 
animal, it is a fact that the feeling of anger does dilate the form, whether of man or beast. 
And as one effect of anger is to cause the hair to bristle up (as indeed is seen familiarly in 
dogs, cats, and other animals), the ape while under the influence of that fiery rage to which 
these animals are so subject, would in reality present a larger outline than if it were calmly 
engaged in its usual pursuits. Six, or even seven feet of height* have been attributed to 
these creatures. But it must be remembered that a wild, fierce animal always looks very 
much larger when living and in motion, than when lying dead and still on the ground, or even 
"set up" in a museum, with glass eyes, and straw-distended skin. Elephants of sixteen feet 
high, have shrunk to eleven and ten feet under the application of the measuring rod, and it is 
proverbial among anglers, that the fish which they do not catch, are finer and heavier than 
those which they can subject to scales and foot-measure. So it is likely enough, that a wild 
and savage Gorilla, with his fury -flashing eyes, his fierce gestures, and enormous arms, would 
impress the mind of his opponent with an idea of a very much larger animal. It is not only 
upon Gadshill that two men in buckram multiply unto eleven. 

But granting that the Gorilla does not attain to any much greater height than five feet, 
even then it is an animal much to be dreaded as an enemy, and capable of doing vast mischief, 
if so inclined. But it is a most merciful provision, and one that seems to be universal among 
creatures of such a stamp, that in proportion as their bodily powers increase, their mental 
powers degenerate. The larger apes are, in their period of childhood, so to speak, teachable 
and tolerably docile ; while when they attain to years of maturity, the animal attributes 
assume strength, gradually gain dominion over the mental, until at last the reasoning capaci- 
ties seem to degenerate into a mere contracted cunning. 

It seems that this degeneration is intended to prevent the animal from passing beyond the 
bounds to which it is confined, and by the very laws of its being to prevent it from using its 
vast strength for bad purposes. The ape evidently does not know his strength, nor how terrible 
an enemy he could be, if he only knew how to use the singular power and activity which he 
possesses. These huge apes seem to live apart from each other, and not to band together in 
large herds as do the baboons and other quadrumanous animals. If they were to unite, and to 
understand the principle of combination, they could speedily depopulate any country that 
was inhabited by men who were not possessed of fire-arms, and were unable to construct 
defences. 

But, fortunately for those human beings who are within reach of these terrible animals, i 
the adult ape is one of the most dull and stupid creatures imaginable : sulky, ferocious, and 
given solely to its own animal appetites. 

Here is a sketch of one of the lowest and least developed of human beings, probably the 
very lowest of the human race. This little man, who belongs to the same country as the Go- 
rilla, hardly attains even to the same stature, and in muscular proportions is a very pigmy. 



THE CHIMPANZEE. 



19 



Yet that in mere animal form the Bushman is infinitely higher than the ape, is evident from 
the contrast displayed by the two figures ; while, if the comparison be extended to the mental 
endowments, the impassable barrier that exists between the two beings, exhibits itself in the 
most unmistakeable manner. 

Modern zoologists have done rightly in refusing to admit mankind into the same order 
with beings so infinitely below them, as are even the very highest of the apes. The unprogres- 
sive animal is restricted to a narrow circle of thought and 
reason, and is totally devoid of that great privilege of 
iiuman nature which we call by the name of aspiration. 
Man ever proceeds onwards and upwards, anticipating 
something beyond that which he possesses, while the brute 
creation remain in the same course of life in which they 
were originally placed. The records of geological experi- 
ence, show that Simiadee of gigantic stature existed on 
earth ages before the creation of human beings. Relics 
of these creatures have been found in various parts of the 
globe, and even in the tertiary formations of our own 
island. Apes were, therefore, at least contemporary with 
mankind ; but while men have progressed, the apes have 
stood still, and always will stand still as long as they 
remain upon earth. The ape which saw the light in the 
year B. c. 4,000, was not a whit behind its descendant of 
the year A. D. 1859 in intellect or civilization ; and if the 
order were to be continued for twenty thousand years 
longer, the last ape would be not a step nearer civilization 
than the primeval pair. Within its own little circle of 
life, many of its bodily senses are far more acute than 
those of man, and its bodily powers greater ; but there 
ends the advantage. The animals are only partial and 

individual in their existence, restricted to a small sphere of life, and often confined within a 
very limited portion of the earth. These very limits place the animals at an immeasurable 
distance from man, who spreads himself over the entire earth, enduring with equal ease the 
fierce rays of the tropical sun, or the icy blasts of the arctic gales, and accommodating 
himself, through the agencies which his intellect projects, to these totally dissimilar modes 
of life. 

CLOSELY connected with the preceding animal is the large black ape, which is now well 
known by the name of CHIMPANZEE. 

This creature is found in the same parts of Western Africa as the gorilla, being very com- 
mon near the Gaboon. It ranges over a considerable space of country, inhabiting a belt of 
land some ten or more degrees north and south of the torrid zone. For some little time it was 
supposed that the gorilla was simply an adult Chimpanzee, but zoologists now agree in sep- 
arating it from that animal, and giving it a specific name of its own. 

The title niger, or black, sufficiently indicates the color of the hair which envelops the 
body and limbs of the Chimpanzee. The tint of the hair is almost precisely the same as that 
of the gorilla, being nearly entirely black ; the exception being a few whiter hairs scattered 
thinly over the muzzle. Age seems to give the hair of the animal a grayish tint in many places. 
As in the gorilla, the hair of the fore-arm is turned towards the elbow, where it meets the hair 
from the upper arm, and forms a pointed tuft. On the chest and abdomen it is rather thinner 
than on the remainder of the body, and permits the skin to be seen between the hairs, but on 
the arms and other parts it is sufficiently thick and long to hide the skin altogether. There is 
a small beard on the chin and face, which has a Chinese kind of aspect about it. 

With very few exceptions, the nostrils of the Quadrumana are placed almost flat upon the 
face, and are devoid of that projecting character which gives such expression to the human 




BUSHMAN. 



20 THE CHIMPANZEE. 

countenance. Even in that very large-nosed animal, the Proboscis Monkey, the nostrils are 
only oval orifices for the conveyance of air, and seem as devoid of character as those of a 
wax doll. 

Just as man is the only being that possesses two hands and feet, so is he the only inhabi- 
tant of earth who Can lay claim to a nose. All the Mammalia have nostrils, and some species 
are endowed with wonderful powers of scent, such as the dogs, the deer, and others. Some of 
them carry a proboscis more or less elongated, such as the elephants and the tapirs. Then 
there are some, such as those of the porcine group, which possess snouts ; but not one of them 
has a nose. 

So in the Chimpanzee and its relatives, the muzzle projects exceedingly, and the nostrils 
lie almost flatly upon the projecting mass. Herein lies one of the chief characteristics of the 
simian countenance, which is not so conspicuous when the face is viewed directly from the 
front, as when it is turned with the profile towards the observer. In front, the flattened and 
divergent nostrils, together with the projecting muzzle, are not forced on the notice, and might 
escape a hasty observation ; but if the animal turns its head, then the simian character shows 
itself in all its repulsive brutality. 

Even in the young Chimpanzee, this preponderance of the face and jaws over the brain- 
skull is very considerable, and, as we have already seen, continues to increase as the animal 
draws nearer to maturity. The distinction is even more clearly shown if the lower jaw be 
removed, and the skull examined from below ; for then, the disproportion between the animal 
and reflective parts shows itself most forcibly. 

In its native country, the Chimpanzee lives in a partly social state, and at night the united 
cries of the community fill the air with their reiterated yells. If we may credit the reports 
given by the natives of Western Africa, the Chimpanzees weave huts for themselves, and take 
up their residence in these dwellings. Now it is a well-known fact that the orang-outang, 
which comes next in our list, can rapidly frame a kind of platform of interwoven branches, 
and so it is not beyond the bounds of credibility that the Chimpanzee may perform a work of 
similar character. Only, the chief difference between- the customs of the two animals seems to 
be, that the one lives upon the structure or roof, if it may so be called, and the other beneath ; 
it. Some travellers say, that although the huts are actually inhabited, yet that only the 
females and young are permitted to take possession of the interior, and that the male takes up 
his position on the roof. 

The latter supposition derives more force from those habits of the Chimpanzees with which 
we are acquainted, and which have induced naturalists to give to the entire genus, the name 
of troglodytes. This term is compounded from two Greek words, signifying a "diver into 
caverns," and was applied to this ape, because it seems to prefer rocky and broken ground to 
the forest branches, which form the refuge of nearly all quadrumanous animals. 

This compound word is not of modern invention ; for in the works of Aristotle, Pliny, and 
other writers on the subject of natural history, much mention is made of a race of men who 
lived in rocky caverns, and who earned, by their burrowing habits, the title above mentioned. 
The language and costume of these people were as barbarous as their habitations, for the f ormer 
characteristic was said to resemble the hissing of serpents, rather than to bear any likeness to 
articulate speech, and in the latter accomplishment they were totally deficient in the hotter 
months. It is possible that the Bushman tribes may have given rise to these descriptions, 
which, indeed, would not be very erroneous if they had been used in depicting the " Digger" 
Indians of the New World. 

Be this as it may, it is a remarkable fact that the Chimpanzees are groundlings, and are 
not accustomed to habitual residence among the branches of trees. Although these apes do 
not avail themselves of the protection which would be afforded by a loftier habitation, yet they 
are individually so strong, and collectively so formidable, that they dwell in security, un- 
harmed even by the lion, leopard, or other members of the cat tribes, which are so dreaded by 
the monkey tribes generally. Even the elephant yields to these active and ferocious animals, . 
and leaves them undisturbed. Yet a Chimpanzee would not dare to meet a panther in single 
combat, and depends for safety upon the assistance that would be afforded by its companions. 



THE CHIMPANZEE. 21 

This is shown by a curious and rather absurd incident that occurred on board a ship, where a 
young and docile Chimpanzee suddenly came in sight of a caged panther, which had taken 
voyage in the same vessel. 

The unexpected sight of the panther entirely overcame his feelings, and with a fearful yell 
he dashed along the deck, knocking over sundry of the crew in his passage. He then dived 
into the folds of a sail which was lying on deck, covered himself up with the sail-cloth, and 
was in such an agony of terror, that he could not be induced to come out of his retreat for a 
long time. 

His fright was not groundless, for the panther was as much excited as the ape, only with 
eager desire, and not with fear. It paced its cage for hours afterwards, and continued to watch 
restlessly, much as a cat may be seen to watch the crevice through which a mouse has made 
good its escape. 

There are also strange reports, which are still credited, that the Chimpanzees carry off 
negresses, and detain them in the woods for years, sometimes until they are released by death 
from their terrible captivity. 

The food of these creatures appears to be almost entirely of a vegetable nature, and they 
are very unprofitable neighbors to any one who has the misfortune to raise crops of rice, or 
to plant bananas, plantains, or papaus, within an easy journey of a Chimpanzee settlement. 
As is the case with many of the monkey tribes, the animal will eat food of a mixed character, 
when it is living in a domesticated state. 

The climate of France seems to be better suited to these animals than that of England. 

In the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris, there was a remarkably fine specimen of the Chim- 
panzee. Black, sleek, and glossy, he was facile princeps in the establishment, and none 
dared to dispute his authority. 

He was active enough, and displayed very great strength, and some agility, as he swung 
himself from side to side of the cage, by means of the ropes that are suspended from the roof ; 
but he preserved a dignified air as became the sole ruler. 

There was a kind of aristocratic calmness about the animal, and he would, at intervals, 
pause in his airy promenade, and, seating himself on a convenient spot, deliberately scan they 
large assembly that generally surrounded the monkey-house. His survey completed, he 
would eat a nut or a piece of biscuit, and recommence his leisurely gambols. His health 
seemed to be perfectly good, as was shown by the alertness of his movements, and the full, 
open look of his eyes. 

A sad contrast to this animal, was presented by a wretched little Chimpanzee which I saw 
in England. It was still possessed of sufficient strength to move about its cage, but executed 
all its movements in a slow, listless manner, that would have told its own tale, had not the 
frequent hacking cough spoken so plainly of the consumption that was consuming its vitals. 
The countenance of the poor creature was very sad, and it did not appear to take the least 
interest in anything that occurred. 

I have seen many monkeys with this sad aspect, and was always haunted by their piteous 
looks for days afterwards. 

The ravages which this disease can make in the delicate formation of a monkey's lung, 
before the creature finally succumbs, must be seen to be appreciated. The whole organ is so 
eaten up, and its color and substance so changed, that the spectator marvels that the creature's 
life could have been sustained for an hour under such circumstances. 

As long, however, as they resist the untoward influence of our climate, the specimens 
which we have known, have always been extremely gentle and docile. Taught by the instinc- 
tive dread of cold, they soon appreciate the value of clothing, and learn to wrap themselves in 
mats, rugs, or blankets, with perfect gravity and decorum. Dress exercises its fascinations 
even over the ape, for one of these animals has been known to take such delight in a new and 
handsome costume, that he repudiated the previous dress, and in order to guard against the 
possibility of reverting to the cast-off garment, tore it to shreds. Whether the natives of 
Western Africa speak rightly in asserting that the Chimpanzee is capable of using weapons, 
is at present rather a doubtful point. The negroes say that the "Baboos," as they call the 



22 THE CHIMPANZEE. 

animals (the name evidently being a corruption from our own word Baboon), make use of 
clubs, staves, and other rude weapons, and that they can use them with great address. Cer- 
tain it is, that the adult Chimpanzee has been known to snap with a single effort branches so 
thick, that the united strength of two men could hardly bend them. But whether the animal 
would possess sufficient intellectual power to make use of a weapon thus obtained, is not so 
certain. 

It is said that they have a sufficient amount of knowledge to be aware that the strength 
of a man lies in his weapons, and not in his muscles only ; and that if a hunter should draw 
on himself the vengeance of the troop, by wounding or killing one of their number, he can 
escape certain death by flinging down his gun. The enraged apes gather round the object that 
dealt the fatal stroke, and tear it to pieces with every mark of fury. While they are occupied 
with wreaking -their vengeance on the senseless object, the owner of the fatal weapon escapes 
unnoticed. 

The strength of arm with which this animal is endowed, has already been shown. But 
although the hinder limbs are not possessed of that gigantic muscular strength which is given 
to the arms, yet they are powerful to a degree that would be remarkable in any animal less 
athletic than the Chimpanzee. One of these creatures has been seen to lower itself backwards 
from the bar on which it was sitting, and to draw itself up again, merely by the grasp of the 
hinder feet. 

The age to which the Chimpanzee attains in its wild state, is as yet unknown. But to 
judge by the length of time that elapses before the animal reaches matiirity, its life cannot be 
very much less than that of the human inhabitants of the same land. Nine or ten years are 
spent by the Chimpanzee before it has reached the perfection of its development ; and it is 
well known that the inhabitants of the tropical regions attain to maturity at a very early age 
indeed. 

A peculiarly fine specimen of the Chimpanzee, which was tamed and domesticated in its 
native country, lived to the age of twenty -one years. This animal was possessed of gigantic 
strength, and on one occasion was intercepted in the act of carrying a soldier into the tree to 
which he was chained. This ape might, however, have been a specimen of the gorilla. 

One great and almost radical objection to the weapon-using powers of the Chimpanzee, 
may be found in the difficulty which these animals experience in standing erect. In order to 
use a weapon effectively, the hands and arms must be at liberty, and the feet planted firmly 
on the ground. A defect in either of these conditions, is fatal to the right handling of the 
weapon. Now, as the Chimpanzee has much difficulty in preserving even a semi-erect position, 
and is forced to aid itself by placing the backs of its hands on the ground, it will be at once 
seen that a club would not give very much assistance to the creature. It might certainly 
launch stones with force and effect ; but a weapon that requires the full and independent use 
of both sets of limbs, would be of small benefit. 

Besides, the creature is already so terribly armed by nature with formidable fangs, and 
limbs of Herculean strength, that it needs no artificial means of offence, and would probably 
be rather embarrassed by them than otherwise. 

Still, it is not improbable that these inquisitive animals have seen their human neighbors 
armed with sticks, and in that irresistible spirit of imitation to which monkey nature seems to 
be a victim, have armed themselves in similar manner, though with certain detrimental results. 
Should they really have recourse to these artificial and useless weapons, when brought into 
collision with human foes, it may be a providential means of depriving them of those terrible 
natural weapons, which would be truly formidable, and so causing them to be the more easily 
overcome by man. Judging from the familiar instances of their imitative nature, we may 
safely allow that the Chimpanzees do carry sticks, although we may infer that such weapons 
would be worse than useless to their bearers. 

In common with the orang-outan, and several other members of the same family, the 
Chimpanzee is possessed of extremely mobile lips. In the lips, indeed, the whole expression 
of the face seems to be concentrated ; and by the lips, the animal expresses the various emo- 
tions of fear, astonishment, hatred, rage, or pleasure, that agitate the ape's brain. Those lips 



THE ORANG-OUTAN. 23 

can be protruded until they assume an almost snout-like aspect ; they can be moulded into 
the strangest forms ; they can be withdrawn, and almost obliterated from the countenance, 
when the creature extends its mouth into the grin of anger, exhibiting its sharp teeth, and 
uttering its furious cries. There are in the face of the ape none of those delicate lines that 
render the human countenance an index of the mind within ; and, therefore, the animal makes 
the most of the limited means which it possesses. Articulate voice it has none, although it 
can be taught to comprehend the commands of its instructor ; but it is a proficient in natural 
language of action, and by gesture can make itself understood without difficulty. 

Though the language of the ape be not articulate, according to our ideas, yet in their wild 
state the Chimpanzees can talk well enough for their own purposes. One proof of this, is the 
acknowledged fact that they can confer with one another sufficiently to act in unison, at the 
same time and place, and with a given object. 

Strong and daring as they are, they do not appear to seek a contest with human beings, 
but do their best to keep quietly out of the way. Like most animals that herd together, even 
in limited numbers, the Chimpanzees have ever a watchful sentinel posted on the look-out, 
whose duty it is to guard against the insidious approach of foes, and to give warning if he 
sees, hears, or smells, anything of a suspicious character. 

Should the sentinel ape perceive a sign of danger, he sets up a loud cry, which has been 
likened to the anguished scream of a man in sore distress. The other apes know well enough 
the meaning of that cry, and signify their comprehension by answering cries. If the danger 
continues to threaten, then the ape-conversation becomes loud, shrill, and hoarse, and the air 
is filled with the various notes of the simian language, perfectly understood by themselves, 
although to human ears it consists of nothing but discordant yells and barks. 

The arms of this animal, of the gorilla, and the orang-outan, are of considerably greater 
length than might be inferred from the height of the animal. When these creatures aid their 
steps by placing the hands on the ground, they have the curious habit of resting the knuckles 
on the ground, instead of the palms of the hands, as might have been supposed. From this 
peculiarity, the three apes have received the appropriate title of "knuckle-walkers." 

The head of the Chimpanzee is remarkable for the large development of the ears, which 
stand prominently from the sides of the head, and give a curiously peculiar expression to the 
contour .of the head and face. 

We should probably have seen many more specimens of this ape imported into this country, 
had not the superstitious fears of the natives kept them aloof from meddling with these ani- 
mals. Probably on account of the weird resemblance to the human form, which is one charac- 
teristic of their race, or on account of their cunning, the inhabitants of the Gaboon and the 
neighborhood labor under the dread of being bewitched by the Chimpanzees, and so very 
prudently let them alone. Certainly, they would be "no canny" to deal with, and the dis- 
cretion exercised is not to be blamed. 



THE ORANG-OUTAN. 

THE title of Satyrus, or Satyr, is very rightly applied to the huge ape which is known by 
the name of ORANG-OUTAN. 

For, saving that the long-eared Satyrs of the classic authors were more intellectual in 
countenance, and usually wore hoofs instead of hands at the extremities of the lower limbs, 
there is no small resemblance between the veritable and the imaginary wild man of the woods. 

The Orang-outan is a native of Asia, and only to be found upon a small portion of that 
part of the globe. Borneo and Sumatra are the lands most favored by the Orang-outan, which 
inhabits the woody districts of those islands, and there rules supreme, unless attacked by man. 

There seem to be at least two species of this animal, that are found in Borneo, and some 
zoologists consider the Sumatran ape to be a third species. 

The natives distinguish the two Bornean species by the name of Mias-kassar, and Mias- 
pappan, the latter of which animals is the Simla satyrus, so well represented in the engraving. 



24 THE ORANG-OUTAN. 

The Pappan is a truly terrible animal when roused to anger, and would be even more 
formidable than is the case, were it endowed with a less slothful disposition. Its length of 
arm is very great ; for when the animal stands erect, and permits the arms to hang by its sides, 




ORANG-OUTAN. Simia sdtyrus. 

its hands can nearly touch the ground. The muscular power of these arms is proportionate to 
their length, and it is chiefly by means of the upper limbs that the ape makes progress among 
the boughs of the trees on which it loves to live. 

So powerful, indeed, are the arms, that a female Orang has been known to snap a strong 
spear like a reed, and this after she had been weakened by many wounds and loss of blood. 
In attack the Orang-outan is not sparing of teeth as well as hands ; and uses to the utmost 



THE ORANG-OUTAN. 25 

the weapons with which it has been endowed. The teeth of an adult Orang are truly formid- 
able weapons, and it is said that even the leopard cares not to prove their power. So strong 
are even the front teeth, that they are capable of gnawing through and tearing away the dense 
fibrous covering in which the cocoa-nut is enveloped, and possibly can cut through the hard 
shell itself. Besides these teeth, the Orang is furnished with enormous canines, or tusks, the 
object of which is probably to act as offensive weapons ; for the Orang is a vegetable-feeding 
animal, and the canine teeth can hardly be given merely for the purpose of cutting vegetable 
; food. 

Although the hind limbs are not so largely developed as the arms, yet they possess great 
power, and are perfectly adapted to the purpose which they serve. For terrestrial locomotion 
they are anything but fitted, as the animal is unable to plant the sole, or rather the palm, flat 
upon the ground, and rests upon the outside edges of the feet. 

The walk of the Orang-outan is little better than an awkward hobble, and the creature 
shuffles along uneasily by help of its arms. The hands are placed on the ground, and are 
used as crutches in aid of the feet, which are often raised entirely from the ground, and the 
body swung through the arms. Sometimes it bends considerably backwards, and throwing its 
long arms over its head, preserves its equilibrium by their means. 

This attitude is caused by the peculiar structure of the hind limbs, which, besides their 
comparative shortness, are only loosely jointed to the hip-bones. The Orang-outan is destitute 
of the short, but very strong ligament, that binds the thigh-bone to the hip-joint, and which is 
called the ligamentum teres. This ligament is very powerful in man, and plays an important 
part in giving him that steady tread, which alone is sufficient to distinguish the human species 
from the apes. 

But the Orang-outan is intended for an arboreal life, and requires limbs that can adapt 
themselves to the boughs. Therefore the legs are so twisted inwards, that the feet can grasp 
the branches freely, and hold the body in its position, while the long arms are stretched out 
to take a fresh hold. 

Among the trees the Orang-outan is in its element, and traverses the boughs with an ease 
and freedom that contrasts strongly with its awkward movements when on the ground. It has 
a curious habit of making for itself a temporary resting-place, by weaving together the 
branches so as to make a rude platform or scaffold on which it reposes. The powerful limbs 
of the animal enable it to execute this task in a very short time. Rajah Brooke of Sarawak 
narrates an interesting tale of a female Orang-outan, which when severely wounded ceased her 
attempts to escape, and weaving together a branch-platform, seated herself upon it, and 
quietly awaited .her end. The poor animal received several more shots before she expired, and 
as she fell dead upon her extemporary edifice, the hunters were put to some trouble before 
they could dislodge the dead body. The whole process of weaving the branches and seating 
herself did not occupy more than a minute. 

When the hunters desire to capture an adult Orang-outan, they hem him in by felling the 
trees around that on which he is seated, and so deprive him of the means of escape. Having 
thus cut off his retreat, they apply the axe to the tree of refuge, and endeavor to secure the 
ape before he has recovered from the shock of the fall. 

The adult male animal is singularly hideous in aspect, owing much of its repulsiveness to 
the great projection of the jaws and the callosities that appear on the cheeks. As is the case 
with all the larger apes, it becomes sullen and ferocious as it approaches its adult state, 
although in_the earlier years of its life it is docile, quiet, and even affectionate. Several young 
specimens have been brought to Europe, and were quite interesting animals, haying many 
' curious tricks, and exhibiting marks of strong affection to any one who treated them kindly. 
One of these animals learned to take its meals in a civilized manner, using a spoon, or a cup 
and saucer, with perfect propriety. 

When brought to colder climates than that of its native land, the animal covets warmth, 
and is fond of wrapping itself in any woollen clothes or blankets that it can obtain. On board 
ship it has been known to rob the sailors or passengers of their bedding, and to resist with 
much energy any attempt to recover the stolen property. 



26 THE ORANO-OUTAN. 

Though sufficiently docile and good-tempered when it has its own way, the young Orang 
is rather subject to sudden gusts of passion when crossed in its wishes, and in such cases puts 
forth its powers with much effect. But the angry passion soon passes away, and the creature 
seems to be ashamed of its conduct. 

One of these animals which I watched for some little time, had a curiously wistful and 
piteous expression of countenance, and although very young, its face was wrinkled like that 
of an old man of eighty. The creature sat and looked out of its deeply set eyes, as if the cares 
of the nation rested on its shoulders. It was not very lively, but moved about among the 
branches with great ease. The form was not at all symmetrical, for the long arms, and feet, 
and hands seemed strangely out of proportion with its round, weakly-looking body, so that it 
involuntarily reminded the spectator of those long-legged, round-bodied spiders that are so 
common about old walls. 

The lips were very mobile, and the animal moved them when agitated by any emotions ; 
sometimes shooting them forward like the poutings of a petulant child, and sometimes drawing 
them together in strange wrinkles. The neck was but slightly indicated, and the whole animal 
presented an uncouth, goblin-like aspect. 

One of these animals that was brought to England by Dr. Abel, exhibited many curious 
habits. 

It had been taught to walk in an erect position, without supporting itself by extraneous 
help, but the erect posture was so ill adapted to its structure, that it could only preserve its 
balance by raising the arms over its head, and throwing them behind it, as has already been 
mentioned. The mode in which the head is united to the neck renders the equilibrium un- 
certain. 

This animal was tolerably omnivorous in appetite, for although its usual food consisted of 
fruits and bread, it was exceedingly fond of raw eggs, and would eat almost any kind of meat, 
whether dressed or raw. It would drink water, or milk, or beer, preferring the two latter 
liquids to any other. But it was also fond of wine, and was partial to mixtures of a still more 
potent character. Coffee and tea were favorite beverages with the animal, so that it displayed 
a decidedly civilized taste. 

As might be expected, while it was on board ship the sailors petted their companion after 
their wont, and it was quite familiar with them, showing no fear, and even occasionally 
indulging in a sham fight. But it was struck with unaccountable fright at some very harmless 
creatures that became inmates of the same vessel. They were only common turtles, perfectly 
incapable of doing damage, and destined for soup. But the mere sight of them terrified the 
Orang-outan to such an extent that it ran away to the mast-head, and, protruding its lips, 
uttered a series of strange sounds. A land tortoise affected the animal in a similar manner, as 
also did the sight of a number of men bathing and floating in the water. Perhaps there was 
some connection in the mind of the ape between the turtle and the cayman, which supposition 
is strengthened by the alarm caused by the bathers. I have known a common snail cause a 
great turmoil in a cage of monkeys, and there may possibly be some instinctive antipathy 
between monkeys and crawling animals. 

This singular emotion is worthy of notice, because it proves the fallacy of judging any 
animal to be the natural enemy of another, merely becaiise the latter is terrified at its approach. 
Granting that the apes might occasionally have been prompted by their mischievous nature to 
meddle with the turtles, and to have been half -blinded by a sand-shower thrown from the 
turtle's flippers, or have suffered a painful wound from the snap of a turtle's sharp jaws, yet 
the little land-tortoise could not do damage. As we have just mentioned, even the presence 
of a poor garden-snail is a terror to many members of the monkey race. 

It is therefore evident that the antipathy does not exist only in some individuals which 
may have suffered by the reptiles, but that it is the common propensity of these strange 
animals. We can easily understand that an ape should display an agony of terror at the sight 
of a leopard, or a snake, for the one has teeth and claws, being also very fond of ape-flesh, and 
the other has fangs. But that the same animal should be just as frightened when it sees a 
turtle, a tortoise, or a man bathing, is indeed remarkable. 



THE ORANO-OUTAN. 27 

Our best insight into the habits of animals is generally gained by watching the actions 
of a single individual, and these biographies are usually found to be most interesting. An 
admirable description has been given by Dr. Abel of the young Orang-outan, which has been 
already mentioned. 

At first the ape was put into a cage, but he broke the bars and got out. Then he was 
chained, but he detached the chain from the staple, and finding that the heavy links incom- 
moded him, he coiled the chain round his shoulder, and to prevent it from slipping, held the 
end in his mouth. As he always succeeded in escaping from his bonds, his keepers made a 
virtue of necessity, and permitted him to enjoy the full range of the vessel. Among the ropes 
he was quite at home, and, trusting to his superior activity, was accustomed to take liberties 
with the sailors, and then escape among the ropes. One very curious trait in his character 
must be given in the words of the narrator. 

"Although so gentle when not exceedingly irritated, the Orang-outan could be excited to 
violent rage, which he expressed by opening his mouth, showing his teeth, and seizing and 
biting those who were near him. 

" Sometimes, indeed, he seemed almost driven to desperation ; and on two or three occa- 
sions committed an act which in a rational being would have been called the threatening of 
suicide. If repeatedly refused an orange when he attempted to take it, he would shriek 
violently and swing furiously about the ropes, then return and endeavor to obtain it. If again 
refused, he would roll for some time like an angry child upon the deck, uttering the most 
piercing screams ; and then, suddenly starting up, rush furiously over the side of the ship 
and disappear. 

"On first witnessing this act, we thought that he had thrown himself into the sea ; but 
on a search being made, found him concealed under the chains." 

He learned artificial tastes of civilization, and preferred tea and coffee to water. Tastes 
less natural and more to be regretted soon followed, for he took to drinking wine, and was so 
fond of spirituous liquids, that he was detected in stealing the captain's brandy-bottle. This 
interesting animal survived the English climate for about eighteen months, and then succumbed 
to the usual foe of the monkey race. The fatal issue of the disease was probably promoted 
by the shedding of his teeth. 

In its native woods, the Orang-oiitan seems to be an unsocial animal, delighting not in 
those noisy conversaziones which rejoice the hearts of the gregarious monkeys and deafen the 
ears of their neighbors. It does not even unite in little bands of eight or ten as do many 
species, but leads a comparatively eremitical existence among the trees, sitting in dreamy 
indolence on the platform which it weaves, and averse to moving unless impelled by hunger, 
anger, or some motive equally powerful. When it does move, it passes with much rapidity 
from tree to tree, or from one branch to another by means of its long limbs, and launches 
itself through a considerable distance, if the space between the branches be too great for its 
reach of arm. 

It has already been mentioned that the adult Orang is a sullen and ferocious animal. It 
is almost totally animal in character ; there is hardly any space for the brain ; the head is sur- 
mounted with heavy ridges of bone, showing the great strength of the muscles that are attached 
to them ; the lower part of the face and the jaws projects greatly, and, in fine, the skull is 
almost wholly made up of face, jaws, and bony ridges. The teeth, too, are very formidable. 

The hair of the Orang-outan is of a reddish chestnut hue, deepening here and there into 
brown. The texture of the hair is coarse, and its length varies according to the part of the 
body on which it is placed. Over the face, back, breast, shoulders, and arms, it falls in thick 
profusion, becoming especially long at the elbow-joint, where the hairs of the upper and fore- 
arm meet. The face is partly covered with a beard, which seems to increase in size as the 
animal grows older. The hair of the face takes a lighter tinge of red than that of the body, 
and merges the red or auburn tint in the brown, on the inside of the limbs. 

At a little distance, the face appears to be black ; but if examined closely is found to 
present a bluish tint. 

The Mias-kassar is similar to the Mias-pappan in general appearance, and color of hair ; 



28 THE SIAMAXG. 

but is evidently a different species from the Pappan, and not the young of that animal. Of 
this ape, Sir J. Brooke says, that it is "a small, slight animal ; by no means formidable in 
its appearance ; with hands and feet proportioned to the body. They do not approach the 
gigantic extremities of the Pappan either in size or power ; and, in short, a moderately strong 
man could readily overpower one ; when he would not stand a shadow of a chance with the 
Pappan." 

The height of a full-grown Pappan does not seem to be quite so great as has been supposed. 
Credible informants, however, tell us that they usually grow to the height of live feet, or even 
more, which, taking into consideration the extreme length of the aims, and the general mus-. 
cular development, gives us a very large ape indeed. Sir J. Brooke was deceived into the 
belief that one of these animals which he killed was nearly six feet in stature ; but was sur- 
prised to find when the animal was dead that the height was very much overrated. 

Many of the quadrumanous animals, among which are the large apes, the siamang, many 
of the tailed monkeys, and the baboons, are furnished with a singular appendage to the throat, 
which has been carefully investigated by M. Yrolik. This appendage consists of a pouch, 
varying in form and size, which is connected with the lungs by an opening into the windpipe, 
and can be dilated with air at the pleasure of the animal. 

The result of his researches is, that the air-pouch is not connected with the voice ; but 
that it is intended to reduce the specific gravity of the animal, and to assist it in climbing or 
leaping. The pouch is not a mere hollow sac ; but is furnished with many subordinate recep- 
tacles, something like a badly made glove, with three or four additional fingers or thumbs. 
These prolongations lie between the muscles of the throat. They are larger in the male than 
in the other sex, and increase together with the growth of the animal. In the Orang-outan, 
these pouches are very largely developed ; much more so than in the chimpanzee. The 
siamang possesses them of a large size, while the gibbons are without them. 

The generic name Simia, which is applied to these apes, and which serves to distinguish 
the entire family, is derived from the Greek word Simos, signifying "flat-nosed." 



THE SIAMANG. 

THE accounts of this ape vary extremely. Some authors pronounce the Siamang to be a 
dull and stupid animal, caring not to distinguish between friends and foes ; never moving 
until forced to do so, and hardly even taking the trouble to put food into its mouth. Others 
give to the Siamang the character of being a lively and affectionate creature, soon tamed, and 
attaching itself strongly to those with whom it has made acquaintance, and who behave kindly 
to it. As the latter character has been borne by the Siamang when in the possession of those 
who treated it well, and studied its habits, it is but justice to the creature to give it the credit 
of good behavior. 

The SIAMANG is a Sumatran animal, and, as far as is known, is found in no other spot on 
the globe. The color of the hair is black, and it is so thickly planted, that, although it is but 
short, it conceals the skin, except in one or two spots, such as the upper part of the breast, 
where the skin can be seen through the woolly covering. It is a large animal, measuring some 
three feet in height, when it has attained to its full growth. The arms are long, and the hands 
narrow, with slender fingers covered with the woolly black hair as far as the roots of the nails. 
The term Syndactyla, or " joined-fingers," is applied to this ape because the first and second 
fingers of the hinder limbs are united as far as the middle of the second joint. This union of 
the members is by means of a membrane that runs between the fingers, and does not extend to 
the bones, which when stripped of their fleshy coverings are found to be as distinct as those 
of any other animal. 

There is a curious structure of the throat which is worth notice. This consists of a double 
pouch under the chin and throat, formed by the loose folds of skin. When the animal is 
excited either by anger or pleasure, it inflates these pouches to such a degree, that their 
exterior surface becomes quite glossy. The pouches are without hair. 



THE SIAMANG. 2 

At sunrise and sunset, the Siamangs assemble in great numbers, under the command of a 
chief who is thought by the natives to be weapon-proof, and, being assembled, utter most 
hideous yells, each striving to outdo the other in their cries. It is supposed by some writers 
that the peculiar resonance of the animal's cry, is in a great measure to be attributed to the 
throat-pouches above mentioned. M. Vrolik, however, seems to be of a different opinion, as 
has been already noticed in the account of the Orang-outan. Except at the beginning and end 
of the day, the Siamangs are comparatively quiet. 

There is not a very great development of the combative nature in this animal, whirn is 
timid, unless urged by those feelings which inspire even the weakest and mildest crraturesi 
with reckless courage. The poor animal has no notion how to inflict or avoid a blow ; but in 
defence of its young, when threatened with danger, or in revenge for their loss, if slain, the 
mother Siamang dauntlessly flings herself upon the enemy, caring nothing for her own life in 
comparison with that of her offspring. 

When permitted to range unmolested in the woods, the care of the mother Siamang for 
her young affords a pleasing, and sometimes an amusing spectacle. But the father must not 
be passed over without the tribute of honor due to his paternal virtues. Those who have 
watched the Siamangs as they wandered unrestrainedly, say that the parents divide the care 
of the family between them ; the father taking care of the male offspring, and the mother of 
the females. They are properly solicitous about the cleanliness of their young charge, and 
duly wash them, rub and dry them, in spite of the screams and struggles of the little ones. 

It seems to be a general rule, that when an animal is peculiarly adapted for one mode of 
life, displaying singular powers therein, it is quite at a loss when placed in an uncongenial 
condition. The bats, for example, are awkward and helpless animals when placed on a level 
surface ; so are many of the swift-winged birds, such as the albatross, the frigate-bird, and 
others, while the diving-birds are just as clumsy on land as they are agile in the water. So it 
is with the Siamang, for its great length of limb, that gives it such powers of locomotion 
among trees, forms a serious impediment to its progress on level ground. Among the trees 
the Siamang is unapproachable ; and although not quite so active as the gibbons, is yet suffi- 
ciently so to be perfectly secure from pursuit. But let the creature once descend to earth, and* 
it is so embarrassed by its long limbs that it can be overtaken and captured with ease. Indeed, 
those specimens that have been taken unhurt, have almost invariably been made prisoners 
while struggling to regain the shelter of the trees. 

One of these animals was for some time an inmate of a ship, where it became quite com- 
panionable, and gained the affections of passengers and crew. So far from exhibiting the 
sullen and sluggish demeanor which has been attributed to this ape, the Siamang displayed 
great activity and quickness, skipping about the ropes, and given to harmless tricks. It took 
a fancy to a little Papuan girl who was on board, and would sit with its arms round her neck, 
eating biscuit with her. It was of an inquisitive nature, running up the rigging, and watching 
from its elevated position a passing vessel, and remaining there until the ship was out of sight. 
In temper it was rather uncertain, and apt to fly into a passion if opposed in any wish. 

When thus excited, it would fling itself down, just like a naughty, spoiled child, roll 
about the deck with great contortion of limbs and face, strike at everything which came in its 
way, and scream incessantly, with a sound like " Ha ! ra ! ra ! " 

It had a strange predilection for ink, and in order to procure this remarkable dainty, 
would drain the ink-bottle whenever there was an opportunity of so doing, or suck the pens 
in default of the liquid itself. Being itself destitute of a tail, and feeling no fear of reprisals 
in that direction, the Siamang used to make very free with the tails of some monkeys that 
lived on board of the same vessel. Catching an unfortunate monkey by its caudal appendage, 
away went Ungka, as the ape was named, dragging the monkey after him along the deck, 
until the wretched animal writhed itself free from its tormentor. At another time, Ungka 
would carry the monkey by the tail up the rigging, in spite of its squeaks and struggles, and 
then quietly let it drop. 

It was sensitive to ridicule ; and when its feelings were hurt, it used to inflate its throat 
until it resembled a huge wen, and looked seriously* at the offenders, uttering hollow barks at 



30 



THE GIBBONS. 



intervals. This sound seemed to be used for the purpose of expressing irritation. Anger was 
expressed by the shrieking " Ra ! ra ! " and pleasure by a kind of mixture between a squeak 
and a chirp. 

For the account of this animal we are indebted to Mr. Bennett, who has related many 
other traits indicative of its character. Sir S. Baffles possessed several specimens of this ape, 
and describes them as being social in their manners, and of an intelligent nature. Although 
they were powerful animals, they were gentle, and showed themselves to be pleased with the 
sociejv of those persons to whom they were attached. 




ALTHOUGH in their physical charac- 
ters the GIBBOKS bear much resemblance 
to the apes which have already been de- 
scribed, yet there are some peculiarities 
in form and anatomy which show them 
to be a link of transition between the 
great apes, and the lesser monkeys and 
baboons. 

They possess, although in a small 
degree, those singular callosities on the 
hinder quarters which are so conspicuous 
in the baboon family, and assume such 

strange tints. The gorilla, chimpanzee, and the orangs, are entirely destitute of these 
peculiarities, but the Gibbons are found to possess them, although the callosities are very 
small, and hidden by the fur from a casual view. 

As in the great apes, the arms of the Gibbons are of enormous length, and endowed with 



THE LAB GIBBON. Hylobatet lar. 



THE SILVERY GIBBON. 



31 



exceeding power of muscle, though the strength which resides in these largely developed limbs 
is of a different character. 

If the gigantic and powerful gorilla be compared to Hercules, then the light and active 
Gibbons may find their type in Mercury, the swift aerial messenger of the Olympian deities. 
The ponderous weight of the larger apes binds them to earth ; and even the orangs, which are 
more active than the chimpanzee, are no very great adepts at leaping through great intervals 
of space. But the Gibbons seem to pass nearly as much time in the air as on the branches, 
shooting from one resting-place to 

another, with such rapid movements, ..^ -v&- 

SaSi-SsS^Sft -5*^Jt$-; f Hfcs-i^-v'C 

that the eye can hardly follow their 
course the very swallows of the 
monkey race. 

From their wonderful agility in 
flinging themselves from branch to 
branch, or from tree to tree, natural- 
ists have given to these animals the 
generic name of hylobates, signifying, 
"tree traverser." And carrying out 
the mythological comparison which 
has just been mentioned, the name 
Lar has been attributed to this species. 

The SILVEEY GIBBON derives its 
name from the silver-gray color which 
generally pervades the fur. In some 
parts of the body, however, there is a 
browner tinge, and the face and palms 
of the hands are quite black. The sides 
qf the face are covered with white, 
furry hair, which is so plentiful, that 
although the ears are tolerably large, 
they are nearly hidden among the 
luxuriant hairy fringe that encircles 
the head. The eyes of this and of the 
other Gibbons are deeply sunk in the 
head. The size of the Silvery Gibbon 
is little different from that of Gibbons 
generally, the adult animal measuring 
about three feet or so in height. 
Active, as are all its relatives, it lives 
among the branches and tall canes of 
the Malaccas, and displays in these congenial habitations the same sportive agility that is so 
peculiar to the Gibbons. 

A very different group of animals now comes before us, separated even by the outer form 
from the apes. 

The chief distinction which strikes the eye, is the presence of a tail, which is of some 
length, and in several species, among which we may mention the SIMPAI itself, is extremely 
long and slender in proportion to the body. The arms of these animals are not of that inor- 
dinate length which is seen in the limbs of the apes, but are delicate and well proportioned. 
The hinder paws, or hands, are extremely slender, their thumbs being short, and are twice 
the length of the fore-paws. 

Some of these monkeys are furnished with small cheek-pouches, while others appear to 
be destitute of these natural pockets. The callosities of the hinder quarters are well shown. 

In this group of the Quadrumana, the characteristics of the apes disappear, and the ani- 
mals betray more clearly their quadrupedal nature. Very seldom do they assume the erect 




SILVERY QlBKOTX.Hyt6bates leuciscue. 



32 



THE SIM PA I. 



attitude, preferring to run on all fours like a dog, that being their legitimate mode of pro- 
gression. Even when they do stand on their hind feet, the long tail at once deprives them of 
that grotesque semblance of the human form, which is so painfully exhibited in the tail-less 
apes. Besides these external distinctions, there are many remarkable peculiarities in the 
anatomy of the internal organs, which also serve to settle the position of the animal in the 
order of nature. Among these internal organs, the stomach displays the most remarkable 
construction, being very large, and divided into compartments that bear some resemblance to 
those in the stomach of ruminating animals. . 

These monkeys are distributed through several parts of the world, the Simpai making its 

residence in Sumatra. 

This is a beautiful little animal, and is 
pleasing both for elegance of shape, and the 
contrasting tints with which its fur is deco- 
rated. The prevailing color of the body is a 
light chestnut, with a perceptible golden tinge, 
showing itself when the light falls obliquely on 
the fur. The inside of the limbs and the abdo- 
men are not so bright as the rest of the body, 
but take a most sober tint of gray. At the top 
of the head the hair is straight, and is set on 
nearly perpendicularly, so as to form a narrow 
crest. The color of the crest, together with 
that of a narrow baud running over the eyes 
r.nd temples, is black. From this conspicuous 
peculiarity, the Simpai (Presbytes melalophos] 
is also called the Black-crested Monkey. The 
name Presbytes signifies an old man, and is 
given to these monkeys on account of the 
wizened, old-fashioned aspect of their counte- 
nances. The term "melalophos" is literally 
"black-crested," and therefore a very appro- 
priate name for this species. 

The length of this animal, measured from 
the nose to the root of the tail, is about twenty 
inches, and that of the tail itself is not very far 
from three feet. Its fur is very soft and glossy. 
Several allied species are rather celebrated 
among furriers for the beauty of their natural 
garments, and suffer much from the hunters. 
A' well-known example, the Negro Monkey, 

sometimes called the Moor, or the Budeng, furnishes the long black monkey-fur that is put to 
so many uses. Jet black as is the long silky fur of an adult Budeng, it is of a very different 
color when the creature is young. The fur of the very young Negro Monkey is of a yellowish 
red color, and the black tint appears first on the hands, whence it spreads up the arms, across 
the shoulders, and by degrees creeps over the whole body. 

It is a native of Java, and is a gregarious animal, being found in troops of fifty or more in 
number, and extremely noisy on the approach of a human being. In temper it is said to be 
morose and sulky, so that, in spite of its beautiful coat, it is seldom domesticated. In such a 
case a bad temper must be a positive blessing to a monkey. 

Not only for the skins are these monkeys valuable. Their teeth are in some favor for the 
composition of ornaments, being pierced and curiously strung together. 

There is another substance which is furnished by some individuals among this group of 
monkeys, but is not always found in them. This is the bezoar, a substance which was long in 
high esteem for the cure of disease, and even now is used for that purpose by the physicians 




BUDENG. Semnopit/iecus maurue. 



THE ENTELLUS. 



33 



of the East. The word bezoar is originally "bad-zahr," or poison-expeller, and was applied 
to this substance as it was supposed to possess extraordinary virtue in destroying the effects 
of poison, whether administered internally, or applied to the bite of serpents, or the wounds 
caused by poisoned weapons. The bezoars are concretions, chiefly of phosphate of lime, which 




are found in the stomachs of 
most valuable being those of 
highly valued were the last, 
times their weight in gold. 

Those of the Asiatic 
most valuable of all the 
in size, they are powerful in 
remarkable circumstance 
their approximation to the 



ENTELLUS. Presbytes enteUus. 



many ruminating animals, the 
the Persian wild goat. So 
that they were sold for ten 

monkeys are considered the 
bezoars, as, although small 
quality. It is a somewhat 
that these monkeys, with 



ruminant stomach, should 
produce the same description of substance that was formerly thought to be the special property 
of the ruminating animals. 

A well-known example of this group of monkeys is the HOOXUMAN, or ENTELLUS. This 
is a considerably larger animal than the Simpai, as the adult Hoonuman measures three or 



34 THE ENTELLUS. 

four feet from the nose to the root of the tail, and the tail itself rather exceeds the body in 
length. The color of this monkey when young is a greyish brown, excepting a dark brown line 
along the back and over the loins. As the animal increases in years, the fur darkens in color, 
chiefly by means of black hairs that are inserted at intervals. The face, hands, and feet are 
black. 

It is a native of India, and fortunately for itself, the mythological religion is so closely 
connected with it that it lives in perfect seciirity. Monkeys are never short-sighted in spying 
out an advantage, and the Entellus monkeys are no exception to the rule. Feeling themselves 
masters of the situation, and knowing full well that they will not be punished for any delin- 
quency, they take up their position in a village with as much complacency as if they had 
built it themselves. They parade the streets, they mix on equal terms with the inhabitants, 
they clamber over the houses, they frequent the shops, especially those of the pastrycooks 
and fruit-sellers, keeping their proprietors constantly on the watch. 

Eeverencing the monkey too much to afford active resistance to his depredations, the 
shopkeepers have recourse to passive means, and by covering the roofs of their shops with 
thorn-bushes, deprive the thieving deity of his chief point of vantage. Let it not be a matter 
of wonder that a thief can be a god, for even the civilized Romans acknowledged Mercury 
to be the god of thieves, and they only borrowed their mythology from a much more ancient 
source. Certainly the Hoonuman gives practical proof of his claims to be the representative 
of such a deity ; for he possesses four hands with which to steal, and neglects no oppor- 
tunity of using them all. 

Conscious of the impropriety of its behavior, the monkey does not steal anything while 
the proprietor is looking at it, but employs various subtle stratagems in order to draw off 
the owner's attention while it filches his goods. Many ludicrous anecdotes of such crafty 
tricks are known to every one who has visited India, and employed his eyes. 

The banyan-tree is the favored habitation of these monkeys ; and among its many 
branches they play strange antics, undisturbed by any foes excepting snakes. These rep- 
tiles are greatly dreaded by the monkeys, and with good reason. However, it is said that 
the monkeys kill many more snakes in proportion to their own loss, and do so with a curiously 
refined cruelty. A snake may be coiled among the branches of the banyan, fast asleep, 
when it is spied by a Hoonuman. After satisfying himself that the reptile really is sleeping, 
the monkey steals upon it noiselessly, grasps it by the neck, tears it from the branch, and 
hurries to the ground. He then runs to a flat stone, and begins to grind down the reptile's 
head upon it, grinning and chattering with delight at the writhings and useless struggles 
of the tortured snake, and occasionally inspecting his work to see how it is progressing. 
When he has rubbed away the poor animal's jaws, so as to deprive it of its poison-fangs, 
he holds great rejoicings over his helpless foe, and tossing it to the young monkeys, looks 
complacently at its destruction. 

Besides the reverence in which this animal is held throiigh its deification, it has other 
claims to respect through the doctrine of metempsychosis, or the transmigration of souls 
through the various forms of animal life. From the semblance of human form which is 
borne by the monkeys, their frames were supposed to be the shrines of human souls that 
had nearly reached perfection, and thereby made their habitations royal. Therefore, to insult 
the Hoonuman is considered to be a crime equivalent to that of insulting one of the royal 
family, while the murder of a monkey is high treason, and punished by instant death. 
Many times have enthusiastic naturalists, or thoughtless "griffs," endangered their lives 
by wounding or killing one of these sacred beings. The report of such a sacrilegious offence 
is enough to raise the whole population in arms against the offender ; and those very men 
who study cruelty as a science, and will inflict the keenest tortures on their fellow-beings 
without one feeling of compunction, who will leave an infirm companion to perish from 
hunger and thirst, or the more merciful claws of the wild beasts, will be outraged in their 
feelings because a monkey has been wounded. 

The hunters in India find these animals to be useful auxiliaries in some cases, though 
tiresome in the main. They collect on boughs when a tiger or similar animal of prey passes 



THE PROBOSCIS MONKEY. 



under them, and often serve to point out to the hunter the whereabouts of the quarry. A tree 
thus covered with monkeys is a curious sight ; for the boughs are studded with them as 
thickly as fruit, and the pendent tails give an absurd appearance to the group. 

Although each part of every animal must be formed with some definite object, there are 
many which seem to be devoid of use, and among them is the monkey' s tail. 

Some of the monkeys the spider-monkeys of America, for example find in their tail a 
most useful member, by means of which they can suspend themselves from boughs, aid their 
limbs in tree-climbing, or, on an emergency, pick an object out of a crevice which the hand 
could not enter. But the use of the 
tails belonging to these old-world 
monkeys does seem to be very obscure. 

Some writers have opined that 
the tails are intended to balance the 
body in the various attitudes assumed 
by its owner. But when we reply 
that the Gibbons, although very much 
more agile, and, from their very form, 
requiring more balancing than the 
monkeys, yet are totally devoid of 
tails, this supposition falls to the 
ground. It cannot be for the purpose 
of flapping away flies that these ani- 
mals are furnished with such long and 
slender tails, for their shape renders 
them useless for that occupation ; and, 
besides, the hands of the monkeys are 
much better fly-flappers than its tail 
could possibly be. 

The question arises, " What does 
the monkey do with his tail ?" 

He nibbles it sometimes, when he 
is at a loss for occuption. 

It is a curious fact that at all 
events in captivity the long-tailed 
monkeys will eat their tails, and noth- 
ing seems to deter them from this 
strange act. The tips of those mem- 
bers have been covered with plasters, 
and have been tied up in bandages, 
but without effect. The ends of the tails have been treated with aloes, cayenne pepper, and 
other disagreeable substances, just as the finger-tips of a nail-biting child are dressed. But, 
though the creature splutters and makes strange grimaces at the horrid flavors that greet his 
palate, he cannot refrain from the accustomed luxury, and perseveres in his nibbling. One 
great charm of this habit seems to be the excitement felt by the monkey in trying how far he 
can nibble without smarting for it. Whatever may be the cause, the effect is that the tail is 
gradually eaten up, in spite of all endeavors to prevent such a consummation. Considered in 
a social light, the tails are calculated to promote the merriment of the company, for they 
are admirable handles for practical jokes, and afford mutual amusement, not unmingled with 
indignation. 

The PROBOSCIS MONKEY, or KAHAU, as it is sometimes called, on account of its cry bearing 
some resemblance to that word, is an inhabitant of Borneo, and probably of several neigh- 
boring countries. It is, as may be seen by the engraving, an animal of very unattractive 
features, principally on account of its enormously lengthened nose. This feature does not 
present itself in perfection until the Kahau has reached its maturity. When the animal is 




KAHAU. Prtibytes larofoiu. 



36 URSINE AND BLACK COLOBUS. 

very young, there are but few indications of the singular length to which this feature will 
attain ; for, although it is rather more prominent than in most of the monkeys, it is rather of 
that description of nose denominated "retrousse." 

In size, the Kahau is about equal to the hoonuman, and seems to be an active animal, 
leaping from branch to branch, through distances of fifteen feet or more. The natives assert, 
that while leaping they take their noses in their hands, iu order to guard that feature from 
being damaged by contact with branches. Whether this refinement of caution be true or not, 
it is certain that they do hold their outstretched hands in a manner unlike that of the gen- 
erality of monkeys, and probably for the purpose just mentioned. 

These monkeys are fond of society, assembling together in large troops, and howling with 
exceeding fervor. They observe hours, regulating themselves by the sun, at whose rising and 
setting they congregate together, and perform their arboreal gymnastics. 

For the preternatural ugliness of the countenance, the Kahau is partially compensated 
by the beautiful coloring of its fur, which is thick, but not woolly, nor very long. The prin- 
cipal color in the body is a bright chestnut red ; the sides of the face, part of the shoulders, 
and the under parts of the body being of a golden yellow. A rich brown tint is spread over 
the head and between the shoulders ; the arms and legs taking a whiter tinge than the 
shoulders. 

The nostrils of this creature do not at all resemble those of man, although the animal's 
nose seems to be a burlesqued edition of the corresponding feature of the human countenance. 
They are placed quite at the extremity of the nose, and are separated from each other by a 
very thin cartilage. They are therefore, as has been observed in a former page, quite devoid 
of that expressive character which is so strongly exhibited in the contour of the human nostril. 

We will pass on to more pleasing animals ; but before taking leave of this group of 
monkeys we must observe that they are hardly deserving of the title " Slow Monkeys," which 
has been applied to them. They sit quietly on the branches, with their tails hanging down, 
and their bodies gathered together ; but they only need some exciting cause to make them 
throw off their seeming apathy. They then spring from branch to branch, flinging them- 
selves towards their mark with wonderful precision, and are all life and energy. ; 



THE COLOBUS. 

THE scientific name which is given to this genus of monkeys, explains as is the proper 
office of names one of the leading peculiarities of the animals. The title "Colobus" is a 
Greek word, signifying "stunted," or "maimed,." and is given to these animals because the 
thumbs of the two fore-limbs give but little external indication of their presence, so that the 
hand consists merely of four fingers. They are exclusively African animals. They are rather 
handsome creatures, and their hair is sufficiently long and silky to be valuable as a fur. 

The Ursine, or Bear-like Colobus, is so named because the general color of its long black 
fur, and the form of the monkey itself, with the exception of the tail, has something of the 
bearish aspect. The cheeks and chin of this animal are covered with white hair ; there is a 
white patch on the hind legs ; and, with the exception of a few inches at its root, which retain 
the black hue of the body, the tail is of a beautiful white, terminated with a long and full 
white tuft. 

Another species, called the Fiill-maned Colobus, is rather a remarkable animal, not so 
much on account of its habits, of which little is known, but on account of the huge mass of 
long hairs which cover the head and shoulders, falling nearly as low as the middle of the 
breast. The color of this mane, or "full-bottomed peruke," as it has also been called, is 
yellow, with black hairs intermixed. Like the Ursine Colobos, the Full-mane possesses a tail 
of a white color, decorated with a snowy- white tuf t. 

The Black Colobus is devoid of those exquisitely w r hite portions of the fur that are so 
strongly marked in the Ursine and the Full-muned Colobus. The head, body, limbs, and even 
the tail, are jet black, unrelieved by any admixture of a lighter tint. This uniform black hue 



THE UUEREZA. 



37 



of the long glossy fur, has earned for the animal the demoniacal title which will be found 
appended to the figure. Beside the sable garments that are conventionally attributed to the 
powers of darkness, the animal in question is probably in part indebted for its name to the 
black crest, that projects over the forehead and eyes with so pert and impish an air. 

Our last example of this genus is the beautifully adorned GUEEEZA. This monkey presents 
a singular example of contrast in colors. The back, shoulders, the crown of the head, the 
limbs, and part of the tail, are black. But along the sides, the black hairs have hardly run a 
fifth of their course, when they suddenly become of a pure white. This change is not effected 
by a gradual melting of the black into white, but the line of demarcation is clearly defined. I 







UBSINE COLOBUS.-CWoftiM urrfntw. 



BLACK COLOBUS. Cotobue satanat. 



There is also a fringe of white hairs that encircles the cheeks, and becoming suddenly very 
narrow, runs across the forehead, just above the eyes, and is boldly contrasted with the black 
face and black scalp. The tail ends in a whitish tuft, but not so large as that of the Ursine 
Colobus, nor so purely white. 

Very little is known of the habits of this animal, but it is said to be a gentle creature, 
feeding on insects as well as on the usual vegetable food for monkeys. 

It is a native of Abyssinia, and its name " Guereza" is its Abyssinian title. 

The beauty of its fur causes it to be much sought after by the natives of the country, who 
make its skin into coverings for the curiously shaped shields which they bear. The white 
fringe is the part that is chiefly valued, and its appearance on a shield points out at once a 
person of distinction in its bearer. 

We now arrive at a group of small monkeys, with exceedingly long names. The term 
" Cercopithecus " is composed from two Greek words, signifying "tailed ape." 

The monkeys belonging to this genus are very abundant in their native forests, and the 
unfortunate peripatetic monkeys that parade the streets in tormenting company with barrel 
organs, or seated on the backs of dejected and pensive bears, are mostly members of this group. 



38 



G RIVET, ORE EN MONKEY, AND VERVET 



The first glance at one of these monkeys will detect a peculiar sheen of the fur, that bewilders 
the eye and conceals the precise color. If, however, the hairs are examined separately, each 
hair will be found to be varied in color several times, black and yellow being the principal 
colors. First the hair will be black for a part of its length, then yellow, then black again, and 
so on to the tip. As the black has something of a bluish tinge in it, the mixture of the yellow 
and blue gives an undefined greenish hue, as to cause the name of Green Monkey to be given 
to the animal. 

The Cercopitheci are remarkable for the singularly large development of the cheek pouches, 

which seem to possess an illimitable 
power of extension, and to accumu- 
late a strange medley of articles. 
Supply one of these monkeys with 
nuts or biscuit, and he will contrive 
to put the greater part of the food 
into his cheek pouches, only eating 
a small portion at the time. 

I never knew but one instance 
when the pouches were quite full, 
and even then the monkey was a 
small one, and the nuts were large. 
The little creature was liberally 
gifted with nuts, with the special 
purpose of ascertaining the capabil- 
ities of the pouches, and after dilat- 
ing its cheeks to a wonderful extent 
with large " cob " nuts, it was at last 
compelled to empty them into its 
hands. 

These pouches have been aptly 
compared to the stomach of a rumi- 
nant animal, and are employed in 
much the same manner. By means 
of the possession of these natural 
cupboards, the monkey is enabled to 
make little incursions, to eat as 
much food as hunger demands, and 
to carry away sufficient nourishment 
for one or two meals more, without 
being embarrassed in its retreat by 
its burden. 

It is worth notice that the word "monkey" is derived from the name of this group, the 
Mona. The diminutive of Mona is Monikin, the transition from which word to our " monkey" 
is sufficiently evident. 

The GRIVET, or TOTA, as it is called by some writers, is of a sombre green color ; the green 
being produced, as has been already mentioned, by the black and yellow hair. The limbs and 
tail are of a grayer tint than the rest of the body, the yellow portion of the hair being changed 
to a dull white. The inside of the limbs and the abdomen are slightly tinged with white. In 
the male animal the canine teeth are rather protuberant, showing themselves beyond the lips. 
The naked skin of the face, ears, and palms, is black, dashed with that deep violet hue that is 
found in so many of the monkeys. At each side of the head, the white hairs stand out boldly, 
whisker fashion, and give a very lively character to the head. It is an African animal, and. 
common in Abyssinia. 

The GREEN MONKEY, is sometimes called the Callithrix, or Beautiful-haired Monkey, on 
account of the exquisitely delicate marking of each separate hair. The inside of the limbs is 




GUEEEZA. Cololnii guerlza. 



THE POWER OF KINDNESS. 39 

nearly white, as is the under surface of the body, and the outer side of the limbs takes a gray- 
ish tinge. The hairy fringe that grows over the side of the face is of a delicate golden yellow. 

This monkey is a native of Senegal and the neighboring parts, and is frequently brought 
to this country. 

The VEEVET is rather a variable animal in point of color, some specimens being decidedly 
pale, while others assume a blackish hue. In general, the color of the animal is as follows. 
The prevailing tint of the fur is much the same as that of the Grivet, to which animal the 
Vervet bears a strong resemblance. The head, the throat, and breast, are of a light dun, the 
paws being very dark. In the male Vervet the canines are rather long, and show their points 
beyond the lips. 

These little animals are extremely abundant in their native land, and in Senegal especially 
are seen among the branches in immense troops. They seem to feel their own dignity as mas- 
ters of the wood, and are aggrieved by the intrusion of human beings into their special domains. 
They are so agile and swift in their movements, and withal so quick of sight, that they almost 
invariably descry an intruder before themselves are visible. There may be hundreds of little 
heads peering through the branches of the very tree under which the traveller is seated, and 
double the number of sharp little eyes glittering among the foliage ; but their owners are so 
lithe and cautious, that their presence remains undiscovered until they choose to announce 
themselves in their own fashion. 

Monkeys have their code of etiquette as well as men ; and, as they do not possess cards, 
the correct mode in which a monkey announces its presence to a human visitor is by dropping 
a piece of stick upon him. Perhaps he may consider the stick to be only a twig fallen in the 
course of nature, and so take no notice of it. Down comes another stick, and if that does not 
cause him to look up, several more are let fall upon him until his attention is drawn to the 
assembly in the branches. 

This point having been gained, the next object is to let the intruder know that his com- 
pany is undesirable, and that the sooner he takes his departure the more agreeable it will be 
for all parties. 

That the long-tailed party are averse to so big an animal without an inch of tail, is clearly 
shown by the angry chattering that is set up, and the double rows of white and sharp teeth 
that are freely exhibited ; and that the position of the objectionable individual will become 
anything but agreeable, is practically proved by the riot among the branches, which are 
shaken with noisy violence, the constant cries and chattering, and the shower of sticks and 
various missiles that pour upon him from above. Whether the object of their dislike be 
armed or not, seems to make but little difference to these tetchy animals. Should he retreat 
from so unpleasant a proximity, well and good they have achieved their point, and satisfied 
their pride of place. Should he retaliate, and hurl deadly leaden missiles among his perse- 
cutors in exchange for the harmless but disagreeable assaults committed on himself, they 
sullenly receive his fire, unterrified by the fall of their slaughtered companions, and, even 
when wounded, continue the unequal conflict. They evidently feel themselves in the right, 
and refuse to abandon their position. One traveller who had been thus treated by the monkeys, 
killed twenty -three of the poor animals in less than an hour not much to his credit. 

Killing a monkey is always a pitiful business, for it is so much like an act of murder com- 
mitted on a human being. Many are the travellers who, urged either by anger, curiosity, 
scientific researches, or innate destructiveness, have destroyed these animals, and have been 
so stricken by remorse at the effect of their cruelty, that they have vowed never to kill another 
monkey as long as they lived. There are several most touching narratives of such scenes, but 
they are so trying to the feelings, that I can neither bring myself to write them, nor to inflict 
such tragical tales on my readers. It were much to be wished that men could read the effects 
of their cruelty in the eyes of other animals except the monkeys, and would bind themselves 
never to inflict one unnecessary pang upon any living creature. Surely no wounded monkey 
could look at its tormentor with more pitiful eyes than those of the over-laden and over-driven 
ass, or even the neglected and ill-treated dog. These latter animals, too, are always with us, 
and need not only the cessation of actual cruelty, but even the gift of human sympathies, 



40 . MONKEY TRICES. 

before they can take their proper place in creation, and become the true servants and com- 
panions of man. It rests with man, who gave names to all living beings, to complete the work 
which God began in making them, and by stooping from his own superior nature, to be a 
protecting and loving providence to the beings that are placed under him. By so doing, man 
draws out, fosters, and develops the better nature which is inherent in every animal, and which 
would remain concealed, like a seed in ice-bound soil, unless it were brought into vigorous life 
by the genial influence of a higher being. I cannot believe that any animal is utterly untame- 
able, and so totally brutish as to be insensible to the touch of kindness. There are many 
animals which are proof against the old-fashioned way of education, and which are only 
rendered more fierce and obstinate by the tortures and blows which were formerly so freely 
bestowed on animals in course of training. But these very animals have proved to be sensitive 
to gentle and kind treatment, and, though fierce and savage towards one who only approached 
in order to torment, became docile and subdued when in the hands of a tender and sympa- 
thetic owner. 

The same rule holds good with human beings ; and the great and beautiful truth becomes 
daily more apparent, that severity of punishment has an injurious rather than a beneficial 
effect, and that the only true rule is that of love. 

The Grivets and Vervets are frequent visitors to our land ; and being extremely inquisitive 
in character, as well as active in body, play strange pranks in their land of exile. One of 
these creatures which resided in London some few years ago, caused considerable annoyance 
to his neighbors, one of whom very kindly favored me with the following account of some 
of his misdemeanors. 

"A few years ago, we lived next door to a lady who had a pet monkey, which was one 
of the most imitative and mischievous little beings that ever existed. His imitative nature 
caused the servants so much trouble, that he had not a friend among those of his own house. 

"One day he observed the ladies' -maid washing her mistresses' lace; and his offers of 
assistance having been somewhat roughly repulsed by her, chattering and scolding he went 
forth in search of adventures. Unfortunately, my windows were invitingly open, and he 
entered, with the idea of washing fresh in his head. 

"His spirit of curiosity induced him to open two small drawers, from which he abstracted 
their whole contents, consisting of lace, ribbons, and handkerchiefs. He placed these things 
in a foot-pan, together with all the water and soap that happened to be in the room, and he 
must then have washed away with great vigor ; for when I returned to my room, after an 
absence of an hour or so, to my astonishment, I found him busily engaged in his laundry 
operations, spreading the torn and disfigured remnants to dry. He was well aware that he 
was doing wrong, for without my speaking to him, he made off the moment he saw me, going 
very quickly and hiding himself in the case of the kitchen clock in his own home. 

"By this act, the servants knew he had been doing mischief, as this was his place of 
refuge when he was in trouble or disgrace. 

"One day he watched the cook while she was preparing some partridges for dinner, and 
I suppose that in his own mind he considered that all birds ought to be so treated, for he 
managed to get into the -yard where his mistress kept a few pet bantam fowls, and after rob- 
bing them of their eggs, he secured one of the poor hens, with which he proceeded to the 
kitchen, and then commenced plucking it. The noise that the poor bird made brought some 
of the servants to the rescue, but they found it in such a pitiful and bleeding state, that in 
mercy it was at once killed. 

" After this outrageous act, Mr. Monkey was chained up, which humiliated him so much 
that he steadily refused his food, and soon died." 

Monkey flesh forms a favorite article of food with the human inhabitants of the same 
country, and is said to be tolerably good eating, though extremely dry and sapless. Part of 
this fault seems, however, to lie with the very primitive style of cooking which is prevalent 
in those regions, and which is achieved by running a sharp stake through the animal's body, 
and letting it roast before the fire. 

Europeans find a difficulty in accustoming themselves to the sight of broiled monkey ; for 



THE MONA. 



41 



it presents an appearance so unpleasantly suggestive of a toasted child, that horrid ideas of 
cannibalism arise in the mind, and even a stomach sharpened by hunger revolts from the 
unsightly banquet. 

The well-known Mona monkey belongs to the same genus as the foregoing animals. All 
the long-tailed African monkeys are termed Monas by the Moors. On account of its green, 
maroon, gray, and white fur, it is sometimes called the Variegated Monkey. Little is known 
of its habits in a state of nature, and accounts of its captive character vary as much as is 
usually found in similar cases. On the authority of one writer, who speaks from personal 
experience, we are told that the adult Mona is savage and irritable ; while another, who also 
writes from personal observation, tells us that the Mona is gentle, and devoid of petulance or 
malice, its excellent disposition remaining unaltered by age. 




THE PAT AS. CercopUAecu* ruber. 

One of these animals, which passed several years in Europe, was remarkable for its amiable 
temper ; and although by no means free from the little mischievous and pilfering habits that 
are so inextricably interwoven in the monkey nature, was so quiet and gentle as to be left at 
perfect liberty. He was an adept at unlocking boxes and examining their contents, could 
unravel the intricacies of a knot, and was possessed of a hand dexterous and nimble at picking 
pockets. The last-named occupation seemed to afford peculiar gratification, which was in- 
creased by the fact that his visitors were accustomed to carry nuts, cakes, and other delicacies 
in their pockets, on purpose for the monkey to find them there. 

Many specimens of this animal have been brought to Europe, and their disposition seems 
to vary according to the temperament of their owner. Monkeys are very sensitive animals, 
and take much of their tone of character from that of the person with whom they are most 
familiar. 

They seem to be affected almost instantaneously by predilection or antipathy, and on their 
first interview with a stranger, will evince either a satisfaction at, or objection to, his presence, 
which they will maintain for ever afterwards. I have often watched this propensity, and seen 
the same animal come voluntarily and offer itself to be caressed by one person, while the very 
approach of another would set it chattering with anger. It may be that the animal is actuated 
simply by caprice ; but the more rational mode of accounting for such an action, is to suppose 
that the fine instincts which are implanted in its nature, enable it to discover its true friends 
at a glance without the trouble of testing them. 



42 



THE PAT AS. 



The PATAS, sometimes called the Red Monkey, on account of the ruddy color of the hair, 
is of a bright chestnut, or fawn color, with a deep shading of red. This hue is shown very 
decidedly on the sides and on the outer portions of the hind legs, the legs themselves being of 
a darkish cream color. The breast and the fore-limbs are covered with hair, which much 
resembles that of the Green Monkey. 

It is an inhabitant of Western Africa, being found very commonly in Senegal. In size it 
is much superior to the last -mentioned animal, reaching more than three feet in length. 

When left to an undisturbed life, these creatures are playfiil and inquisitive, but mis- 
chievous and spiteful withal. They display great courage when engaged in a fray, and if their 

size and strength were proportionate to 
their bravery and endurance, would be 
truly formidable antagonists. Even the 
fall of their comrades only seems to re- 
double their rage, and to stimulate them 
to increased exertions. 

Too crafty to venture upon close 
combat, these monkeys retain their posts 
of vantage on the tree-tops, arid hurling 
from thence every kind of offensive mis- 
sile that can be procured, render their 
attack a matter of exceeding inconveni- 
ence, even to armed men. During the 
skirmish, the monkeys distort their feat- 
ures into strange grimaces, and rend the 
air with their cries of rage. They have 
been known to follow boats up the course 
of a river, keeping pace upon the over- 
hanging trees, and becoming so trouble- 
some from the constant shower of sticks, < 
fruits, and other missiles, that the occu- 
pants of the boats were forced to fire at 
their assailants, and to kill many of the 
number before they could be freed from 
the annoyance. 

This, as well as the foregoing long- 

THE DiANA.-cfcwA Diana. tailed monkeys, belongs to that large 

group of quadrumanous animals called 

the GUENONS, nearly all of which possess similar characteristics of disposition. They are 
amusing and playful creatures, very active, and move with much grace of deportment. 
In captivity they are remarkable for their mercurial temperament, their ingenuity in 
devising and executing small malevolent pranks, and their insatiable appetite for nuts, and 
other similar dainties. They are curiously sensitive to ridicule, being thrown into furious 
excitement by any mocking gestures or sounds. Nothing seems to irritate a monkey more 
than a grin and a chatter, in imitation of its own habits. It will fly at the offender with furious 
looks and screams of rage, and, unless restrained by chains or bars, would be likely to inflict 
some damage by its sharp teeth. It will remember the person of its tormentor with singular 
tenacity of memory, and will ever after be thrown into a state of angry agitation by the sound 
of the hated voice. 

Although rather tetchy and hot-tempered, and too apt to resent any supposed slight or 
injury, the Guenons are very capable of education, and in the hands of a kind and gentle 
teacher can be trained to perform many curious feats. Severity defeats its own aim, and only 
makes the creature fall back upon the innate obstinacy which is inherent in most animals, and 
of which the monkey has a large share. But a kind instructor, and one who will never lose 
his own temper, may take in hand even a savage monkey and reduce it to gentle obedience. 




THE SOOTY MANGABEY. 43 

As a general rule, the male monkeys are less open to higher influences than the females, and 
are therefore more difficult subjects for the trainer. 

Nearly all the long-tailed monkeys that come to us belong to the Guenons, and the many 
anecdotes that are related of them may be safely attributed to this group of animals. 

The monkey which is known by the name of the DIANA is remarkable not only for its 
quaint aspect, but for the richly variegated tints with which its fur is adorned. The most con- 
spicuous feature in the Diana Monkey, is the long and sharply pointed beard which decorates 
its chin and face. The color of the beard is a pure white, and the animal is extremely solicitous 
about the perfect spotlessness of its hue, taking every precaution to preserve the cherished 
ornament from stain. So careful is this monkey, that when it drinks it holds back its beard 
with one hand, lest it should dip into the' liquid and be soiled. 

It may seem rather singular that an animal which bears so masculine an adornment should 
be named after the bright virgin huntress of mythology, radiant in her perpetual youth. But 
though as Diana the beard might be scarcely appropriate, yet as Hecate it would not be so very 
inconsistent. The reason, however, for giving to this monkey the title of the Diana, may be 
found not on the chin but on the forehead : where a semi-lunar line of white hair gleams out 
conspicuously against the black brows, and bears a close resemblance to the silvery crescent 
borne by the Diana of the ancients. 

The coloring of the fur is extremely diversified, and in several parts assumes a force and 
richness of tint that we should rather expect in the plumage of a bird than in the fur of a 
monkey. The back is mostly of a deep chestnut color, and is relieved by a bright orange hue 
that covers the lower part of the abdomen and the inside of the thighs. The orange color is 
very much the same as that of the well-known penguin feathers which are so extensively used 
for slippers, pouches, and other fanciful articles. 

A band of pure white separates the chestnut from the orange, and serves to set them off to 
great advantage. The remainder of the body is of a rather dark gray, and the hands are 
nearly black. The color of the eye is a clear gray. 

In captivity it is rather a pleasing animal ; almost fastidiously clean in habits, therein 
exhibiting an advantageous contrast to many of the monkey tribe. It is easily tamed, and 
walks deliberately forward to receive any gift at the hands of its visitors. When walking, its 
diverse colors produce a curiotis effect, especially when it is viewed from behind. 

Although it is by no means a rare species, and is found in plenty in Guinea, Congo, and 
other places, it is not so often imported as might be expected. The total length of tail and 
body is about four feet and a half, of which the tail occupies rather more than the moiety. 

There are several species of monkeys belonging to the genus Cercocebus (i. e. Tailed 
Monkey), of which the animal that is so well depicted in the accompanying illustration is a 
good type. The Mangabeys, as these monkeys are called, are all inhabitants of Western Africa. 
They are amusing in their habits, and gentle in manner ; easily domesticated, and open to 
instruction. Their temper does not seem to be so irritable as that of many monkeys ; and 
even when they are roused to anger, their ire is comparatively evanescent. 

On account of the white hue which marks the eyelids, the Mangabeys are sometimes termed 
the "White-eyelid Monkeys." The Sooty Mangabey is well named; for its general color 
is nearly black, something like a half -tint chimney-sweeper. The black hue is only found in 
the adult animal, the color of the young Mangabey being a fawn tint. Sometimes it goes by 
the name of the Negro Monkey ; and under these several titles suffers somewhat from the con- 
fusion that is almost inseparable from such uncertain nomenclature. It is rather a small 
animal, measuring some eighteen inches or so from the nose to the root of the tail, which occu- 
pies about the same space. 

Among the peculiar habits which distinguish the Mangabeys, we may especially notice 
the action of their lips, and the mode in which they carry the tail. They have a strange way 
of writhing their faces into a kind of quaint grin, in which they raise the lips, and exhibit the 
teeth almost as if they were laughing. When walking, they have a fashion of turning their 
tails over their backs, and carrying them reversed, in a line almost parallel with the direction 
of the spine. 



44 



MACAQUES. 



Few monkeys can assume more outre attitudes than the Mangabeys, which seem to be, 
among monkeys, almost the analogues of the acrobats among mankind ; and twist themselves 
Into such strange contortions, that they seem to be able to dispense with the bones and joints 
with which other animals are furnished. They seem to be quite aware of their own accom- 
plishments, and soon learn that their display will bring in a supply of nuts, cakes, and fruit 
to their exchequer. So they keep a vigilant eye on the visitors, and when they conceive that 
they have drawn attention to themselves, they execute a series of agile gambols, in the hope 
of meeting the reward which sweetens labor. |( 




THE SOOTY MANGABEY.-Pnrf&M/srin&n. 

Their attention is soon excited by any object that is more than ordinarily glittering ; 
jewelry of all kinds being as magnets, to which their eyes and fingers are instinctively drawn. 
My own fingers have more than once been endangered by the exceeding zeal manifested by the 
animal in its attempts to secure a ring to which it had taken a sudden liking. The monkey 
held out its paw as if it wanted to shake hands, seized my fingers with both its hands, and did 
its best to remove the object of its curiosity ; fortunately, the ring fitted rather tightly, or it 
would probably have been lost or swallowed. As it was, a few scratches on my hands, and 
an outburst of disappointed anger on the part of the monkey, were the only results of the 
sudden attack. 

MACAQUES. 

THE various species of monkeys which are ranged under the common title of Macaques, 
are mostly well-known animals ; being plentiful in their native lands, and frequently domes- 
ticated, both in their own and in foreign countries. They are all inhabitants of Asia, although 



BONNET MACAQUE, OR MVNGA. 



45 



the word Macaco is the name which is given to all kinds of quadrumanous animals on the coast 
of Guinea, and is almost synonymous with our own word monkey. 

One of the best typical examples of this genus is found in the BONNET MACAQUE, or 




MACAQUES. 



MUNGA, as it is often called. A native of Bengal and Ceylon, it is a frequent visitor to our 
shores ; being tolerably hardy in constitution, bearing the long voyage well, and suffering less 
from our insular climate than many of the monkey tribe. 

For the title of Bonnet it is indebted to the peculiar arrangement of the hairs on the crown 
of tlie hend, which radiate in such a manner that they seem to form a kind of cap or bonnet. 



46 THE RHESUS, OR BH UNDER. 

The general color of the animal is a rather bright olive-grey, fading into white beneath. The 
skin of the face is of a leathery flesh color. 

The distinctions between the Macaques and the Cercopitheci, are not very striking ; but 
by comparison of the two genera, sufficiently decided variations are visible. These are rather 
comparative than absolute. In the Macaques, the muzzle is slightly more solid tlxan in the 
Guenons, the body and head are larger, and in most species the tail i shorter. The callosities 
are well marked, and in some instances are rendered more conspicuous by a surrounding fold 
,of skin devoid of hair. The limbs, too, are more muscular than those of the Guenons. These 
peculiarities may be seen on reference to the illustration. 

Whether the fault lies with its proprietor, or whether the temper of this Macaque be 
really uncertain, is difficult to say ; but its general disposition when in captivity is rather of a 
snappish and crabbed character. Those who have had much to do with the Munga, say that 
it is very capricious, and that its good humor cannot be depended upon, as is the case with 
many domesticated monkeys. 

In its native land, the Munga enjoys exemption from most of the external ills to which 
monkey nature is liable ; for, in common with several other species, it is piously protected by 
the natives, on account of its importance in their myriad-deitied religion. Not content with 
permitting these monkeys to devastate his plantations at will, the devout Hindoo prepares a 
home for them in his temple, where they rule supreme, and tolerate not the intrusion of any 
monkeys of another caste. When old, they are of a very high caste indeed, according to the 
Hindoo ideas on the subject. The more fierce and savage the monkey, the higher is its caste ; 
and among serpents, the cobra is significantly the Brahmin. 

The KHESUS, or BIIUNDEE MONKEY, is rather a handsome animal in point of color ; the 
usual olive-green and yellow being relieved by warmer tints of a very bright chestnut, almost 
amounting to orange. The back is of a brownish hue, while the lower part of the spine and 
the outside of the thighs is of the warm tint already mentioned. The arms and shoulders are 
lighter, and change to dun below. The eye is of a light brown color. 

As will be seen in the engraving, the Rhesus is of a short and sturdy make, and looks more 
like an ordinary quadruped than any of the preceding monkeys. The tail, too, is very short, 
and the callosities are very conspicuous ; more on account of their ruddy color, than their size. 

For cool impudence and audacity, this monkey stands unrivalled among its congeners ; 
surpassing even the previous animal in both these characteristics. 

So excellent and spirited a description has been given by Captain Johnson, of these monkeys 
in their wild state, that I cannot do better than present his account in his own words. 

" At Bindrabun (which name, I imagine, was originally Baunder-bund, literally signifying 
a jungle of monkeys), a town only a few miles distant from the holy city of Muttra, more than 
a hundred gardens are well cultivated with all kinds of fruit, solely for the support of these 
animals, which are kept up and maintained by religious endowments from rich natives. 

"When I was passing through a street in Bindrabun, an old monkey came down to the 
lower branches of a tree we were going iinder, and pulled off my Harcarrah's turban, as he was 
running in front of the palanquin, decamped with it over some houses where it was impossible 
to follow him, and was not again seen. 

"I once resided a month in that town, occupying a large house on the banks of the river, 
belonging to a rich native ; it had no doors, and the monkeys frequently came into the room 
where we were sitting, carrying off bread and other things from the breakfast-table. If we 
were sleeping or sitting in a corner of the room, they would ransack every other part. 

' ' I often feigned sleep, to observe their manoeuvres, and the caution with which they pro- 
ceeded to examine everything. I was much amused to see their sagacity and alertness. They 
would often spring twelve or fifteen feet from the house to another, with one, sometimes two 
young ones under their bellies, carrying with them also, a loaf of bread, some sugar, or other 
article ; and to have seen the care they always took of their young would have been a good 
lesson to many mothers. 

" I was one of a party at Teekarry, in the Bahar district ; our tents were pitched in a large 
mango garden, and our horses were picketed in the same garden at a little distance off. 



THE RHESUS, OR BHUNDER. 47 

When we were at dinner, a Syce came to us, complaining that some of the horses had broken 
loose, in consequence of being frightened by monkeys on the trees ; that, with their chattering 
and breaking off the dry branches in leaping about, the rest would also get loose, if they were 
not driven away. 

"As soon as dinner was over, I went out with my gun to drive them off, and I fired with 
small shot at one of them, which instantly ran down to the lowest branch of the tree, as if he 
were going to fly at me, stopped suddenly, and coolly put its paw to the part wounded, covered 
with blood, and held it out for me to see : I was so much hurt at the time, that it has left an 
impression never to be effaced, and I have never since fired a gun at any of the tribe. 




.RHESUS, OK BHUNDER MONKEY. Xacacus rfiemu. 

"Almost immediately on my return to the party, before I had fully described what had 
passed, a Syce came to inform us that the monkey was dead ; we ordered the Syce to bring it 
to us, but by the time he returned, the other monkeys had carried the dead one off, and none 
of them' could anywhere be seen. 

"I have been informed by a gentleman of great respectability, on whose veracity I can 
rely (as he is not the least given to relating wonderful stories), that in the district of Cooch- 
Bahar, a very large, tract of land is actually considered by the inhabitants to belong to a tribe 
of monkeys inhabiting the hills near it ; and when the natives cut their different kinds of grain, 
they always leave about a tenth part piled in heaps for the monkeys. And as soon as their 
portion is marked out, they come down from the hills in a large body, and carry all that is 
allotted for them to the hills, storing it under and between rocks, in such a manner as to 
prevent vermin from destroying it. 

" On this grain they chiefly live ; and the natives assert, that if they were not to have their 
due proportion, in another year they would not allow a single grain to become ripe, but would 
destroy it when green. In this account, perhaps, superstition has its full influence." 

The natives are nearly as careful of the Rhesus, as of the Hoonuman itself ; and take 
sanguinary revenge on any one who wounds or kills one of these animals. On one occasion, 
two officers, together with their servant, lost their lives in a popular tumult caused by the 



48 THE MAGOT. 

death of a monkey, at which they had thoughtlessly fired. But although the monkeys 
may not be hurt, and are allowed to plunder the crops at their own sweet will, the Hindoo 
cultivators are by no means pleased to see their fields so often devastated, and would 
willingly preserve them from the depredators in spite of their divine, though thievish 
character. 

To drive away the monkeys is almost an impossible act on the part of the native proprietor ; 
for the monkeys consider themselves as quite on an equality with any dark-skinned human 
being, and decline to move an inch. So the only resource is to beg a European to undertake 
the task ; and the monkeys, knowing that a white man is not so scrupxilous as a black one, 
take the hint, and move off. 

One ready-witted gentleman succeeded in keeping the monkeys away from his plantation 
for more than two years, and that without using any violence, or offending the prejudices of 
the natives. 

He had planted a patch of sugar-canes, and had seen his growing crops eaten by elephants, 
swine, deer, monkeys and other animals, without being able to guard the ground from the 
robbers. The heavier animals he excluded by means of a deep trench surrounding the cane- 
patch, and a strong palisading of bamboos just within the ditch. But the monkeys cared 
nothing for moat or wall, and carried off whole canes in their hands, eating them complacently 
as they proceeded to the shelter of the trees. 

For a long time this state of things continued, and the planter was doomed to see the 
ripening canes devoured in his very presence, and the chewed fragments spit in his face by the 
robbers. This last insult proved too great a strain for his patience to endure, and after some 
thought, he hit upon a stratagem which answered even beyond, his expectation. 

He chased a flock of the monkeys into a tree, which he then felled ; and by the help of his 
assistants, captured a number of the young, which he conveyed home. 

He then mixed some treacle with as much tartar-emetic as could be spared from the store, 
and after painting all the young monkeys with this treacherous mixture set them free. Their 
' anxious parents had been watching for their offspring, and carried them away out of danger. 
The liberated captives were then surrounded by the whole troop, who commenced licking the 
treacle from their fur. Before very long, the expected effects made their appearance, and the 
poor monkeys presented a most pitiful appearance. 

The result of the affair was, that the monkeys were so terrified at the internal anguish 
which their depredations had caused them to suffer, that they fled the place, and not a monkey 
was seen in that locality until long afterwards. 

In captivity they are most mischievous, and are always on the watch for an opportunity 
of exhibiting a little malice. 

They tear pieces out of the dress of anybody who may happen to approach near their cage ; 
they snatch at any ornament that strikes their quick eyes ; they grin and chatter with exulta- 
tion when they succeed in their mischief, and scream with rage when they are foiled. They 
prefer to exercise these abilities on human sufferers ; but in default of man, whom they con- 
sider their legitimate game, they are not above playing practical jokes upon each other, and, 
better still, upon the inhabitants of neighboring cages. 

Some are of so jealous a disposition that the sight of another monkey eating a nut will 
throw them into a state of angry irritation, which is not always pacified even by the gift of a 
similar or even a better article. 

The skin of this monkey is very loose about the throat and abdomen, and generally hangs 
in folds. 

The animal which is shown in the accompanying engraving is one of the best known of the 
monkey tribe ; as it is tolerably hardy, it endures the changeable and chilly European climates 
better than most of its race. 

As its name implies, it is a native of Barbary, where it is foimd in great numbers, but has 
also been naturalized upon the rock of Gibraltar. The Gibraltar MAGOTS are frequently men- 
tioned in books of travel, and display great ingenuity in avoiding pursuit and discovering food. 
They keep to the most inaccessible portions of the rock, and scamper away hurriedly on the 



THE MAGOT. 49 

slightest alarm. But with the aid of a moderately good telescope, their movements may be 
watched, and are very amusing. 

When in their native wilds, the Magots live in large flocks, each band seeming to be under 
the orders of some chosen leader. They are very intelligent, and possessed of a large share of 
the cunning that belongs to the monkeys, and which, when aided by their strength of muscle, 
agility of limb, and quickness of sight, keeps them in tolerable security from foes, and enables 
them to make raids upon cultivated lands without suffering the penalty due to their 
crimes. 

The enemies which these creatures hold in greatest dread are the climbing felidse ; and on 
the approach of one of these animals, the colony is instantly in a turmoil. The leaders yell 




- i .-r-v^a-va?^'-'--..- -amr' 

- 

MAGOT, OK BAEBARY APB.-/ntw ecawlatai. 



- 





their cry of alarm and give the signal for retreat, the mothers snatch up their little ones, the 
powerful males range themselves in battle array, and the whole body seeks a place of refuge. 

Open attacks are little feared by the Magots, as their combined forces are sufficiently 
powerful to repel almost any enemy. But at night, when they are quietly sleeping, the crafty 
foe comes stealing along, and climbing up the trees or rocks on which the Magots are sitting 
asleep, strikes down its unsuspecting prey. 

When young, the Magot is tolerably gentle ; and as it is sufficiently intelligent to learn 
many tricks, it is frequently brought to Europe, and its accomplishments exhibited before the 
public. But this state of comparative domesticity is only for a time, and as the bodily frame 
becomes more developed, so does the Magot lose its gentle nature, and put on a sullen and 
fierce deportment. Captivity seems to exert a terribly depressing influence over the animal 
as soon as it becomes fitted by nature for its wild independence ; and as the stimulus to the 
mind is removed by the restrictions under which the animal is placed, the mind loses its 
spring, and the creature is deserted by the apt intelligence that characterizes its wild state, and 
for which it has no need in its hopeless thraldrom. 

This monkey is not very widely spread, for with the exception of the Rock of Gibraltar, 
it seems to be confined to Northern Africa. Some authors state that it is found in India, 
China, and even the entire African continent, but it seems clear that there has been some 



50 THE MAGOT. 

confusion of species. Indeed, the Magot has caused some little labor in placing it in its right 
position. 

It is not a very large animal, as the full-grown males only measure aboiit a yard in length, 
and the females are rather smaller. The general size of the Magot is about that of an ordinary 
bull-terrier dog. 

The color of the fur is tolerably uniform, differing chiefly in depth of shade, and is of 
a clear grayish color. The head is strong and heavy, the eyes deeply set under the over- 
hanging brows, the neck is short and powerful, the teeth are fully developed and sharp, the 
finger-nails are sufficiently strong to inflict a severe wound ; so that the entire aspect of an 
adult male Magot is that of a fierce and dangerous animal. 

Its walk on level ground is rather awkward, this animal making use of feet and hands for 
that purpose ; but it climbs with ease and agility up trees or rocks, and in a domesticated 
state is fond of running up and down ropes, and swinging itself about its cage. 

In captivity it will eat almost any kind of food, but in its wild state it prefers fruit, leaves 
and other vegetable fare, varying its diet by sundry insects which it captures. When enraged 
it utters a fierce harsh yell, which, when enhanced by the force of numbers, the fury -flashing 
eyes and warlike gestures, often suffices to intimidate a foe from venturing upon an attack. 
But when it is not under the influence of angry feelings, its voice is comparatively mild and 
gentle, being a soft and almost caressing chatter. 

There is a strange grimace in which this animal habitually indulges on almost every emo- 
tion, whether it be caused by pleasure, anger, or disappointment. The cheeks are sucked in, 
the lips are contracted over the gums, and the teeth are freely exhibited. 

Although it is popularly termed the Barbary Ape, the Magot is not a true ape, being 
organized after a very different fashion from the veritable Simians. Belonging to the same 
genus as the Munga and Rhesus, it is almost entirely destitute of the tail which is so conspic- 
uous an adornment of these monkeys. In the Magot the tail is reduced to a mere projection, 
sufficient to mark the spot where that member would have been placed, but not prominent 
enough to be ranked among real tails. Owing to this formation, the Magot, although one 01 
the Macaques, was placed among the apes by earlier naturalists. \ 

When at liberty in its native lands, the Magot has a great predilection for hunting scor- 
pions, insects, and similar creatures, and devouring them on the spot. It displays peculiar 
aptitude for discovering and pouncing upon its prey. 

Scorpions and beetles are found in profusion under stones, logs, or in similar sheltering 
places, and are there secure from any ordinary foe. But the quick senses of the Magot detect 
them in their concealment, and the ready hands sweep away the shelter and make the insect 
prisoner before it recovers the sudden surprise of its violated roof. On the rock of Gibraltar 
these monkeys are constantly engaged in turning over the loose stones, and by their perpetual 
industry have, in course of years, quite altered the surface of the earth, affording, it may be, 
grounds for sore perplexity in the minds of future geologists. 

To any ordinary animal the scorpion would be rather a dangerous prey, and would prob- 
ably avenge its death most fully by a stroke of its torture-giving and swiftly -lashing tail. The 
Magot, however, has hands which can overmatch even the scorpion's tail, and no sooner is one 
of these baneful creatures brought to light, than the monkey pounces upon it, twitches off the 
poison-joints of the tail, and then, grasping the disarmed scorpion, eats it as composedly as if 
it were a carrot. 

In default of such large insects as have been mentioned, the Magot turns its attention to 
smaller deer, and entering into a mutual engagement with a friend of its own race, they recip- 
rocally exterminate the parasitic insects with which monkeys generally swarm. 

Small though the quarry may be, the Magot displays much excitement in the chase, and 
after running down its prey successfully, holds the captured insect to its eyes, contemplates it 
with a grimace of satisfaction, and then daintily eats it. When in captivity it continues the 
same pursuits, and may often be seen nestling close to a friendly cat or dog, busily engaged in 
a minute investigation of its fur, and ever and anon giving vent to a little complacent chuckle 
which proclaims a successful chase. Sometimes the Magot contracts a strong friendship for 



THE BLACK MACAQUE. 



51 



its master, and being desirous to render every service in its power, jumps on his shoulder, and 
examines his head with much care, though, we may hope, with little ultimate satisfaction. 

It often happens that the domesticated Magot takes a fancy for some other animals that 
may chance to come in its way, especially if they are young and comparatively helpless. It 
then acts as a voluntary nurse, and performs sundry kind offices for its charge, carrying them 
about with it, and, like nurses in general, becomes horribly jealous if its authority be in the 
least infringed. 

Its attitudes are rather singular. When walking or running, it goes chiefly on all-fours, 
but when it wishes to rest, it sits in a manner very similar to the corresponding attitude in 
man ; when sleeping it generally lies extended at length, reclining on one .side, or gathered up 
in a seated position, with its head drooping between its hind legs. 




BLACK MACAQUE. Cynocephalus niger. 

In the absence of a tail, and in general form, the BLACK MACAQUE bears some resemblance 
to the Magot, but in color and arrangement of hair it is entirely distinct from that animal. 

The tint of the fur is as deep a black as that of the Budeng, or Black Colobus, which has 
been mentioned before. Both these monkeys are possessed of crests which give a peculiar 
character to the whole aspect. That of the Black Colobus, however, is reverted forward, and 
curves to a point over the forehead, while that of the animal before us rises from the head and 
bends backward over the neck in a manner not Tinlike that of the cockatoo. 

Like the Magot, the Black Macaque has been called an ape by some writers, and a baboon 
by others, on account of the apology for a tail with which its hinder quarters are terminated, 
but not decorated. It is an inhabitant of the Phillippines and the neighboring countries. 

THERE are few races of animals which have not been impressed by their human superiors 
into their service. Although the bodily powers of man are often more limited than those of 
the inferior animals, yet the lofty human intellect can more than compensate for corporeal 
deficiencies by making use of these facilities which are possessed by the subservient creation. 

Thus the Indian hunters take advantage of the active and stealthy chetah, to capture the 
prey which is too vigilant of sight and too active of foot to be approached by man. 



52 



THE PIG -TAILED MACAQUE. 



In the bird -kingdom, the falcons take the place of the chetah, and chase through 'the 
realms of air those creatures whose wings would carry them beyond the grasp of man or the 
range of any weapon which he could devise. 

Again, the otter and the cormorant are both employed for the capture of fish in their 
native element, although the one is a quadruped and the other a bird. 

The ponderous strength of the elephant, and the drought-enduring powers of the camel, 
are equally utilized by man ; and indeed, throughout the whole creation, whether of animate 
or inanimate bodies, there is perhaps no one object tliat cannot, either directly or indirectly, 
be converted to some human use. 

Some there are, which are more directly profitable than others, among which may be 
enumerated the long list of domesticated animals which are familiar to us from childhood. 




PIG- TAILED MACAQUE. Macacus nemestrinus. 

Many of these animals, such as the horse and the dog, are universally employed in all parts of 
the world, while others, such as the camel, are of no service except in the peculiar climate and 
among the peculiar circumstances for which they were created. 

Among these latter animals is the monkey which is depicted in the engraving. This is 
the PIG -TAILED MACAQUE, sometimes called the BRUH. 

An inhabitant of Sumatra and neighboring parts, the Bruh is possessed of the activity which 
distinguishes the monkey tribes, and withal is endowed.with a larger share of intelligence than 
usual, even with the quadrumanous animals. The inhabitants of Sumatra are in the habit of 
capturing the Pig-tailed Macaque when young, and training it to climb the lofty cocoa-nut 
palms for the purpose of gathering the fruit. So clever are the monkeys, and so ingenious are 
the teachers, that the young scholars are instructed to select the matured nuts only, leaving 
the others to ripen on the tree. On this account, the Bruh has been called by a name which 
signifies the "fruit-gatherer." 

In captivity it is generally- an amusing animal, displaying to the full those traits of 
curiosity, impertinence, petty malice, and quaint humor, for which the monkeys are celebrated, 
enhanced by a spice of something that is not very far removed from wit. 

I have often remarked the exceeding ingenuity of this animal in planning an attack on 
some unsuspecting person, its patience in biding its time, and its prompt rapidity of execution. 



THE PIG-TAILED MACAQUE. 53 

On one occasion, a young lady happened to pass near a cage where a pair of these animals 
were confined, and their attention was immediately drawn to some beautiful white feathers 
which she bore on her hat. Now, the monkeys were far too wise to betray the least emotion, 
and not even by a look did they show that they had even observed the objects on which their 
very hearts were fixed. But any one who knew the ways of monkeys could divine, by the 
sudden sparkle of the eye, that there was mischief brewing. 

For some time, all went on as usual. The two monkeys held out their paws for nuts, 
cracked them, ate the sound kernels, and flung the bad nuts at the donors, just as if they 
had nothing on their minds, and had no soul above nuts. Interested by the amusing pranks 
which the creatures were playing, the owner of the feathers incautiously approached within 
reach of the cage. 

Almost too quickly for the eye to follow, one of the Bruhs shot down the bars, and with 
a single adroit movement, whipped out one of the white feathers and leaped to the back of 
the cage. 

Seating himself on the ground, he gravely inspected his prize, turning it over in every 
direction, smelling it critically, and biting off little strips of the feather, in order to ascertain 
the flavor. Having satisfied himself on these points, he stuck the feather behind one of his 
ears, so that it drooped over his head in ludicrous imitation of the manner in which it had 
been fastened into the hat. Thus accoutred, he paraded about the floor of the cage with 
stately pride. 

His companion now thought himself entitled to some share in the booty, and, creeping up 
stealthily from behind, made a sudden spring at the feather. It was quite useless, for the 
original thief was on the alert, and, putting the feather in his mouth, climbed up a suspended 
rope with wonderful agility ; and in order to guard against an attack from below, he coiled up 
the rope with his hinder feet as fast as he ascended, thus cutting off all communication. When 
he reached the ceiling, he hitched his fingers and toes through the staple to which the rope 
was attached, and thus remained for awhile in perfect security. 

However, even a monkey's limbs will not maintain their hold for ever, and the Bruh was 
forced to descend. His companion was waiting for him on the floor, and, when he reached 
the ground, gave chase, the two monkeys leaping about the cage, climbing the bars, and 
swinging from the ropes in the most agile manner. 

At last they seemed to be tired of the game, and, sitting on one of the bars, amicably set 
to work at the feather, picking out each vane separately, nibbling it, and spurting the frag- 
ments on the floor. 

Just at this juncture the keeper made his appearance at the door, and the very gleam of 
his cap was a signal for the delinquents to dive into the furthermost corner of their cage, out of 
reach of stick or whip. The feather was ultimately restored to its rightful owner, but as its 
shaft had been bitten nearly through, had lost many of its snowy vanes, and hung limp and 
flaccid, as if it had been mangled, there was but slight probability of its ever renewing its 
position upon hat or bonnet. 

As to the depredators, they were incorrigible. Hardly had the excitement caused by 
the feather-robbery begun to subside, when a fresh storm of laughter and exclamations 
arose. 

On my returning to the cage, the same monkey was seen perched on his bar examining 
leisurely a new prize in the shape of a bracelet, which he had snatched from the hand of a 
lady who was offering some biscuit. It was one of those bracelets that are composed of large 
beads, threaded on elastic cord, and the whole attention of the thief was absorbed in the 
amusement caused by drawing the bracelet to its full length, and letting it snap. The clatter 
of the beads seemed to amuse the monkey mightily, and he was so entirely charmed with this 
novel recreation, that he did not even see the approaching keeper. At the sound of his voice, 
however, down went beads, away went monkey, and the bracelet was soon in possession of its 
owner. 

It was a very fortunate circumstance for the monkey that he was deprived of his prize. 
He would most certainly have pulled the bracelet until the string broke, anrl the beads fell on 



54 



THE WANDER 00. 



the floor ; and in that case, he would inevitably have swallowed every bead that had not been 
seized and eaten by his companion. 

The floor of the cage was strewed with fragmentary trophies of the powers of these most 
mischievous creatures. There were scraps of ribbon, evidently torn from feminine wrists ; 
there were odd fingers and thumbs of gloves, of every material and make ; there were patches 
of various laces and light textures, which had once formed part of summer dresses ; even to 
little pieces of slight walking-sticks, which had been seized and broken by the monkey in 
excusable avenging of insults offered by their bearers ; there were representative fragments 
of man, woman, and child, lying tossed about in admirable confusion. 

I never knew so excellent a show of 
trophies, excepting in one instance, where 
several monkeys were confined in the same 
cage, and even in that case, I fancy that the 
superiority was simply occasioned by the less 
frequency with which the cage was swept. It 
is quite a common sight to see the skeleton 
of a parasol or two lying helplessly on the 
floor, or hung derisively from some bar or 
hook that is out of reach of any hand but 
that of the monkey. 

Tassels of all kinds fall easy victims to 
the monkey's quick paw, and, after being 
well gnawed, are thrown contemptuously on 
the ground. The hard knob that is usually 
found in the upper part of a tassel irritates 
the monkey exceedingly. He thinks that he 
has found a nut concealed in the silken 
threads, and expends much time and labor 
in trying to crack it. The fine fibres of the 
silk annoy him wonderfully, and the air of 
angry vexation with which he spits out the 
obnoxious threads is highly amusing. 

The fur of the Pig-tailed Macaque is 
tolerably uniform in its hue. The color of 
the greater part of the fur is a light fawn ; 
wANDERoo.-5an* veto-. a dark brown tint is washed over the top of 

the head and along the back, spreading 

partly over the sides, and coloring the upper surface of the tail. The under parts of the 
body and tail, together with the cheeks, are of a lighter tint. 

The last of the Macaques which we shall notice in this work is the monkey which is well 
known under the name of WANDEEOO, or OTTANDEROO, as it is sometimes written. 

Although the Wanderoo is by our best authorities considered to be a member of the Ma- 
caques, and is therefore placed among them in this work, some naturalists are more inclined 
to give it a place at the head of the Baboons, and assert that it forms the link between them 
and the Macaques. 

To this decision they are led by the general physiognomy of this monkey, and by the fact 
that the extremity of the tail is furnished with a brush. Still, the nrnzzle is not of that brutal 
character which is so repulsively exhibited in" the baboons, and the nostrils are situated in 
their ordinary position, instead of being pierced at the extremity of the muzzle. 

The Indian name of this animal is "Mlbandar," or more properly " Neel-bhunder," the 
word being a composite one, and signifying a black Bhunder. 

This very singular animal is a native of the East Indies, and is found commonly enough in 
Ceylon. The heavy mass of hair that surmounts the head and envelops the entire face, gives 
it a rather dignified aspect, reminding the observer of the huge peruke under whose learned 




BABOONS, OR DOG-HEADED MONKEYS. 55 

shade the great legal chiefs consider judgment. The hair on the top of the head is black, but 
the great beard that rolls down the face and beneath the chin is of a gray tint, as if blanched 
by the burden of many years. In some instances this beard is almost entirely white, and then 
the Wanderoo looks very venerable indeed. 

It is not a very mischievous animal in its wild state, and withdraws itself from the habi- 
tations of men. When in captivity it is of a tetchy and capricious disposition, sometimes 
becoming mild in its demeanor, and presently, without the least apparent motive, bursting 
into a fit of passion, and indulging in all kinds of malicious tricks. But, as is the case with 
so many of the monkey tribe, as the creature becomes older, it loses the gentle part of its 
nature, and develops the brutality alone. Thus, a Wanderoo may be quiet, docile, and even 
affectionate at a year old, and appear quite a model of monkey nature; at two years of age the 
same animal will be full of lively caprice, at times playful, and at times cross and savage ; 
while at full age, the creature will be surly, inert, savage, and revengeful. 

From the form of the tail, which is of a moderate length, and decorated with a hairy tuft 
at its extremity, the Wanderoo is also known by the name of the Lion-tailed Baboon. 

The greater part of the fur of this animal is of a fine black, but the color assumes a lighter 
hue on the breast and abdomen. The callosities on the hinder quarters are of a light pink. 

It is not a very large animal, being rather less than three feet from the nose to the tip of 
the tail. 

The name Silenus is appropriate enough, for the white beard and whiskers bear some 
resemblance to those facial ornaments attributed to the aged companion of the youthful 
Bacchus. And the specific title of " Veter," signifying "old," is well earned by the veteran 
aspect of the animal. The eye is a bright brown, and looks knowingly out of the hairy mass, 
from which it peers inquisitively at the bystanders. 

Probably on account of the sapient mien, for which it is indebted to the mass of circum- 
fluous locks, the Wanderoo is considered by the inhabitants to be a personage of great distinc- 
tion among its own people. All other monkeys of the same land are said to pay the most pro- 
found reverence to their bearded chief, and, in his presence, to humble themselves as subjects 
before an emperor. i 

When feeding, the Wanderoo has a discreet custom of filling its cheek pouches before it 
begins to eat, thus laying up a provision against future emergencies before it has begun to 
satisfy the actual present wants of hunger. This habit presents a curious analogy with the 
peculiar stomach of the ruminating animals, when in the act of eating ; a portion of the food 
passes into a series of pockets or pouches, where it is retained until the creature is possessed 
of time and leisure for re-mastication. 

In its earlier youth, the Wanderoo is susceptible of education, and can be trained to per- 
form many ingenious tricks, preferring those of a grave and sedate cast to the mercurial and 
erratic accomplishments displayed by the generality of learned monkeys. 



BABOONS, OR DOG-HEADED MONKEYS. 

A WELL-MAKKED group of animals now comes before us, popularly known by the name of 
BABOOXS. In more learned language they are entitled " Cynocephali," or Dog-headed animals, 
on account of the formation of the head and jaws, which much resemble those of the dog tribe. 

One distinguishing characteristic of these creatures is that the nostrils are situated at the 
extremity of 'the muzzle, instead of lying nearly flat upon its base, and just under the eyes, as 
in the apes, and other quadrumanous animals. The muzzle, too, is peculiar in its form, being, 
as it were, cut off abruptly, leaving a round and flattened extremity, which is well shown in 
the engraving of the Gelada, on p. 57. This extreme projection is not so conspicuous in the 
young baboon as when it attains a more mature age, and, indeed, is sometimes so little devel- 
oped, that the young baboons have been taken for adult Macaques. 

Of all the Quadrumana, the baboons are the most morose in temper, the fiercest in charac- 
ter, and the most repellent in manners. 



56 THE GELADA. 

So odiously disgusting are the habits in which many of these animals continually indulge, 
that, as a general rule, their presence is offensive in the extreme, and excepting for purposes 
of scientific investigation, it is better to shun the cage that holds any specimen of these 
creatures. 

There are now and then exceptional cases, but they are few and far between, and it is 
hardly possible to watch an adult baboon for many minutes without incurring a risk of some 
shock to the nerves. Even their exceeding cunning, and the crafty wiles which are hatched 
in their fertile brains, cannot atone for their habitual offences against decorum. 




BABOONS. 



It is rather curious that in the preceding genera, such as the Cercopitheci, and the Cerco- 
cebi, the chief characteristic from which the genus derives its rather lengthy title is founded 
upon the tail ; while in the baboons, the systematic naturalists leaped at one bound to the 
opposite extremity of the body, and took up their stand upon the head. 

For the introduction to science of the GELADA, one of the most singular of these animals, we 
are indebted to Dr. Ruppell, who has gained so well-earned a name in the annals of natural science. 

Together with all the Cynocephali, the Gelada is a native of Africa, Abyssinia being the 
country from which our specimens have been derived. Dr. Euppell, in his work on the 
"Fauna of Abyssinia," places this animal among the Macaques. The adult animal exhibits 
in perfection the curious mass of hair that is seen to cover the neck and shoulders of the 
monkeys of this group, and sits magnificently placid under the shade of its capillary mantle. 

The young Gelada is almost totally devoid of this heavy mane, if it can be so called, and 
only by slight indications gives promise of the future development. 

The general color of this animal is a brown tint of varying intensity. The body and mane 
are of a dark brown, fading into a much lighter hue on the top of the head and sides of the 



THE QELADA. 



57 



face. The limbs partake of the character of the body, with the exception of the fore-legs, and 
paws, and the hinder feet, on which the fur is nearly black. 

The baboons are more quadrupedal in their gait than any of the animals hitherto described, 
their formation being well adapted to such a style of progression. Even in walking some 
three or four steps, they seldom move otherwise than on all-fours, and when at liberty in their 
native haunts, are almost invariably seen either to walk like a dog, or to sit in the usual 




GELADA. Cynocephalui gelatin. 

monkey fashion, discarding all attempts to imitate the human attitude. Sometimes they will 
stand in a tolerably erect posture for a few moments if they are desirous of looking at a distant 
object, or of playing some of their fantastic pranks ; but even in that case, they usually aid 
themselves by resting a paw on any convenient support. 

Their paces are generally of two kinds, a walk when they are at leisure and uninterrupted 
in their proceedings, and a gallop when they are alarmed, or otherwise hurried. The walk is 
remarkable for its jaunty impertinence, and must be seen before it can be properly appreciated. 
There is an easy, undulating swagger of the whole person, and a pretentious carriage of the 
tail, that, aided by the quick cunning blink of the little deep-set eyes, imparts an indescribable 
air of effrontery to the animal. This characteristic action is admirably hit off by the artist 
in the figures depicted in the engraving on page 56. Their pace, when hurried, is a gallop, 
somewhat resembling that of a dog. 



58 THE CHACMA. 

All the baboons are excellent climbers of trees, as well as accomplished cragsmen, and are 
seldom found very far from trees or rocks. As they band together in great numbers, they are 
nearly invincible in their own domains, whether of forest or cliff, bidding defiance to almost 
every enemy but man. 

Although more ready to shun an enemy than to attack, and always preserving the better 
part of valor, they are terrible foes when they are brought to bay, and turn upon their enemies 
with the furious energy of despair. Active to a degree, and furnished with powerful limbs, 
they would be no despicable antagonists were their means of attack limited to hands and feet 
alone ; but when their long sharp teeth and massive jaws are thrown into the scale, it will be^ 
seen that hardly the leopard itself is a more formidable animal. 




. -. 
' 

. >, 1/7' 




., f . 
/ - 



CHACMA. Cynocep/talus parcariui. 

The teeth are formed in a manner which peculiarly fits them for the mode of attack that 
is employed by all the baboons. The great canine teeth are long and pointed at their tips, 
while their inner edge is sharp as that of a knife, and can cut with more effect than many a 
steel weapon. 

Knowing well the power of the terrible armature with which he is gifted, the enraged 
baboon leaps upon his foe, and drawing it towards him with his hands and feet, fixes his teeth 
in its throat until the sharp fangs meet together. He then violently pushes the miserable 
aggressor from him, so that the keen-edged teeth cut their way through the flesh, and inflict 
a wound that is often immediately fatal. 

In this manner they repel the attacks of dogs ; and woe be to the inexperienced hound 
who is foolish enough to venture its person within grasp of the baboon's feet or hands. Many 
a time have these reckless animals paid for their audacity by their life. The whole affair is 
the work of only a few seconds. The baboon is scampering away in hot haste, and the hound 
following at full speed. Suddenly the fugitive casts a quick glance behind him, and seeing 
that he has only one antagonist close upon him, wheels round, springs on the dog before it 
can check itself, and in an instant flings the dying hound on the earth, the blood pouring in 
torrents from its mangled throat. 



OF THE Dog-headed baboons, the species which is most celebrated for such feats of prowess 
is the well-known animal called the CHACMA, or URSINE BABOON, the latter title being given 



THE CHACMA. 59 

to it on account of the slighty bear-like aspect of the head and neck. The word Chacma is a 
corrupted, or rather a contracted form of the Hottentot name T'chakamma. The Zulu name 
for this baboon is Imfena, a much more euphonious word, without that odious click, so impos- 
sible of achievement by ordinary vocal organs. In the same dialect, one which is in almost 
every case remarkable for the rich softness of its intonation, the word "Inkau," is the syno- 
nym for a monkey. 

This animal, when it has attained its full age, equals in size a large mastiff, or an ordinary 
sized wolf ; while, in bodily strength and prowess, it is a match for any two dogs that can be 
brought to attack it. 

Curiously enough, although it is so ruthless an antagonist, being the certain slayer of any 
hound that may come to close quarters, there is no animal which is so eagerly hunted by the 
South African hounds. Experience seems in this case to have lost its proverbially instructive 
powers ; and the cruel death of many comrades by the trenchant fangs of the Chacma, has no 
effect in deterring the ardent houM from attacking the first baboon that comes in its way. 

The owners of the hounds are more careful in this matter than are the dogs themselves, 
and evince more caution in setting their dogs on the track of a baboon than on the "spoor" of 
a leopard, or even of the regal lion himself. 

The Chacma is a most accomplished robber, executing his burglaries openly whenever he 
knows that he will meet with no formidable opposition, and having recourse to silent craft 
when there are dogs to watch for trespassers, and men with guns to shoot them. 

With such consummate art do these animals plan, and with such admirable skill do they 
carry out their raids, that even the watchful band of dogs is comparatively useless ; and the 
cunning robbers actually slip past the vigilant sentries without the stirring of a grass blade, 
or the rustling of a dried twig, to give notice to the open ears of the wakeful but beguiled 
sentries. 

In such a case, the mode to which they resort is clever in the extreme. 

They know full well, that if a number of their body were to enter the forbidden domain, 
they could hardly elude the observation or escape the hearing of dogs and men ; so they commit 
the delicate task of entering the enemy's domains to one or two old experienced baboons. 
These take the lead, and gliding softly past the sentry dogs, find admission by some crevice, 
or by the simpler mode of climbing over the fence. 

Meanwhile, the rest of the band array themselves in a long line, leading from the scene of 
operations to some spot where they will be out of danger from pursuit. 

All being ready, the venturous leaders begin to pluck the fruit, or to bite off the stalks, 
as the case may be, and quietly hand the booty to. the comrade who is nearest to them. He 
passes the fruit to a third, who again hands it to a fourth ; and thus the spoil is silently con- 
veyed to a distance, in a manner similar to that which is employed in handing water-buckets 
to a fire-engine. When a sufficient amount of plunder has been secured, the invading party 
quietly make their retreat, and revel in security on their ill-gotten goods. 

Although on service for the general weal, each individual baboon is not unmindful of his 
personal interest ; and while he hands the booty to his next neighbor, deftly slips a portion 
into his pouches, much on the same principle that an accomplished epicure, while busily carv- 
ing for the assembled guests, never loses sight of his own particular predilection, and when he 
has exhausted the contents of the dish, quietly assumes the portion which he had laid aside. 

When young, the Chacma is docile enough, and by its curious tricks affords much amuse- 
ment to its master and those around it. Not only for amusement, however, is this animal 
detained in captivity, but its delicate natural instincts are sometimes enlisted in the service of 
its master. It displays great ability in discovering the various roots and tubers on which it 
feeds, and which can also be used as food for man ; and in digging like Caliban, with his long 
nails, pignuts. 

A more important service is often rendered by this animal than even the procuration of 
food ; and that is, the hunting for, and almost unfailing discovery of water. 

In the desert life, water loses its character of a luxury, and becomes a dread necessity ; 
its partial deficiency giving birth to fearful sufferings, while its total deprivation, even for 



60 



THE CHACMA. 



a day or two, causes inevitable death. The fiery sun of the tropical regions, and the arid, 
scorching atmosphere, absorb every particle of moisture from the body, and cause a constant 
desire to supply the unwonted waste with fresh material, exactly where such a supply is least 
attainable. 

Among these climates, the want of a proper supply of water is soon felt, the longing for 
the cool element becomes a raging madness ; the scorched and hardened lips refuse their office, 
and the tongue rattles uselessly in the mouth, as if both tongue and palate were cut out of 
dried wood. 

The value of any means by which such sufferings can be alleviated is incalculable ; and the 
animal of which we are speaking is possessed of this priceless faculty. 

When the water begins to run short, and the known fountains have failed, as is too often 
the sad hap of these desert wells, fortunate is the man who owns a tame Chacma, or "Bavian," 

as it is called. The animal is first deprived 
of water for a whole day, until it is furious 
with thirst, which is increased by giving 
it salt provisions, or putting salt into its 
mouth. This apparent cruelty is, how- 
ever, an act of true mercy, as on the Chac- 
ma may depend the existence of itself and 
the whole party. 

A long rope is now tied to the ba- 
boon's collar, and it is suffered to run 
about wherever it chooses, the rope being 
merely used as a means to prevent the 
animal from getting out of sight. The 
baboon now assumes the leadership of the 
band, and becomes the most important 
personage of the party. 

First it runs forward a little, then 
stops ; gets on its hind feet, and sniffs up 
the air, especially taking notice of the 
wind and its direction. It will then, per- 
haps, change the direction of its course ; 
and after running for some distance take 
another observation. Presently it will 
spy out a blade of grass, or similar object, 
pluck it up, turn it on all sides, smell it, 
and then go forward again. And thus the 
animal proceeds until it leads the party to water ; guided by some mysterious instinct which 
appears to be totally independent of reasoning, and which loses its powers in proportion as 
reason gains dominion. 

The curious employment of the animal for the discovery of water, is mentioned by Captain 
Drayson, R.A., in his interesting work, " Sporting Scenes among the Kaffirs of South Africa." 
In the course of the same work he gives many life-like illustrations of baboon habits, whether 
wild or tame. 

Of the daily life of the baboons, the following affords a graphic and amusing description. 
" During the shooting trip with the Boers, I awoke before daybreak, and as I felt very cold 
and not inclined to sleep, I got up, and taking my gun, walked to a little ravine, out of which 
a clear, murmuring stream flashed in the moonlight, and ran close past our outspan. A little 
distance up this kloof, the fog was dense and thick ; the blue and pink streaks of the morning 
light were beginning to illuminate the peaks of the Draakensberg, but all immediately around 
us still acknowledged the supremacy of the pale moonlight. I wanted to see the sun rise in 
this lonely region, and watch the changing effects which its arrival would produce on the 
mountains and plains around. 




BLACK MACAQUE. (See also cut on page 51.) 



THE CHACMA. 61 

"Suddenly I heard a hoarse cough, and on turning, saw indistinctly in the fog a queer 
little old man standing near, and looking at me. I instinctively cocked my gun, as the idea of 
bushmen and poisoned arrows flashed across my mind. The old man instantly dropped on his 
hands ; giving another hoarse cough, that evidently told a tale of consumptive lungs ; he 
snatched up something beside him, which seemed to leap on his shoulders, and then he scam- 
pered off up the ravine on all-fours. Before half this performance was completed, I had dis- 
covered my mistake ; the little old man turned into an ursine baboon with an infant ditto, who 
had come down the kloof to drink. The 'old man's' cough was answered by a dozen others, 
at present hidden in the fogs ; soon, however, 

'"Up rose the sun, the mists were curl'd 
Back from the solitary world 
Which lay around,'" 

and I obtained a view of the range of mountains gilded by the morning sun. 

"A large party of the old gentleman's family were sitting up the ravine, and were evi- 
dently holding a debate as to the cause of my intrusion. I watched them through my glass, 
and was much amused at their grotesque and almost human movements. Some of the old 
ladies had their olive branches in their laps, and appeared to be ' doing their hair,' while a 
patriarchal old fellow paced backwards and forwards with a fussy sort of look ; he was evi- 
dently on sentry, and seemed to think himself of no small importance. 

" This estimate of his dignity did not appear to be universally acknowledged ; as two or 
three young baboons sat close behind him watching his proceedings ; sometimes with the most 
grotesque movements and expressions they would stand directly in his path, and hobble away 
only at the last moment. One daring youngster followed close on the heels of the patriarch 
during the whole length of his beat, and gave a sharp tug at his tail as he was about to turn. 
The old fellow seemed to treat it with the greatest indifference, scarcely turning round at the 
insult. Master Impudence was about repeating the performance, when the pater, showing 
that he was not such a fool as he looked, suddenly sprang round, and catching the young one 
before he could escape, gave him two or three such cuffs, that I could hear the screams that 
resulted therefrom. The venerable gentleman then chucked the delinquent over his shoulder, 
and continued his promenade with the greatest coolness : this old baboon was evidently 
acquainted with the practical details of Solomon's proverb. 

"A crowd gathered round the naughty child, who, child-like, seeing commiseration, 
shrieked all the louder. I even fancied I could see the angry glances of the mamma, as she 
took her dear little pet in her arms and removed it from a repetition of such brutal treat- 
ment." 

One of these animals, personally known to Captain Drayson, was a great practical jester, 
and was fond of terrifying the Kaffir women by rushing at them open mouthed, catching them 
by their ankles, and mowing at them with extravagant grimaces, as if he meant to eat them 
up bodily. Sometimes a dog would be set at him while thus employed, and change the aspect 
of affairs in a moment. The pursuer then became the pursued, and quitting his prey, made 
for the nearest tree, up which he scuttled, and settled himself among the branches just so high 
as to be out of reach of the dog's jaws, and just so low as to give hopes of success by a higher 
than ordinary leap. There he would sit as if there were no such being in the world as a dog, 
and giving himself up to the contemplation of the surrounding scenery, or the aspect of the 
sky, would leisurely pursue his train of thought until the dog was tired and went away. 

His keenness of sight was remarkable, his eyes possessing powers of distant vision that 
rivalled the telescope. 

In order to prove the powers of the creature's sight, his master made several experiments, 
by going to so great a distance that the baboon perched on its pole was barely perceptible to 
the naked eye, and from thence producing sundry distortions of countenance, and strange 
attitudes of body. By looking through a telescope, he was able to see that the animal was 
not only capable of discerning and imitating his gestures, )?ut even the very changes of counte- 



62 THE CHACMA. 

nance ; so that a grimace on the part of the gallant owner was immediately reproduced, or 
rather, represented by a grin on the part of the baboon. 

There is a well-known story of a monkey who literally "plucked a crow" which had been 
in the habit of stealing his food, and curiously enough, the scene was re-enacted by this very 
animal, with the exception of one or two slight differences. 

He was chained to the pole because he was rather too mischievous to be left entirely at 
liberty. He had been already detected in eating a box of wafers, studying practically the 
interior construction of a watch, and drinking a bottle of ink in this last exploit displaying 
similar tastes with the siamang described in this volume. His age was only two years at the 
time when the account of his performances was written. 

Captain Drayson has very kindly f urnished me with the following original anecdotes of 
this tame Chacma : 

"A young baboon which had been reared by his owner from infancy resided for some 
months near my tent, and often served to while away an idle hour. 

"Sometimes a stout earthen pot, which had just been emptied of its contents of good 
English jam, was submitted to the mercy of 'Jacob,' as this animal was named. The neck of 
the pot would not admit even a hand to be inserted, and it was most amusing to watch the 
manoeuvres which were practised to procure some of the remnants of the sweets. If a stick 
were near, the jam was scooped out ; but if not, the pot was elevated high above Jacob's head, 
and then flung to the ground with great force. 

"The earthen pot was stout and strong; but upon one occasion, by good luck, the pot 
struck a stone, and was fractured. Great was the delight of Jacob, but not unmixed with 
suspicion ; for he appeared to think that the bystanders had been merely waiting to take 
advantage of his skill in projectiles, and that they would now purloin his fragments. Cram- 
ming his pouches full of bits of the jam-pot, he then seized the largest remaining piece and 
retreated to the top of his pole to enjoy the licking. 

"He was always fully occupied for some hours after these feats ; for the jam adhered to 
1 his body, and he had to contort himself to lick off all the particles. 

" There is almost as much expression in the tail of a baboon, as there is in his face. The 
alteration of the curve in which it is usually carried, or the lowering of this appendage, 
having a special meaning, according to the character of the individual. 

"The baboon is perfectly aware of the dangerous character of the snake, and when he 
approaches a clump of bushes for the purpose of feasting upon the young shoots or ripe berries, 
he invariably peeps suspiciously amongst the underwood in search of his dreaded foe. 

"In consequence of Jacob's detestation of the serpent race, a cruel trick was frequently 
played upon him, but which was one that gave great amusement. This was to frighten him 
with a dead snake. 

"Serpents of every description were here very common; and sometimes when one had 
been killed, it was laid across a stick and taken towards Jacob. The instant his persecutor 
came in sight, the snake was sure to be seen; Jacob would then wrap himself up in his 
blanket and turn over an old box, under which he would hide. This retreat soon failed 
him, as there was a small knot-hole in the box, through which the tail of the snake was 
insinuated. 

"Finding that this artifice had failed, he would upset the box, and spring away ; a little 
dodging would then take place, and Jacob would be hemmed in so that the snake was brought 
close to him. Then, indeed, things required a desperate remedy, and with great presence of 
mind, he would seize the tail invariably the tail of the snake, and would fling the reptile to 
a distance. He would then at once rush towards his persecutor, and sit down beside him, as 
though to intimate that he wished to be friends. 

"There was only one method from which there was no escape ; this was to tie the snake 
loosely around the upper part of Jacob's chain, and then hold it so that a little shaking caused 
the reptile to slide towards him. 

"After several jumps and grimaces, he would appear to be convinced that escape was use- 
less, and would then resign himself complacently to his fate. 



THE BABOON. 63 

"Lying down on his side as though perfectly prepared for the worst, he would remain 
as though dead. But as soon as the snake was taken away, the mercurial temperament 
of the creature instantly showed itself ; for he would then jump on the shoulders of any 
person who might happen to be near, and would play off some practical joke as a retaliation. 

"Although evidently alarmed whenever snakes were brought near him, he still appeared 
perfectly to understand that nothing more than a joke was intended. 

"His treatment of small dogs was very quaint. 

" If by chance a young pup came near him, he would seize hold of it and cuddle it in his 
arms in a most affectionate and maternal way ; not being very particular, however, whether he k 
held the animal by the ear, the tail, or a leg. 

"If the pup, as sometimes happened, objected to this treatment, and endeavored to escape 
or to misbehave, Jacob would catch hold of its hind leg or tail, and would swing it round at 
arm's length, and at last fling it from him. 

"The morning of life is decidedly the period of light-heartedness with the baboon ; when 
the weight of years has been accumulated upon the shoulders of a veteran he becomes staid 
and philosophic, and sometimes rather quarrelsome, objecting strongly to the presuming man- 
ners of his juniors, and taking every opportunity to punish them should they be caught taking 
liberties with him." 

The Chacma is supposed to be rather a long-lived animal, and with some reason. For 
although it is not easy to follow the course of a Chacma' s existence from birth to death, and 
there are not as yet any official registers among the quadrumanous tribe, there are certain 
registers which are written by Nature's hand, and not subject to erasion, forgery, or alteration. 
One of these official registers, is the proportion that exists between the time which is passed 
by an animal before it attains its adult state, and the entire term of its life. It is found that 
the Chacma arrives at its full development at the age of eight or nine years ; and, therefore, 
its lease of life may be calculated at about forty years. 

The chief, and most legitimate food of this baboon, is the plant which is called from this 
circumstance, Babiana. It affords a curious example of vegetable life existing under trying 
circumstances, as it only gets rain for three months in the year ; and during the remainder of> 
the twelvemonth is buried in a soil so parched, that hardly any plant except itself can exist. 
The portion that is eaten is the thick, roTind, subterraneous stem, which is neatly peeled by 
the more fastidious baboons, and eaten entire by the less refined and more hungry animals. 

The number of species belonging to the Dog-headed Baboons is very limited. All of them 
seem to be possessed of very similar habits and modes of action. The species which is repre- 
sented in the accompanying engraving presents characteristics that are typical of the entire 
race, and is therefore called the Baboon, par excellence. There is some difficulty about 
the precise distinctions between several of the species, a circumstance which, although to 
be regretted, is almost inevitable from the great external changes which are occasioned 
by age and sex, and the impossibility of keeping a close watch on these animals in their 
wild state. 

The most interesting portion of natural history is that which relates the habits and 
manners of the creatures observed ; and in the majority of instances the narrations are given 
by persons who, although fully alive to the little traits of temper, humor, or ingenuity, are 
unacquainted with the more recondite details of systematic zoology. 

Consequently, an act perf ormed by a baboon is considered by them in virtue of the deed 
itself, rather than in relation to the particular species of the animal who achieved it ; and the 
intellectual power displayed by the animal is thought to be of more real value than the number 
of projections iipon its molar teeth. This uncertainty is very great among the baboons, and 
as long as an act of theft or cunning is performed by a baboon, the narrator seems to care little 
whether the species be the Chacma, the Baboon, the Papion, or any other member of the same 
genus. 

There are many most curious and interesting anecdotes on record which admirably illus- 
trate the baboon nature, and yet which are not to be attributed with absolute certainty to 
any one species. 



64 THE BABOON. 

For example, there is a well-authenticated tale of a tame baboon which used to perform 
all kinds of clever tricks, some for the pecuniary benefit of its master, and others for its own 
individual pleasure. 

The animal must have been of great service to its owner, for it cost him nothing in food, 
being accustomed to steal its own daily supply. On one occasion this capability was put to 
the test ; a date-seller being the unfortunate subject upon whom the talents of the baboon were 
tried. The performance began by a simulated fit on the part of the animal, which fell down 
apparently in great pain, and grovelled on the earth in a paroxysm of contortions, its eyes 
steadily fixed on those of the date-seller. 

Apparently motiveless as this conduct might be, it was the result of much care, for every 
writhing twist of the body brought the creature nearer to the basket which contained the 
coveted dainties. When it had arrived within reach, it fixed the date-seller's attention by 
strange grimaces, and, with its hind feet, commenced emptying the basket. 

The most absurd part of the story is, that its "wicked conscience smited it" for the theft, 
and that it perfectly understood the unjustifiable character of the deed which it had just 
accomplished ; for, as it was retreating, after having secured its plunder, a mischievous boy 
gave the animal a sly tug of the tail. The baboon, fancying that the insult had come from the 
date-seller, in reprisal for the abstraction of his goods, turned round, flew at the man, and, if 
it had not been captured by its master, would probably have done him some material injury. 

A very quaint story is told of the same animal, which, if true, exhibits the strangest com- 
bination of cunning, simplicity, and ready wit, that ever entered the brain of living creature. 
At all events, if it be not tnie, it deserves to be so. 

It appears that the baboon was so tame, and had proved so apt a pupil, that its master 
had taught it to watch the pot in which he prepared his dinner, and was accustomed to leave 
it in charge of the culinary department while he was engaged in other business. One day, he 
had prepared a fowl for his dinner, and, after putting it into the pot, and the pot on the fire, 
went away for a time, leaving the baboon in charge, as usual. 

For a time all went well, and the animal kept a quiet watch over the fire. After a while, 
it was seized with a desire to see what might be in the pot, and so, taking off the lid, peeped 
in. The odor that issued from the boiled fowl was gratifying to the animal' s nostrils, and 
induced it, after a brief mental struggle, to pick just a little bit from the fowl, and to put the 
bird back again. This was done accordingly, but the experiment was so very successful that 
it was speedily repeated. Again and again was a morsel pinched from the fowl, until the 
natural consummation followed the fowl was picked quite clean, and nothing left but the 
bones. 

Now came remorse and sudden fear, causing the wretched animal to chatter with terror at 
the thought of the scarifying which was sure to follow so grievous an offence. 

What was the poor thing to do ? Time was passing, and the master must soon return for 
his dinner. At last a brilliant thought flashed through the animal's brain, and it immediately 
acted upon the idea. 

Now, in order to understand the depth of the craft which was employed, it must be 
remembered that the baboons are furnished, in common with very many monkeys, with two 
callosities on the hinder quarters, which serve them for seats, and which are, in these animals, 
of a bright red color. 

Rolling itself over and over in the dust, it covered its body with an uniformly sombre 
coating, and then, gathering itself well together, and putting its head and knees on the ground, 
it presented an appearance marvellously resembling a rough block of stone with two pieces of 
raw meat laid on its top. In those climates the birds of prey absolutely swarm, and, being 
encouraged by their well-earned impunity, crowd round every place where cooking is going 
on, and where they may have a chance of securing a portion, either by lawful gift, or lawless 
rapine. Several of these birds, among which were some kites, being attracted by the scent of 
the boiling meat, came to the spot, and seeing, as they thought, some nice raw meat tempt- 
ingly laid out for them, swept upon their fancied prize. 

In a moment the baboon had sprung to its feet, and, with a rapid clutch, seized one of 



THE BABOON. 



65 



the kites. The cover was again taken off the pot, and the shrieking and struggling prisoner 
thrust in to the boiling water in spite of its beak and claws. The lid was then replaced, and 
the baboon resumed its post of sentry with the placid ease that belongs to a conscience void of 
offence. 

The baboons, when in their native fastnesses, are under a very complete system -/L oisci- 
pline, and enforce its code upon each other most strictly. Considering the daring inroads 
which these creatures constantly make upon their neighbors' property, and the daily dangers 




BABOONS. Oynocephalui babuin. 

to which all gregarious animals are necessarily subject, the most wary vigilance and the most 
implicit obedience are necessary for the safety of the whole community. 

The acknowledged chiefs of the association are easily recognized by the heavy mass of 
hair that falls over their shoulders, and which, when thick and gray with age, is a natural 
uniform that cannot be wrongly assumed or mistaken. 

These leaders have a mode of communicating their orders to their subordinates, and they 
again to those placed under them, in a curiously-varied language of intonations. Short and 
sharp barks, prolonged howls, sudden screams, quick jabberings, and even gestures of limbs 
and person, are all used with singular rapidity, and repeated from one to the other. There 
was a system of military telegraphing, by means of attitudes and sounds, which was invented 
some time ago, and which really might have been copied from the baboons, so much do their 
natural tactics resemble the artificial inventions of mankind. 

It must be remembered that, clever as are these animals, their ingenuity is quite equalled, 
and even surpassed, by many of the animal kingdom w r hich are placed nmch lower in its 
system. Therefore, although these examples of their sagacity are thus placed on record, it is 



66 THE PAP ION. 

not to be imagined that the quadrumanous animals are put forward as the most rational of the 
lower creations. 

In recording the known instances of the mental powers displayed by the monkey tribe, 
we only give to the creature its due meed of praise, and act honestly by treating of every 
being with equal justice. It is so sad that many writers should set about such a task, having 
a purpose to serve, and that, in order to give to their own theory the greatest weight, they lay 
the greatest stress upon those records which tell in their favor, while they suppress those 
facts which might tend to overthrow or modify their own peculiar views. 

To resume the account of the baboons : 

Like all animals which assemble in flocks, they never rest or move without the protection 
of certain sentries, which are chosen out of their number, and which keep the most careful 
watch over the troop to which they belong. The duty is.anything but an agreeable one, and 
its labors are equally divided among the community, each competent member taking that task 
upon himself in his own turn. 

When they make an attack upon a field or a plantation, they always guard against sur- 
prise by posting sentries on elevated spots, and, knowing that due notice will be given if any 
suspicious object be seen or heard, they devote all their energies to the congenial business of 
theft, while the sentries remain at their posts, never daring to withdraw their attention from 
the important charge which is committed to them. However, the sentinels do not entirely 
lose the benefit of all the good things, but take their proper share of the spoil after the 
thievish band has returned to a place of safety ; so that their greatest trial is an exercise of 
patience of rather a prolonged character. 

In their rocky fastnesses, their chief foe is the leopard, and so terrified are they at the 
very sound of their enemy's voice, that even a very poor imitation of a growl is sufficient to 
set them flying off as fast' as their legs can carry them, while a breath of air that bears upon 
its wings the least taint of that rank odor which exhales so powerfully from the large Felidse, 
scatters dire consternation among the assemblage. There is a story of a life saved by means 
of the ingenuity of a native servant, who, seeing his master beset by a party of angry baboons, 
quietly stepped behind a rock, and imitated the growl of a leopard with that startling fidelity, 
that is so general an accomplishment among savage tribes. 

The leopard seldom attacks an adult baboon, not caring to risk its claws and fangs against 
the hands and teeth of so po'werful an opponent. Much less does it openly venture to assault 
a band of baboons in hopes of securing one of their number. Its mode of procedure is by slily 
creeping round their rocky domains, and whipping off one of the young baboons before an 
alarm is given. 

Bold as are these animals, they will not dare to follow a leopard into its den ; so that, if 
their dreaded foe succeeds in once getting clear of their outposts, it may carry off its prey 
with impunity. The constant dread which the leopard seems to excite in a baboon's mind 
appears to be occasioned more by the stealthy craft and persevering aggression of the animal, 
rather than by its physical- powers alone. 

One of these animals, the Thoth Baboon, bore a conspicuous part in the scultured mythol- 
ogy of the Egyptians, and may be seen in almost every stony document that is impressed 
with the hieroglyphical wisdom of that wondrous nation. Only the male seems to have been 
considered worthy of forming one of the symbols of that representative language, as is shown 
by the fact that, whenever the Thoth Baboon is engraved, the large mass of hair over the 
shoulders proves it to be of the male sex, and adult. The attitude is generally a sitting 
position. 

Among the Egyptians, the god Thoth held the same place among the minor deities as 
Hermes of the Greeks, and Mercury of the Romans, being probably the prototype of them both. 

Another well-known species of the Dog-headed Baboons is the PAPION, an animal of 
rather a more refined aspect than the Chacma, or, more properly speaking, not quite so brutal. 

The face, although unattractive enough, is yet not so repulsive as that of the Chacma, and 
the colors are rather more bright than those of that animal. 

Great reverence was paid to these creatures, and specially to certain selected individuals 



THE PAP ION. 67 

which were furnished with a safe home in or near their temples, liberally fed while living, and 
honorably embalmed when dead. Many mummied forms of these baboons have been found in the 
temple caves of Egypt, swathed, and spiced, and adorned, just as if they had been human beings. 

Some authors say that the Thoth Baboon was an object of worship among the Egyptians, 
but hardly with sufficient reason. Various animal forms were used as visible living emblems 
of the attributes of deity, and the qualities of the human intellect, but were no more objects 
of idolatrous worship than the lion of England, or the eagle of America. 

The fur of the Papion is of a chestnut color ; in some parts fading into a sober fawn, and 
in others wanned with a wash of ruddy bay. The paws are darker than the rest of the body. 
When young, it is of a lighter hue, and deepens in color until it reaches its full age. In the 
prime of existence its colors are the lightest, but as years begin to lay their burden on the 
animal, the hairs begin to be flecked with a slight grizzle, and, in process of time, the snows 
of age descend liberally, and whiten the whole fur with hoary hairs. 

The sense of smell is very largely developed in the baboons, their wide and roomy snouts 
giving plenty of space for the olfactory nerve to spread its branches. Aided by this forma- 
tion, they are enabled to distinguish between poisonous and wholesome food much to the 
advantage of their human neighbors, who profit by their intelligence, knowing that they may 
safely eat any vegetable which a baboon will admit into its list of viands. What is good for 
baboon is good for man, say they. 

As to the animal food in which these animals indulge, it might possibly be made use of 
under the pressure of imminent starvation, but hardly under any circumstances less distressing. 
It must require a very hungry man to eat a scorpion or a centipede, although ants and some 
other insects are said to possess quite a delicate and almond-like flavor. 

As has already been mentioned, they are singular adepts at discovering the presence of 

water, even though the priceless element should lie concealed under sand or stony ground. 

In such a case of subterraneous springs, the baboons set regularly to work, and, using their 

hands in lieu of spades and mattocks, dig with wonderful celerity. While thus working, they 

divide the task among themselves, and relieve each other at regular intervals. 

When the baboons move in parties, they employ an almost military mode of arranging 
their numbers. In the advanced guard are the young males, who keep forward, well in front 
of the main body, and run from side to side, for the purpose of reconnoitering the ground over 
which they will have to pass. The females and their young occupy the centre, while the rear 
is brought up by the old and experienced males. 

Thus, the more active and vigilant animals lead the way, the weakest are kept under pro- 
tection, and the powerful elders have the whole of their charge constantly in view. In order 
to insure the utmost precision in the line of march, several trusty animals are selected as 
"whippers in," whose business it is to keep order, to drive stragglers back to their proper 
position, to moderate the exuberant playfulness of the advanced guard, to keep a watchful 
eye upon the weaker members of the community, and to maintain a correspondence with the 
venerable chiefs in the rear. 

The number of individuals composing a troup is sometimes above one hundred, ten or 
twelve being adult males, twenty or so, adult females, and the rest of the band composed of 
the young of both sexes. 

The specimens of baboons that have been captured and domesticated, are generally taken 
by a crafty stratagem. Jars of well-sweetened beer are placed near their haunts, and drugged 
with some of those somniferous herbs which are so well known to the Orientals. 

The baboons, seeing the jars left apparently unwatched, come cautiously from their homes, 
and assemble round the novel articles with much grin and chatter. They first dip in a cautious 
ringer, and taste suspiciously. Misgiving gives place to confidence, and they partake freely 
of the sweet treachery. The soporific liquid soon manifests its power, and the baboons fall 
easy victims to their captors. 

The two animals with which this history of baboons is closed, are removed from the pre- 
ceding species, on account of various points in their conformation, and are placed in a separate 
genus, under the name of Papio. 



68 



THE MANDRILL. 



FEW ANIMALS present a more grotesque mixture of fantastic embellishment and repulsive 
ferocity than the baboon which is known under the name of MANDRILL. 

The colors of the rainbow are emblazoned on the creature's form, but always in the very 
spots where one would least expect to see them. A bright azure glows, not in its "eyes of 
heavenly blue," but on each side of its nose, where the snout is widely expanded, and swollen 
into two enormous masses. The surfaces of these curious and very unprepossessing projec- 
tions are deeply grooved, and the ridges are bedizened with the cerulean tint above mentioned. 
Lines of brilliant scarlet and deep purple alternate with the blue, and the extremity of the 
muzzle blazes with a fiery red like Bardolph's nose. 







THE MANDR[LL.-/V/MO nuAmm. 



That all things should be equally balanced, the opposite end of the body is also radiant 
with chromatic effect, being plenteously charged with a ruddy violet, that is permitted to 
give its full effect, by the pert, upright carriage of the tail. 

The general color of the fur is of an olive brown tint, fading into gray on the under side 
of the limbs, and the chin is decorated with a small yellow pointed beard. The muzzle is 
remarkable for a kind of rim or border, which is not unlike the corresponding part in a hog, 
and is well shown in the engraving. The ears are small, devoid of fur, and of a black color 
with a tinge of blue. 

As in the Diana, the colors of this animal are more of a character that we look for in the 
plumage of birds, than in one of the mammals. These bright tints do not, however, belong to 
the hair, but only are developed in the skin, fading away after death, and turning into a dingy 
black. The same circumstance is found to take place in many other animals, the skin colors 
being very fugitive. 

So dependent are these tints upon the life of the animal, that unless it be in perfect health 
and strength, the bright colors dim their beauty, and form, by their brilliancy or faintness, a 
tolerable test of the state of the creature's health. 

The curious cheek expansions are due, not to the muscles of the face, but to the very bones 
themselves, which are heavy, protuberant, and ridged in the bone skull as in the living head. 



THE MANDRILL. 69 

This addition to the usual form of the skull, adds greatly to the brutish appearance of the 
animal, and gives it a less intelligent aspect than that which is seen in most of the monkey tribe. 

Only the male Mandrill possesses these strange adornments in their full beauty of size 
and color, the females being only gifted with the blue tint upon the muzzle, and even that is 
of a much less brilliant hue than in the male. The cheek-bones are but little elevated above 
the face, and are without the deep furrows that give so strange an appearance to the male sex. 

Even in the male animal, these ornaments do not fully develop themselves until the 
creature has attained maturity. Not until the task of dentition is fully accomplished does the 
Mandrill shine out in all the glory of his huge azure nose, his crimson mouth, and carmine 
termination. 

Of all the baboons, the Mandrill appears to be the most hopelessly savage, though exam- 
ples are not wanting of individuals which have been subjected to kind treatment, and have 
proved tractable and gentle that is, for baboons. 

The adult Mandrill is liable to terrible gusts of passion, during which it seems to be bereft 
of reason and possessed with an insane fury. That which in other monkeys is a hasty petu- 
lance, easily excited and soon passing away, becomes in this animal a paroxysm of wild and 
blind rage, to which the anger of an ordinary monkey is but a zephyr to a tornado. 

When thus infuriated and but small cause is needed for its excitation the animal seems 
to be beside itself with fury, heedless of everything but the object of its anger. A demon 
light glares from the eyes, and it seems verily possessed with a demon's strength and malignity. 
With such violence do its stormy passions rage, that the vital powers themselves have been 
known to yield before the tempest that agitates the mind, and the animal has fallen lifeless in 
the midst of its wild yells and struggles. 

" Sudden and quick in passion" as is the Mandrill, it bears no short-lived anger, after the 
custom of most quick-tempered beings, but cherishes a rancorous and deeply-rooted vengeance 
against any one who may be unfortunate enough to irritate its froward temper. It will often 
call in the aid of its natural cunning, and will pretend to have forgotten the offence, in order 
to decoy the offender within reach of its grasp. 

The power of this animal is very great, and more than might be inferred from its size 
alone, though its dimensions are far from trifling. > 

Unless they travel in large numbers and well armed, the natives shrink from passing 
through the woods in which these animals make their residence. 

For the Mandrills live in society, and their bands are so powerful in point of numbers, 
and so crafty in point of management, that they are about as formidable neighbors as could 
be imagined. It is said that wherever they take up their abode they assume supreme sway, 
attacking and driving from their haunts even the lordly elephant himself. 

These animals are also affirmed to keep a watch over the villages, and, when their male 
population is dispersed to field labor, that they issue in large companies from the woods, enter 
the defenceless villages, and plunder the houses of everything eatable, in spite of the terrified 
women. Some of the female population are said to fall victims to the Mandrills, which carry 
them away to the woods, as has been related of the Chimpanzee. 

This latter assertion may be untrue, but it is strengthened by much collateral evidence. 
The large male baboons, when in captivity, always make a great distinction between their 
visitors of either sex, preferring the ladies to the gentlemen. Sometimes they are so jealous 
in their disposition that they throw themselves into a transport of rage if any attentions be 
paid to a lady within their sight. 

This curious propensity was once made the means of re-capturing a large baboon a 
chacma that had escaped from its cage in the Jardin des Plantes, in Paris. 

It had already baffled many attempts to entice it to its home, and when force was tried, 
repelled the assailants, severely wounding several of the keepers. At last a ready-witted 
keeper hit upon a plan which proved eminently successful. 

There was a little window at the back of the cage, and when the keeper saw the baboon 
in front of the open door, he brought a young lady to the window, and pretended to kiss her. 
The sight of this proceeding was too much for the jealous feeling of the baboon, which flew 



70 THE MANDRILL. 

into the cage for the purpose of exterminating the offending keeper. Another keeper was 
stationed in ambush near the cage, and the moment the infuriated animal entered the den, he 
shut and fastened the door. 

The male Mandrills are always more ferocious and less tamable than the females, who 
are also comparatively free from the revolting habits that are so unfortunately found in the 
adult males. 

There are several instances on record of Mandrills which have led a peaceful life in cap- 
tivity, and learned many accomplishments some, perhaps, rather of a dubious nature, 

One of the most celebrated of these individuals, surnamed "Happy Jerry," on account of 
his contented disposition, was a well-known inhabitant of the menagerie at Exeter 'Change 
during his lifetime ; and, even after his death, is still before the public who visit the British 
Museum. 

He was accustomed to drink porter, which he liked, and to smoke a pipe, which he tole- 
rated. He had the honor of being a royal guest, by special invitation, and seems to have 
passed a life as happy as could well fall to the lot of an expatriated animal. 

There are several allusions to this baboon by ancient writers, although they seem to have 
been very undecided about the real character of the animal. 

Topsel gives a really good illustration of the Mandrill, placing it among the hyenas, 
because preceding writers had done so. However, his own penetrative mind refused to accept 
this opinion, and after saying that it might be the Artocyon, a beast which was supposed to 
be the offspring of bear and dog, diffidently puts forward his own idea on the subject, which 
is the correct one, as is usual when men will venture to think boldly for themselves, and shake 
off the trammels of conventional prejudice. 

"His fore-feet," says Topsel, "are divided like a man's fingers. It continually holdeth 

np his tail, for at every motion it tumeth that as other beasts do their head. It hath a short 

tail, and but for that I should judge it to be a kind of ape." Many of the traits recorded by 

the same author are precisely applicable to the Mandrill, although, as he thought, that it 

' ought to be a hyena, he has intermixed with his account a few truly hyenine anecdotes. 

His name for it is, " The Second Kinde of Hyaena, called Papio, or Dabuh." 

In its native land, the usual food of the Mandrill is of a vegetable nature, although, in 
common with the rest of the baboons, it displays a great liking for ants, centipedes, and simi- 
lar creatures. 

Sometimes it happens- that it takes a carnivorous turn, and then will capture and devour 
small birds, quadrupeds, and reptiles. In captivity it is tolerably carnivorous, its tastes being 
sufficiently universal to accommodate itself to strong drink, as well as to civilized fare. Meat 
of all kinds seems acceptable to the animal, as does beer and wine. Tobacco, as we have seen, 
it can endure, but hardly appreciate. 

It drinks by shooting forward its mobile lips into the vessel, and drawing the liquid into 
its mouth by suction. 

When it eats, it generally commences its repast by filling its pouches with food in readi- 
ness for another meal, and unless very severely pressed by hunger, never neglects this pre- 
caution. 

The tail of this animal is a remarkable feature, if it may so be termed, in the general 
aspect of the baboon. It is short, set high on the back, and curved upwards in a manner that 
is most singular, not to say ludicrous, in the living animals, and conspicuously noticeable in 
the skeleton. The skull of an adult Mandrill is most brutal in character. The brain has bu* 
little place in the cranium, and the greater part of the surface is either composed of, or 
covered with, heavy ridges of solid bone that are formed for the support of the large muscles 
which move the jaws. 

The eyes are placed extremely high in the face, leaving hardly any forehead above them, 
and they are deeply set beneath a pair of morosely overhanging brows. The hair on the head 
is rather peculiar in its arrangement, forming a kind of pointed crest on the crown, and thus 
giving an almost triangular outline to the head. 

It is a very common animal in its own country, but on account of its great strength, cun- 



THE DRILL. 



n 



ning, and ferocity, is not so often captured as might be expected. Even when a specimen is 
made prisoner, it is generally a very young one, which soon loses in captivity the individu- 
ality of its being, and learns to accommodate itself to the altered circumstances among which 
it is placed. 

The name "Maimon," which is applied to the Mandrill, is most appropriate. It is a 
Greek word, signifying a hobgoblin, and is therefore peculiarly applicable to so uncanny a 
looking animal. 

The DRILL, co-native with the Mandrill, of the coast of Guinea, somewhat resembles the 
female or young male mandrill, and is not of quite so savage and grotesque an aspect as that 
animal. 

Its cheek-bones are not nearly so protuberant as those of the mandrill's, nor is its skin so 
brilliantly colored. The upper parts of the body are greener than those of the mandrill, the 



I \ 




THE DEILL. Papio leucop/iaeuf. 



yellow rings in the hair being more frequent. Its face and ears are of a light polished black, 
and the palms of the hands and feet are devoid of hair, and of a coppery tinge. 

Formerly the Drill was thought to be only a young mandrill, and was so named. But the 
fact that even after their second dentition, the male Drills do not put on the furrowed cheek- 
bones, or the bright coloring that distinguishes the mandrill, is sufficient to prove that it is a 
distinct species. 

Little is known of its habits when in a state of nature, as it has probably been confounded 
with the mandrill, and its deeds narrated as if they belonged to the last-named animal. 

As far as is known, it is much like the mandrill and other baboons in temper, being quiet 
and docile when young, but subsiding into morose apathy as it becomes older. 

The little stumpy tail is very like that of the mandrill, and is covered with short and stiff 
hair. Its length is not more than two inches even in a full-grown male. The Drill is always 
a smaller animal than the mandrill, and the female much smaller than the male, from whom 
she differs also in the comparative shortness of her head, and the generally paler tint of 
her fur, 



72 THE CHAMEGK. 



AMERICAN MONKEYS. 

WE have now taken a rapid survey of the varied forms which the Quadrumana of the 
Old World assume ; forms so diversified that there hardly seems to be scope for further modi - 
fications. Yet the prolific power of nature is so inexhaustible, that the depth of our researches 
only brings to view objects of such infinite variety of shape that the mind is lost in wonder 
and admiration. 

* Thus it is with the Cebidae, or American Monkeys. While preserving the chief charac- 
teristics of the monkey nature, thus proving their close relationship with the Old World 
monkeys, they exhibit the strangest modification of details. The four hand-like paws, and 
other quadrumanous peculiarities, point out their position in the animal kingdom, while 
sundry differences of form show that the animals are intended to pass their life under condi- 
tions which would not suit the monkeys of the Old World. 

A view of the New World monkeys as contrasted with those of the Eastern Continent, 
exhibits strongly marked characteristics that eminently fit them for the arboreal life they are 
seen to enjoy. Some of the great Apes, notably the Orang, live habitually in trees, but they 
are not adapted to traverse the tree-tops, and leap from limb to limb as do the monkeys of 
the Western World. 

The peculiar habits of the latter are greatly promoted by the extreme slenderness of their 
bodies and limbs, and by the singular function of the long tail. The terminal portion of that 
member is bare and somewhat calloused, and possesses the power to clasp tightly around the 
limbs of trees ; and so great is this power the creature easily swings off its whole weight, 
thereby leaving the four limbs free for seizing on other points of advantage in its travels 
through the tree-tops of the forest. 

The curiously shaped monkey which is represented in the following engraving, is an excel- 
lent example of the Cebidse, or Sapajous, as they are often called. 

The name "Ateles," which is given to the entire genus to which this animal belongs, 
signifies "imperfect," and has been applied to the creatures because the fore-paws are devoid 
of useful thumbs. Sometimes that member is almost entirely absent, and in other instances 
it only just shows itself. 

In the CHAMECK, the thumb is slightly projecting, but even in this case it has only a 
single joint, and is not furnished with a nail after the usual custom of thumbs and fingers. 
Even when the thumb reaches its greatest size, it cannot be used as the human thumb, as it is 
not capable of being opposed to the fingers. 

The Chameck is a native of various parts of Brazil, where it is found rather profusely. 
From all accounts, it seems to be a very gentle creature, and susceptible of a high amount of 
cultivation. It does not appear to be so capricious of temper as the monkeys of the Old 
World, and although playful when in the humor for sport, is not so spitefully tricky as its 
transatlantic relatives. It soon learns to distinguish those persons who treat it with kindness, 
and will often enter into playful mock combats, pretending to inflict severe injuries, but never 
doing any real damage. 

It is not a very large animal, the length of its body being about twenty inches, and the 
tail just over two feet in length. The fur is tolerably long, and falls densely over the body 
and limbs. 

On referring to the engraving, it will be seen that the hair is longer than usual by the 
region of the hips, and rather thickly overhangs the hinder quarters. This arrangement seems 
to stand the creature in place of the callosities which have so often been alluded to, and which 
are not possessed by the Cebidse. These monkeys are also destitute of cheek-pouches, but, as 
if to compensate them for the want of these appendages, they are furnished with an additional 
supply of teeth, having thirty-six instead of thirty-two, which is the ordinary complement. 

The nostrils are very different from those of the monkeys which have already been 
described, as they open at the sides instead of underneath, and are separated from each other 
by a wide piece of cartilage. The ear is less unlike that of man than is the case with the 



THE CHAMECK. 



73 



greater part of the monkey tribe, the greatest distinction between the two being that the ear 
of the monkey is destitute of that soft lower lobe, which is so characteristic of the human ear, 
and through which ladies barbarously hook their auricular trinkets. 

If the reader will refer to the illustration of the Chameck, he will see that the tail is the 
most conspicuous member of the animal. For the greater part of its length it is thickly 
covered with long drooping fur, but the last seven or eight inches are nearly denuded of hair 
on the upper surface, and entirely so on the lower. Towards the base it is extremely thick, 
and is furnished with muscles of great strength and marvellous flexibility, destined to aid the 
member in the performance of 
those curiously active move- 
ments for which these mon- 
keys are so renowned. 

The tail of these animals 
is to them equivalent, and 
more than equivalent, to a fifth 
hand. The naked extremity 
is endowed with so sensitive 
a surface that it can be applied 
to most of the uses to which 
the hand can be put, while the 
powerful muscles that move it 
are so strong and lithe that 
they can exert a singular 
amount of strength, even so as 
to suspend the entire weight 
of the animal. 

In ascending trees or trav- 
ersing the branches, the mon- 
keys continually aid their 
progress by twining the end of 
the tail round the neighboring /* 

boughs. Sometimes they even 
suspend themselves wholly by 
their tails, and after giving 
their bodies a few oscillating 
movements, boldly swing them- 
selves from one branch to an- 
other, clearing considerable 
spaces in the effort. On account of these capabilities, the tail is known by the name of 
"prehensile." 

The color of the Chameck is nearly black, and of a uniform tint over the head, body, and 
limbs. Its hair is rather long and thick, in some parts taking a slight curl. The head is very 
small in proportion to the rest of the body. During the life of the animal the face is of a deep 
brown color, as are the ears, cheeks, and chin, on which some long black hairs are scattered 
at distant intervals. Its lips are possessed of some mobility, but not equal to those of the 
chimpanzee or orang-outan. 

The most notable monkey of this prehensile-tailed group is the Coaita (Ateles paniscus), 
an excellent figure of which is presented on next page. It is difficult to conceive of any animal 
so spider-like in its movements. From this remarkable resemblance to a crawling spider as it 
moves over branches, putting forth its long snake-like tail and its limbs, it has received the name 
of Spider Monkey. The limbs are slender and singularly attenuated, and the tail is essentially 
a fifth arm. The latter member is considerably longer than the body ; its extremity upon 
the inner surface is soft and like the sensitive inside of the fingers, and is, practically, a very 
supple and serviceable finger. It is carried with exceeding grace as he advances, and is ever 




CHAMECK. Aides Chameck. 



74 



THE COAITA. 



the avant courier of all his movements. One is constantly reminded of the elephant's pro- 
boscis, so adroitly does he present this fifth clasping member at every move. 

So completely adapted is this species or group of monkeys to arboreal life, it is equally 
unfitted for locomotion on the ground. So eminently is this tree- top existence his natural 
condition, he would be nearly undone and quite miserable away from it. Its almost requisite 
element seems to be an unbroken forest. This it has, in all the grandeur of immensity. The 
Brazilian and tropical belt of woodland, which extends nearly from ocean to ocean, the width of 
the continent, is his. Some of the marine mammals would be but little more embarrassed out of 
their appropriate element, than the Spider Monkey deprived of the friendly branching trees. 

We have witnessed the movements of this monkey at the zoological collection in Central 
Park, and in one instance there were two, a male and a female. The male seemed to be inces- 




COAITA. Ateles paniscus. 

santly teasing his mate. The latter seemed to care little for the fnn, but at times, when rudely 
jerked from the floor by the long up-raised tail, she joined in the race and contributed to a 
most astonishing display of calisthenics. 

The male of this pair was one of the most slender of its kind. On the wire screen of its 
great cage it spread itself out like a "Daddy-long-legs," impressing us much as that insect 
does, with its strange, furtive movements. Now one passes hand over hand along the hori- 
zontal bar, never once omitting a convenient contact of the tail-tip, which clasps a similar bar 
above, and slides along its surface as we lead our hand down a stair-rail, ready to grasp it 
at any moment. A sudden caprice, and his body drops ; suspended by the tail he swings to 
and fro, glancing aimlessly, in the manner of all monkeys in short, looking altogether as if 
he was doubtful what to do next. In this moment of indecision, he suddenly entertains the 
notion that his mate needs stirring up ; whereupon he drops upon the floor, instantly stands 
erect, extends his long arms high above his head as a balance-weight, and strides off more 
human-like than the great Apes, that are much nearer man in the scale of being. 



THE COAITA. 75 

This monkey is credited with the faculty of robbing nests of birds that build in fan- 
cied security in the hollow trunks of dead trees. He introduces his tail into the aperture, 
grasps the egg with the sensitive, finger-like tip, and passes the morsel with a flourish to his 
mouth. 

Five specimens of the several species of Spider Monkeys are in the American Museum of 
Natural History, where the reader may see the most excellent representative collection ; 
embracing all of the principal forms. At no distant day this collection will contain as nearly a 
perfect series of Primates, which include all of the monkey races, from the gorilla and the two 
large species, orang and chimpanzee, to the lowest, as can be obtained. The grand examples 
of the three latter forms are now in the museum, and well repay a visit to them. 

The COAITA, or QUATA, as the word is frequently written, resembles the chameck in many 
characteristics. 

It is one of the best known of this group of animals, which are called by the name of 
Spider Monkeys, on account of their long sprawling limbs, and their peculiar action while 
walking. 

It is very remarkable, that although these creatures appear to be much less calculated for 
bipedal locomotion than the large apes, they should really be better walkers than most of the 
monkey tribe. When placed on a level surface and desirous to walk in an erect position, they 
always attempt to aid their tottering steps by means of their prehensile tails, which they twine 
about in every direction in the hope of grasping some object by which to help themselves 
along. But when they find that all chances of external support are vain, they bravely throw 
themselves on their own resources, and, using their tail as a balance, move along with toler- 
able ease. 

The mode in which they apply the tail to this unexpected use is by raising it up behind 
until it is on a level with the head, and then curling the tip of it downwards, so as to form 
the figure of a letter " S." 

The spider monkeys can apply the tail to uses far more remarkable than any of those 
1 .vhich have been mentioned. With such singularly delicate sense of touch is it furnished, 
that it almost seems to be possessed of the power of sight, and moves about among the 
branches with as much decision as if there were an eye in its tip. Should the monkey dis- 
cover some prize, such as a nest of eggs, or any little dainty, which lies in a crevice too small 
for the hand to enter, it is in nowise disconcerted, but inserts the end of its tail into the 
cranny, and hooks out the desired object. 

It is impossible to contemplate this wonderful provision of nature without a feeling 
of admiration at the manner in which the most unlikely portions of an animal are de- 
veloped for the purpose of performing, sundry uses. There seems to be a curious parallel 
between the elephant's trunk and the spider monkey's tail, being developments of the two 
opposite extremes of the body, the former belonging to the Old World and the latter to 
the New. 

There is a wonderful resemblance in the use to which these members are put, excepting 
of course those discrepancies that must arise from the different natures of the organs, and the 
habits of the animals to which they belong. Even in external form the proboscis and the tail 
are marvellously similar ; so much so, indeed, that an outline of one would almost serve as a 
sketch of the other. Each is gifted with discriminating faculty of touch, and therefore able 
to pick up any small object ; while at the same time its muscular powers are so great, that it 
can endure severe and prolonged exertion. 

The proboscis of the elephant can seize a tree-branch and tear it from its parent trunk. 
The spider monkey has no such gigantic strength, but it can sling itself from a bough by its 
tail, and remain suspended for almost any length of time. There is a beautiful formation of 
the tail of this creature, by means of which the grasp of that member retains its hold even 
after the death of the owner. If a spider monkey is mortally wounded, and not killed out- 
right, it curls its tail round a branch, and thus suspended yields up its life. The tail does 
not lose its grasp when the life has departed ; and the dead monkey hangs with its head down- 
wards for days, until decomposition sets in and the rigid muscles are relaxed. 



76 THE CO AIT A. 

We may here trace another curious analogy between this automatic contraction of the 
tail, and the well-known structure by which a bird is enabled to hold itself on its perch during 
sleep. If the spider monkey's tail be drawn out till it is straightened, the tip immediately 
curls round, and remains so until the member is suffered to return to its usual curve. Per- 
haps one reason for this provision may be, that it is for the purpose of retaining the animal in 
its arboreal residence, and guarding it against a fall. 

Still, it is a curious fact, and cannot be wholly accounted for on those grounds ; for the 
monkeys of the Old World, although not gifted with prehensile tails, are quite as arboreal as 
their brethren of the New, and consequently as liable to Eutychian casualties. It may be 
remarked, en passant, that there are Preacher Monkeys in America, and consequently that 
an especial provision against such misfortunes may be more requisite in Brazil than in Africa. 

In their native country, the spider monkeys may be seen in great profusion, swinging 
from the tree-branches in groups, like bunches of enormous fruits. 

They are very lazy animals, and will sit, swing, or recline for hours in the strangest atti- 
tudes without moving a limb ; just as if they were striving to emulate the Hindoo Fakirs in 
their motionless penances. Such a propensity is the more curious, because the slight forms 
of the animals, their long and slender limbs, and above all, their wonderful tail, would lead 
us to anticipate the same singular swiftness and activity that are found in the gibbons. In 
the American monkeys, however, we do not find the capacious chest and thin flanks which 
mark out the character of the gibbons. 

Yet, when aroused by hunger or other sufficient motive, the spider monkeys can move 
fast enough ; and in such a manner, that nothing without wings can follow them. In their 
native land, the forests are so dense and so vast, that if it were not for the rivers which occa- 
sionally cut their path through the dark foliage, the monkeys could travel for hundred of 
miles without once coming to the ground. 

Not that the monkeys care very much for a river, provided that the distance between the 
banks is not very great ; and as they detest going into the water, they most ingeniously con- 
trive to get over without wetting a hair. The manner in which they are said to achieve this 
feat of engineering is as follows. , 

When a marching troop, often amounting to a hundred or more, arrives at the bank of a 
river, the principal body halts, while the oldest and most experienced of their band run 
forward, and carefully reconnoitre the locality. After mature deliberation they fix on some 
spot where the trees of the opposite banks incline riverwards, and approximate nearest to 
each other. 

Running to the overhanging boughs, the most powerful monkeys twist their tails firmly 
round the branch, and permit themselves to hang with their heads downwards. Another mon- 
key then slides down the body of the first, twines his tail tightly round his predecessor, and 
awaits his successor. In this way a long chain of monkeys is gradually formed, until the last, 
who is always one of the strongest of the troop, is able to plant his paws on the ground. He 
then begins to push the ground with his hands, so as to give the dependent chain a slight 
oscillating movement, which is increased until he is able to seize a branch on the opposite side 
of the river. 

Having so done, he draws himself gradually up the branches, until he finds one that is 
sufficiently strong for the purpose in view, and takes a firm hold of it. The signal is then 
given that all is ready, and the rest of the band ascend the tree, and cross the river by means 
of this natural suspension bridge. 

So far, so good ! The monkeys run over the bridge easily enough ; but how is the bridge 
itself to get over ? Their plight is very like that of the man who invented a system of iron 
doors to be closed from the interior, and who, after closing them in the most admirable and 
effectual manner, was obliged to open them again in order to get out. 

Still, whatever may be the case with human beings, when monkeys are clever enough to 
make such a bridge, they are at no loss to achieve the passage of the bridge itself. 

Two or three of the stoutest keep themselves in reserve for this emergency, and, attaching 
themselves to the last links of the living chain, relieve their comrade from his arduous task of 



THE MARIMONDA. 



77 



Lu LI 



clutching the boughs, and at the same time slightly lengthen the chain. They then clamber 
up the tree as high as the chain will stretch, or the boughs bear the strain, and take a firm 
hold of a tough branch. A second signal is now given, and the monkey on the opposite bank 
relaxing his hold, the entire line of monkeys swings across the river, perhaps slightly duck- 
ing the lowermost in the passage. Once arrived, the lower monkeys drop to the ground, while 
the others catch at branches, and break their connection with the much-enduring individual 
at the top. When the last monkey has secured itself, the leaders descend the tree, and the 
whole troop proceed on their march. 

Those who have witnessed this- curious scene, say that it is a most amusing affair, and 
that there is a considerable comic element in it, on account of the exuberant spirits of the 
younger and less staid individuals, who delight in playing off little practical jokes on the com- 
ponent parts of the bridge in their passage ; knowing that there is no opportunity for imme- 
diate retaliation, and trusting to escape ultimately in the confusion that follows the 'renewal of 
the march. 

The Coaita is by no means a large animal, measuring very little more than a foot from the 
nose to the root of the tail, while the tail itself is two feet in length. Its color is very dark 
and glossy ; so dark, indeed, as to be almost black. The hair varies much in length and 
density. On the back and the outside of the limbs it hangs in long drooping locks, forming a 
thick covering through which the skin cannot be seen. But on the abdomen the hair is quite 
scanty, and is so thinly scattered that the skin is plainly visible. The skin of the face is of a 
dark copper color. 

The Coaita seems to be as much averse to the intrusion of strangers into its domains as 
the African monkeys, whose proceedings have been already narrated. Banding together in 
large troops, these monkeys will assault a stranger with great vigor. Their first proceeding 
upon the approach of any intruder, whether man or beast, is to descend to the lower branches 
of their trees, and to satisfy themselves by a close inspection, whether the object be a friend 
or a trespasser. Having decided on the latter point of view, they re-ascend to their strong- 
hold, and commence an assault by pelting with sticks, and keep up their attacks, until they 
fairly worry the intruder out of their dominions. 

Another example of this wonderful group of monkeys is found in the MARIMOKDA ; an 
inhabitant, like the two last-named animals, of Central America, and found in greatest num- 
bers in Spanish Guiana, where, according to Humboldt, it fills the place of the Coaita. 

The general shape, the formation of its limbs, and the long prehensile tail, point it out at 
once as another of the spider monkeys. It is certainly a very appropriate name for these ani- 
mals. Their heads are so small, their bodies so short, their limbs so slender, and their tail so 
limb-like, that the mind unconsciously draws a parallel between these monkeys and the long- 
legged spiders that scuttle so awkwardly over the ground, and are so indifferent respecting 
their complement of legs. 

The resemblance holds good even when the monkey is at rest, or even when it only appears 
before the eye in an illustration. But when the creature begins to walk on level ground, 
and especially if it be hurried, its clumsy movements are so very spider-like, that the simtii- 
tude is ten times more striking. Be it remarked, that both creatures are supposed to be 
placed in uncongenial circumstances. The spider is deft and active enough among the many 
threads of its air-suspended nets, as is the monkey among the slight twigs of the air-bathed 
branches. But when both animals are subjected to circumstances which are directly opposed 
to their natural mode of existence, they become alike awkward, and alike afford subjects of 
mirth. 

The mode by which a spider monkey walks on level ground is rather singular, and diffi- 
cult to describe, being different from that which is employed by the large apes. They do not 
set the sole of either paw, or hand, flat upon the ground, but, turning the hinder feet inwards, 
they walk upon their outer sides. The reverse process takes place with the fore-paws, which 
are twisted outwards, so that the weight of the animal is thrown upon their inner edges. 

It will easily be seen how very awkward an animal must be which is forced to employ so 
complicated a means for the purpose of locomotion. Although it has been already stated that 



78 



THE MIRIKI. 



the spider monkey has been known to walk in a manner much more steady than that of any 
other monkey, yet it must be remembered that this bipedal progression was only employed for 
a few paces, and with a haven of rest in view in the shape of a window-sill, on which the crea- 
ture could rest its hands. 

In captivity, the Marimonda is a gentle and affectionate animal, attaching itself strongly 
to those persons to whom it takes a fancy, and playing many fantastic gambols to attract their 
attention. Its angry feelings, although perhaps easily roused, do not partake of the petulant 
malignity which so often characterizes the monkey race, and are quite free from the rancorous 
vengeance which is found in the baboons. Very seldom does it attempt to bite, and even 

when such an event does take place, it is 
rather the effect of sudden terror than of 
deliberate malice. 

On account of its amiable nature it is 
often brought into a domesticated state, 
and, if we may give credence to many a 
traveller, is trained to become not only 
an amusing companion, but an useful 
servant. 

The color of this animal varies much 
according to the age of the individual. 

When adult, the leading color is of 
an uniform dull black, devoid of the 
glossy lustre which throws back the sun- 
beams from the coaita's furry mantle. On 
the back, the top of the head, and along 
the spine, the hair is of a dense, dead 
black, which seems to have earned for the 
animal the very inapposite name with 
which its nomenclators have thought fit 
to dedecorate the mild and amiable Mari- 
monda. 

The throat, breast, inside of the 
limbs, and the under side of the tail are 
much lighter in tint, while in some indi- 
viduals a large, bright chestnut patch 
covers the latter half of the sides. 

It seems to be of rather a listless 
character, delighting to bask in the sun's 

and lying in the strangest attitudes for hours without moving. One of the postures 
which is most in vogue is achieved by throwing the head back with the eyes turned up, and 
then flinging the arms over the head. 

There are several other species belonging to this group of animals, among which may be 
mentioned the Cayou, or Black Spider Monkey, the Chuva, the Brown Coaita, and others. 
The habits, however, of all these creatures are very similar, and therefore only one more 
example will be described. This is the MIRIKI, or MONO, as some authors call it. 

The hair of this species is very thick, short, and furry, of a tolerably uniform brown tint 
over the head, body, and limbs, the paws being much darker than the rest of the animal. 
There is a slight moustache formed by a continuation of the long black hairs which are 
scantily planted on the chin and face. On account of the thick coating of fur with which the 
skin of this animal is covered, water has but little effect upon it. Knowing this wet-repellent 
property, the huifters of Brazil are accustomed to make the skin of the Miriki into cases 
wherewith to cover the locks of their guns in rainy days. 

This species is easily distinguishable from its companions by the presence of a better 

developed thumb on the fore-paws than falls to the lot of spider monkeys generally. 

i 




THE MIRIKI. Brachyteles hypoxantlms. 



rays, 



THE MIRIKI. 79 

I conclude the account of the spider monkeys with a few anecdotes of one of these ani- 
mals, that have been kindly narrated to me by its owner, a captain in the British navy. 

The monkey a lady to whom the name of Sally was given, was captured in British 
Guiana, and brought to the governor of Demerara, from whom it passed to its present gallant 
possessor. Sally seems to be a wondrous favorite, and to take in her owner's heart the place 
of a favorite child. There are many photographic portraits of this sable pet, three of which 
are at present before me, one representing Sally as lying contentedly in her master's lap, her 
little wrinkled face looking over his arm, and her tail twisted round his luiees, while one hind- 
foot is grasping this appendage. A second portrait exhibits her standing on a pedestal, by t 
the side of the captain's coxswain, to whose care she was chiefly committed her left arm 
flung lovingly round his neck, and her tail coiled several times round his right hand, on which 
she is partly sitting. In the third, she is shown standing by the side of the same man, with 
her foot upon his hand, and the tip of her tail round his neck, by way of a change. 

In almost every case there is a slight blur in the monkey's form, owing to the difficulty 
in persuading so volatile an animal as a monkey to remain still for two seconds together. 
However, the proportions of the animal are well preserved, and its characteristic attitudes 
shown clearly enough. 

She is a most gentle creature, only having been known to bite on two occasions, one of 
which was simply in self-defence. She had got loose in the dock yard at Antigua, and had 
been chased by the men for some time. At last she was hemmed into a corner, and would 
have been taken easily, had not the dockyard laborers rather feared her teeth. Her master, 
however, in order to prove that she was not dangerous, caught her, and was rewarded by a 
rather severe bite on his thumb. Had it not been, however, that poor Sally was terrified out 
of her senses by the pursuit of the laborers, she would not have behaved so badly. 

So gentle was she in general, that whenever she received a slight correction for some fault, 
she woiild never attempt to retaliate, but only sidle away and accept the rebuke. Malice does 
not seem to be in her nature, for she soon forgets such injuries, and does not lose her kind 
feelings towards her corrector. Her master tells me that if any one gets bitten by her, it is 
entirely the fault of the sufferer, and not of the monkey. ' 

On board ship she is not trammelled by chain or rope, but is permitted to range the vessel 
at her own sweet will. She revels among the rigging, and when she becomes playful, dances 
about a rope in such a strange manner, and flings her limbs and tail about so fantastically, 
that the spectators are at a loss to distinguish the arms and legs from the tail. When thus 
engaged, the name of spider monkey is peculiarly apposite, for she looks just like a great 
overgrown tarantula in convulsions. During these fits of sportiveness, she stops every now 
and then to shake her head playfully at her friends, and, screwing up her nose into a point, 
utters little, short, soft grunts at intervals. She generally becomes vivacious towards sunset. 

There is a curious custom in which she is in the habit of indulging. She likes to climb 
up the rigging until she reaches a horizontal rope, or small spar, and then, hooking just the 
tip of her tail over it, will hang at full length, slowly swinging backward and forward, while 
she rubs each arm alternately from the wrist to the elbow, as if she were trying to stroke the 
hair the wrong way. She always must needs have her tail round something, and, if possible, 
would not venture a step without securing herself to some object by the means of that long 
and lithe member. 

Unlike many of her relatives, who are inveterate thieves, and with the tips of their tails 
quietly steal objects from which their attention is apparently turned, Sally is remarkably 
honest, never having stolen anything but an occasional fruit or cake. She is accustomed to 
take her dinner at her master's table, and behaves herself with perfect decorum, not even 
beginning to eat until she has obtained permission, and keeping to her own plate like a civil- 
ized being. Her food is mostly composed of vegetables, fruit, and sopped bread, although 
she occasionally is treated to a chicken-bone, and appreciates it highly. 

In the matter of food she is rather fastidious, and if a piece of too stale bread be given to 
her, smells it suspiciously, throws it on the floor, and contemptuously ignores its existence. 
With true monkey instinct, she is capable of distinguishing wholesome from harmful food. 



80 HOWLING MONKEYS. 

and after she had left the tropical fruits far behind, she accepted at once an apple which was 
offered to her, and ate it without hesitation. 

At Belize, Sally was permitted to range the town at large for some days. One morning, 
as her master was passing along the streets, he heard high above his head a little croaking 
sound, which struck him as being very like the voice of his monkey ; and on looking up, there 
was Sally herself, perched on a balcony, croaking in pleased recognition of her friend below. 

Once, and once only, poor Sally got into a sad scrape. Her master was going into his 
cabin, and found Sally sitting all bundled together on the door-mat. He spoke to her, and 
the creature just lifted up her head, looked him in the face, and sank down again in her former 
listless posture. 

"Come here, Sally," said the captain. 

But Sally would not move. 

The order was repeated once or twice, and without the accustomed obedience. 

Surprised at so unusual a circumstance, her master lifted her by the arms, and then made 
the shocking discovery that poor Sally was quite tipsy. She was long past the jovial stage of 
intoxication, and had only just sense enough left to recognize her master. Very ill was Sally 
that night, and very penitent next day. 

The reason for such a catastrophe was as follows : 

The officers of the ship had got together a little dinner party, and being very fond of the 
monkey, had given her such a feed of almonds and raisins, fruits of various kinds, biscuits and 
olives, as she had not enjoyed for many a day. Now of olives in particular, Sally is very 
fond, and having eaten largely of these dainties, the salt juice naturally produced an intense 
thirst. So, when the brandy and water began to make its appearance, Sally pushed her lips 
into a tumbler, and to the amusement of the officers, drank nearly the whole of its cool but 
potent contents. 

Her master remonstrated with the officers for permitting the animal to drink this strong 
liquid ; but there was no necessity for expostulating with the victim. So entirely disgusted 
was the poor monkey, that she never afterwards could endure the taste or even the smell of 
brandy. She was so thoroughly out of conceit with the liquid that had wrought her such woe, 
that even when cherry -brandy was offered to her, the cherries thereof being her special luxury, 
she would shoot cnit her tongue, and with just its tip taste the liquid that covered the dainty 
fruits beneath, but would not venture further. 

She seemed to bear the cold weather tolerably well, and was supplied with plenty of warm 
clothing which stood her in good stead even off the icy coasts of Newfoundland, where, how- 
ever, she expressed her dislike of the temperature by constant shivering. In order to guard 
herself against the excessive cold, she hit upon an ingenious device. There were on board two 
Newfoundland dogs. They were quite young, and the two used to occupy a domicile which 
was furnished with plenty of straw. Into this refuge Sally would creep, and putting an arm 
round each of the puppies and wrapping her tail about them, was happy and warm. 

She was fond of almost all kinds of animals, especially if they were small, but these two 
puppies were her particular pets. Her affection for them was so great, that she was quite 
jealous of them, and if any of the men or boys passed nearer the spot than she considered 
proper, she would come flying out of the little house, and shake her arms at the intruders with 
a menacing gesture as if she meant to annihilate them. 

A kennel had been built for her special accommodation, but she never would go into it. 

She is a very nervous animal, and apparently has a great dislike to any kind of covering over 

her head. So she was accustomed to repudiate her kennel, and to coil herself up in the ham- 

< mock nettings, where she would sleep soundly. She was rather somnolent in character, giving 

, up her eventide gambols soon after dark, and falling into a sound slumber from which she 

does not awake until quite late in the morning. 

Her color was black, but it is remarkable, that once when she was ill, her jetty coat became 
interspersed with hairs of a red tint, imparting an unpleasant rusty hue to her furry mantle. 

The next engraving represents an example of the celebrated group of HOWLING MONKEYS, 
or ALOUATTES as they are termed by some naturalists, whose strange customs have been so 



HOW LINO MONKEYS. 



81 



often noticed by travellers, and whose reverberating cries rend their ears. Little chance is 
there that the Howling Monkeys should ever fade from the memory of any one who has once 
suffered an unwilling martyrdom from their mournful yells. 

Few animals have deserved the name which they bear so well as the Howling Monkeys. 
Their horrid yells are so loud, that they can be heard plainly although the animals which pro- 
duce them are more than a mile distant ; and the sounds that issue from their curiously formed 
throats are strangely simulative of the most discordant outcries of various other animals the 
jaguar being one of the most favorite subjects for imitation. Throughout the entire night their 
dismal ululations resound, persecuting the ears of the involuntarily wakeful traveller with their 




HOWLING MONKEYS. Mycetes sen^ut. 



oppressive pertinacity, and driving far from his wearied senses the slumber which he courts, 
but courts in vain. As if to give greater energy to the performance, and to worry their neigh- 
bors as much as possible, the Araguatos have a fashion of holding conversations, in which 
each member does his best to overpower the rest. 

A similar custom is in vogue with many of the African and Asiatic monkeys, but with 
this difference. The above-mentioned animals certainly lift up their voices together, but then, 
each individual appears to be talking on his own account, so that the sound, although it is 
sufficiently loud to affect a listener's ears most unpleasantly, is disjointed and undecided. 

But the Howlers give forth their cries with a consentaneous accord, that appears to be the 
result of discipline rather than of instinct alone. 

Indeed, the natives assert that in each company, one monkey takes the lead, and acting as 
toast-master, or as conductor of an orchestra, gives a signal which is followed by the rest of 
the band. The result of the combined voices of these stentorian animals may be imagined. 



82 CAPUCIN MONKEYS. 

And. when the effect of this melancholy and not at all musical intermittent bellow is heightened 
by the silence of night and the darkness that hangs over the midnight hours in the dense 
forests, it may easily be supposed, that but little sleep would visit the eyes of one who had 
not served an apprenticeship to the unearthly sounds that fill the night air of these regions. 

In order that an animal of so limited a size should be enabled to produce sounds of such 
intensity and volume, a peculiar structure of the vocal organs is necessary. 

The instrument by means of which the Howlers make night dismal with their funestral 
wailings, is found to be the "hyoid bone," a portion of the form which is very slightly devel- 
oped in man, but very largely in these monkeys. In man, the bone in question gives support 
to the tongue and is attached to numerous muscles of the neck. In the Howling Monkeys it 
takes a wider range of duty, and, by a curious modification of structure, forms a bony drum 
which communicates with the windpipe and gives to the voice that powerful resonance, which 
has made the Alouattes famous. 

It is said by those who have been able to watch the habits of these creatures, that the 
howlings of the Alouattes are but nocturnal serenades addressed by the amorous monkeys to 
their arboreal lovers. It is proverbial that good taste, both in beauty and art, are dependent 
entirely upon race and date, and so the deafening yells of a band of howling Araguatos may 
be as pleasing in the ears of their listening mates as Romeo's loving words to Juliet in her 
balcony ; or as, to bring the matter nearer our home and sympathies, the tender plaints of our 
favorite Tom-cat upon the housetop to his inamorata in the neighboring garden. 

The howling monkeys are said to be less gentlo than the spider monkeys, and to partake 
more of the baboon nature than any of their American brethren. From the fact of their large 
size, their formation of head and face, together with one or two other peculiarities, some natu- 
ralists have considered the Alouattes to be the Western representatives of the baboons that 
inhabit the Eastern continent. 

There is rather an ingenioiis mode of capturing these monkeys, which is worthy of notice. 

A certain plant, the "Lecythis," produces a kind of nut, which, when emptied of its con- 
tents, becomes a hollow vessel with a small mouth. Into one of these hollowed nuts a quan- 
tity of sugar is placed, the nut left in some locality where the monkey is likely to find it, and 
the monkey-catchers retreat to some spot whence they can watch unseen the effect of their 
trap. 

So tempting an object cannot lie on the ground for any length of time without being 
investigated, by the inquisitive monkeys. One of them soon finds out the sweet treasure of 
the nut, and squeezes his hand through the narrow opening for the purpose of emptying the 
contents. Grasping a handful of sugar, he tries to pull it out, but cannot do so because the 
orifice is not large enough to permit the passage of the closed hand with its prize. Certainly, 
he could extricate his hand by leaving the sugar and drawing out his hand empty, but his 
acquisitive nature will not suffer him to do so. At this juncture, the ambushed hunters issue 
forth and give chase to the monkey. At all times, these monkeys are clumsy enough on a 
level surface, but w T hen encumbered with the heavy burden, which is often as big as the mon- 
key's own head, and deprived of one of its hands, it falls an easy victim to the pursuers. 

All these monkeys are eaten by the inhabitants of these lands, being cooked upon an 
extempore scaffolding of hard wood. Their flesh is very dry indeed, so much so, that a 
monkey' s arm has been preserved for many years only by being roasted over a fire. 

They are not so playful in their habits as most of the monkey tribe, even when young 
preserving a solid gravity of demeanor. They are very numerous among the trees of their 
favorite resorts, as many as forty individuals having been seen upon one tree. 

The Howlers (Mycetes) are represented by several interesting species. The characteristic 
feature of this group of monkeys is the development of the hyoid bone, which is so enlarged 
as to form a hollow bony vessel in the throat. By this arrangement of the vocal organs the 
creature is enabled to produce a hideous howling noise. They are large and heavy creatures, 
and have a very complete prehensile tail. 

The CAPUCIN MONKEYS are active little animals, lively and playful. In habits, all the 
species seem to be very similar, so that the description of one will serve equally for any other. 



CAPUCIN MONKEYS. 



83 



In consequence of their youth and sportive manners they are frequently kept in a domesti- 
cated state, both by the native Indians and by European settlers. Like several other small 
monkeys, the Capucin often strikes up a friendship for other animals that may happen to live 
in or near its home, the cat being one of the most favored of their allies. Sometimes it carries 
its familiarity so far as to turn the cat into a steed for the nonce, and, seated upon her back, 
to perambulate the premises. More unpromising subjects for equestrian exercise have been 
pressed into the service by the Capucin. Humboldt mentions one of these creatures which 
was accustomed to catch a pig every morning, and, mounting \ipon its back, to retain its seat 
during the day. Even while the pig was feeding in the savannahs its rider remained firm, and 
bestrode its victim with as much pertinacity as Sindbad's old man of the sea. 




CAPUCIN MONKEYS. 

There is some difficulty in settling the species of the Capucins, for their fur is rather vari- 
able in tint, in some cases differing so greatly as to look like another species. The general 
tint of the CAPUCIN is a golden olive, a whiter fur bordering the face in some individuals, 
though not in all. 

The HORNED CAPUCIN is much more conspicuous that the last-mentioned animal, as the 
erect fringe of hair that stands so boldly from the forehead points it out at once. When 
viewed in front, the hair assumes the appearance of two tufts or horns, from which peculiarity 
the creature derives its name. These horns are not fully developed until the monkey has 
attained maturity. 

In color, too, it is rather different from the Capucin, having a constant tinge of red in it. 
The fur is mostly of a deep brown, but in some individuals resembles that peculiar purple 
black which is obtained by diluting common black ink with water, while in others the ruddy 
hue prevails so strongly as to impart a chestnut tint to the hair. The fringed crest is tipped 
with gray. 



84 CAPUCIN MONKEYS. 

The last example of the Capucins which will be noticed in these pages, is the WEEPER 
MONKEY, or SAI. 

As is the case with the two previously-mentioned animals, it is an inhabitant of the 
Brazils, and as lively as any of its congeners. The tails of the Capucins are covered with 
hair, but are still possessed of prehensile powers. All these monkeys seem to be possessed 
of much intelligence, and their little quaint ways make them great favorites with those who 
watch their motions. 

Their food is chiefly of a vegetable nature, but they are fond of various insects, sometimes 
rising to higher prey, as was once rather unexpectedly proved. A linnet was placed, by way 
of experiment, in a cage containing two Capucin monkeys, who pounced upon their winged 




8AI. debut capuctnus. 

visitor, caught it, and the stronger of the two devoured it with such avidity that it would not 
even wait to pluck off the feathers. Eggs are also thought to form part of the Capucin' s food. 

The Capucins, so named from several of them having the head so decorated by hair as to 
resemble a monk' s cowl. One little species, called Sai, is often seen in confinement as a pet. 
It is also called Weeper, from the fact that its eyes are usually suffused with tears. Monkeys 
that are usually seen exhibited in the streets are of this group ; being very gentle and suscep- 
tible of considerable education of a certain character. 

There is always much difficulty with regard to the names of various animals, as almost 
every systematic naturalist prefers a name of his own invention to one which has already been 
in use. It often happens, therefore, that the same creature has been burdened with ten or 
fifteen titles, given to it by as many writers. The chacma, for example, has been named 
"Cynocephalus porcarius" by one author, "Simia porcaria" by another, "Simia sphingiola" 
by a third, "Papio comatus" by a fourth, and "Cynocephalus ursinus" by a fifth. In order 
to avoid the great waste of valuable space that would be caused by giving a list of these various 
names, I only make use of the title by w T hich each animal is designated in the catalogue of the 
British Museum, and under which name it may be found in that magnificent collection. 



THE TEE- TEE. 



A very pretty genus of monkeys comes next in order, deriving from the beauty of their 
fur, the term Callithrix, or "beautiful hair." Sometimes these animals are called Squirrel 
Monkeys, partly on account of their shape and size, and partly from the squirrel-like activity 
that characterizes these light and graceful little creatures. The TEE-TEE, or Tm as the 
name is sometimes given is a native of Brazil, and is found in great numbers. Another name 
for the animal is the SAIMIRI. 

The Tee-tees form a group, embracing many specimens, mostly small, and delicate in 
features. The most singular characteristic of these little monkeys is the habit of watching 
the countenance of its human attendants, as if they were striving to learn what is said to 
them. 

The colors of the Tee-tee are very 
diversified. A grayish olive is spread 
over the body and limbs, the latter being 
washed with a rich golden hue. The ears 
are quite white, and the under surface of 
the body is whitish gray. The tip of the 
tail is black. 

There are several species of Tee-tee, 
four of which are in the British Museum. 

They are most engaging little crea- 
tures, attaching themselves strongly to 
their possessors, and beha\ ing with a gen- 
tle intelligence that lifts them far above 
the greater part of the monkey race. 
Their temper is most amiable, and anger 
seems to be almost unknown to them. 
In the expression of their countenance, 
there is something of an infantine inno- 
cence, which impresses itself the more 
strongly when the little creatures are 
alarmed. Sudden tears fill the clear hazel 
eyes, and, by the little, imploring, shrink- 
ing gestures, they establish an irresisti- 
ble claim on all kindly sympathies. 

The Tee-tees have a curious habit of 
watching the lips of those who speak to 
them, just as if they could understand the 
words that are spoken, and when they 
become quite familiar are fond of sitting 

on their friend's shoulder, and laying their tiny fingers on his lips. They seem to have 
an intuitive idea of the empire of language, and to try, in their own little way, to discover its 
mysteries. 

A pleasant musky odor exhales from these animals. Their beautiful, furry tails have no 
prehensile power, but can be wrapped about any object, or even coiled round their own bodies 
in order to keep them warm. 

The Cuxio, or BEARDED SAKI, which is represented on page 88, is no less remarkable 
in its character than in its looks. It is savage in its temper, and liable to gusts of furious 
passion, during which it is apt to be a very unpleasant neighbor, for it has long sharp teeth, 
and does not hesitate to use them. 

On examining this animal, the attention is at once drawn to the curious manner in which 
both extremities of the body are decorated. 

The beard is of a dull black color, and is formed chiefly by hairs which start from the 
sides of the jaw and chin, and project forward in the curious fashion which gives the animal 
so strange an expression. 




tmaia. 



86 



THE SAKIS. 



Of this ornament the Cuxio is mightily careful, protecting its facial ornament with a 
veneration equal to that beard-worship for which the mediaeval Spanish noble was world- 
famous. It is even more fastidious in this respect than the Diana monkey, whose beard-pro- 
tecting customs have been alluded to on page 43. The Diana will hold its beard aside when it 
drinks ; but the more cautious Cuxio forbears to put its face near the water. Instead of 
drinking a deep draught by suction, as is the custom with most monkeys, it scoops up the 
liquid in the palm of its hand, and so avoids the danger of wetting its beard. 

This curious habit, however, is but rarely witnessed, as the animal dislikes to exhibit its 
fastidiousness before spectators, and only when it thinks itself unwatched will it use its 

natural goblet. When in the presence 
of witnesses it drinks as do other mon- 
keys, wetting its beard without com- 
punction. 

The general color of this monkey 
is a grizzled brown, sometimes speckled 
with rust-colored hairs, and the limbs, 
tail, and head are black. If, however, 
the hair of the body be blown aside, 
a grayish hair takes the place of the 
dark brown ; for the hairs are much 
lighter towards their insertion, and 
in many cases are nearly white. The 
hair of the head is remarkable for 
the mode of its arrangement, which 
gives it an air as if it had been 
parted artificially. The long black 
hairs start from a line down the 
centre of the head, and fall oyer the 
temples so densely that they quite 
conceal the ears under their thick 
locks. The large quantity of hair 
that decorates the head and face in- 
creases the really great comparative 
size of the rounded head. The nostrils 
are rather large, and are separated 
from each other by a dividing carti- 
THE sAmjRi.-c'afliMrfx saurea. lage which is larger than is usual 

even in the American monkeys. 

The teeth are so sharp and the jaws so strong, that Humboldt has seen the animal, when 
enraged, drive its weapons deeply into a thick plank. When it suffers from a fit of passion, 
it grinds these sharp teeth, leaps about in fury, and rubs the extremity of its long beard. 
Even when slightly irritated, it grins with savage rage, threatening the offender with menacing 
grimaces, and wrinkling the skin of its jaws and face. 

It is not known to live in companies, as is the wont of most American monkeys, but passes 
a comparatively solitary life, limiting its acquaintance to its partner and its family. The cry 
of this animal is rather powerful, and can be heard at a considerable distance. The color of 
the female Cuxio is not so dark as that of her mate, being almost wholly of a rusty brown. It 
is chiefly nocturnal in its habits. 

There are several monkeys known by the name of Sakis, among which are reckoned the 
Cuxio, which has just been described, and two other species, which are easily distinguished 
from each other by the color of their heads. The first of these animals is the BLACK YABKE, 
or WHITE-HEADED SAKI, and the other the CACAJAO, or BLACK-HEADED SAKI. 

The former of these Sakis is a rather elegant creature in form, and of color more varied 
than those of the Cuxio, As will be seen from the accompanying engraving, the head is sur- 




THE SAKIS. 



87 



rounded with a thick and closely-set fringe of white hair, which is rather short in the male, 
but long and drooping in the female. The top of the head is of a deep black, and the 
remainder of the body and tail is covered with very long and rather coarse hair of a blackish- 
brown. Under the chin and throat the hairs are almost entirely absent, and the skin is of an 
orange hue. 

Beside the difference of length in the facial hairs of the female Yarke, there are several 
distinctions between the sexes, which are so decided as to have caused many naturalists to 
consider the male and female to belong to different species. The hair of the female Yarke is 
decorated near the tip with several rings of a rusty brown color, while the hair of the male is 
entirely devoid of these marks. 

The natural food of these animals is said to consist chiefly of wild bees and their honey- 
combs. Perhaps the long furry hair with which the Sakis are covered, may be useful for the 




BLACK YARKE. Pitheda Uucocephala. 

purpose of defending them from the stings of the angry insects. On account of the full and 
bushy tail with w y hich the members of this group are furnished, they are popularly classed 
together under the title of Fox-tailed Monkeys. 

The two animals which have just been noticed are marked by such decided peculiarities 
of form and color that they can easily be distinguished from any other monkeys. The Cuxio 
is known by its black beard and parted hair, the Black Yarke by its dark body and white 
head-fringe, while the CACAJAO is conspicuous by reason of its black head and short tail. 

When this animal was first discovered, it was thought that the tail had been docked 
either by some accident, or by the teeth of the monkey itself, as is the custom with so many 
of the long-tailed monkeys of the Old World. But the natives of the country where it lives 
assert that its brevity of tail is a distinctive character of the species. Indeed, among the 
many names which have been given to the Cacajao, one of them, "Mono Rabon," or short- 
tailed Mono, refers to this peculiarity. On account of the very short tail, and the general 
aspect of the animal, the Cacajao is supposed by some naturalists to be the American repre- 
sentative of the Magot. 

The head of the creature is not only remarkable for its black hue, but for its shape, which, 
instead of being rounded, as is the case with most monkeys, is slightly flattened at the 
temples. The general color of the fur is a bright yellowish-brown, the only exceptions being 
the head and the fore-paws, which are black. The ears are devoid of hair, are very large in 
proportion to the size of the animal, and have something of the human character about them. 



88 



THE DOUROUCOULI. 



The lejigth of the head and body is said to reach nearly two feet in full-grown animals, and 
the tail is from three to five inches long, according to the size of the individual. 

Very little is known of the habits of the Cacajao in a wild state, but in captivity it bears 
the character of being a very inactive and very docile animal. Fruits seem to be its favorite 
diet, and when eating them it has a habit of bending over its food in a very peculiar attitude. 
It is not so adroit in handling objects as are the generality of monkeys, and seems to feel some 
difficulty in the management of its long and slender fingers, so that its manner of eating is 
rather awkward than otherwise. 

Among the names by which this monkey is known, we may mention, "Mono-feo," or 
Hideous Monkey, Chucuto, Chucuzo, and Caruiri. The term " Melanocephala " signifies 

Black-headed, while the word "Leuco- 
cephala," which is applied to the Yarke, 
signifies White-headed. 

It seems to be a timid, as well as a 
quiet animal, as a Cacajao which had 
been domesticated displayed some alarm 
at the sight of several small monkeys 
of its own country, and trembled violently 
when a lizard or a serpent was brought 
before its eyes. 

The localities where it is most gen- 
erally found are the forests which border 
the Rio Negro and the Cassiquiare, but 
it does not seem to be very plentiful even 
in its own land. 

The Cuxio or Saki (Brachyurus) 
belongs to a group having singular de- 
velopments of tail and beard. The former 
member is often very thickly beset with 
hairs, and altogether it resembles a large 
pompon. The beard is extremely large 
and bushy. 

The White-headed Saki resembles 
an old colored man with a full head of 
silvery hair. 

Other species are characterized by 
very short tails. The White Acari (Ouar- 
karia calva) is much in request by the natives of Tapura, South America. They shoot them 
with poisoned arrows, and then immediately restore them by applying salt to their mouths. 

Some small monkeys belonging to another group are represented by the more familiar 
little creature called Douroucouli (Nyctipithecus trivergatus). The first systematic term refers 
to their nocturnal habits, meaning literally, night-monkey. The eyes are 'very large, and the 
hair of the orbit is arranged much as it is on the owls. They are so sensitive to light, that it 
cannot endure the glare of day, and only awakes to activity and energy when the shades of 
night throw their welcome veil over the face of nature. At night the woods resound with cries 
of duruculi, which has given rise to the trivial name of the monkey. 

In its wild state, it seeks the shelter of some hollow tree or other darkened place of refuge, 
and there abides during the hours of daylight, buried in a slumber so deep, that it can with 
difficulty be aroused, even though the rough hand of its captor drag it from its concealment. 
During sleep it gathers all its four feet closely together, and drops its head between its fore- 
paws. It seems to be one of the owls of the monkey race. 

The food of this Douroiicouli is mostly of an animal nature ; and consists chiefly of insects 
and small birds, which it hunts and captures in the night season. After dark, the Dourou- 
couli awakes from the torpid lethargy in which it has spent the day, and shaking off its drowsi- 







CUXIO, OR BEAKDED SAKI. Brachyurus Satanae. 



THE MARMOSET. 



89 



ness, becomes filled with life and spirit. The large dull eyes, that shrank from the dazzling 
rays of the sun, light up with eager animation at eventide ; the listless limbs are instinct with 
fiery activity, every sense is aroused to keen perception, and the creature sets off on its nightly 
quest. Such is then its agile address, that it can capture even the quick-sighted and ready- 
winged flies as they flit by, striking rapid blows at them with its little paws. 

The general color of the Douroucouli is a grayish- white, over which a silvery lustre plays 
in certain lights. The spine is marked with a brown line, and the breast, abdomen, and inside 
of the limbs, are marked with a very light chestnut, almost amounting to orange. The face 
is remarkable for three very distinct black lines, which radiate from each other, and which 
have earned for the animal the title of "Trivergatus," or "Three-striped." There are but 
very slight external indications of ears, and in order to expose the organs of hearing, it is 
necessary to draw aside the fur of the head. 
On account of this peculiarity, Humboldt 
separated the Douroucouli from its neighbors, 
and formed it into a distinct family, which he 
named "Aotes," or "Earless." 

Guiana and Brazil are the countries where 
this curioiis little animal is found. Although 
by no means an uncommon species, it is not 
taken very plentifully, on account of its monog- 
amous habits. The male and his mate may 
often be discovered sleeping snugly together in 
one bed, but never in greater numbers, unless 
there may be a little family at the time. Its 
cry is singularly loud, considering the small 
size of the animal which utters it, and bears 
some resemblance to the roar of the jaguar. 
'Besides this deep-toned voice, it can hiss or 
spit like an angry cat, mew with something of 
a cat-like intonation, and litter a guttural, 
short, and rapidly repeated bark. The fur is 
used for the purpose of covering pouches and 
similar articles. 

The beautiful little creature which is so 
well known by the name of the MARMOSET, or 
OUISTITI, is a native of the same country as the 
Douroucouli, and is even more attractive in 

its manners and appearance. The fur is long and exquisitely soft, diversified with bold stripes 
of black iipon a ground of white and reddish-yellow. The tail is long and full ; its color is 
white, encircled with numerous rings of a hue so deep that it may almost be called black. A 
radiating tuft of white hairs springs from each side of the face, and contrasts well with the 
jetty hue of the head. 

On account of the beauty of its fur, and the gentleness of its demeanor when rightly 
treated, it is frequently brought from its native land, and forced to lead a life of compelled 
civilization in foreign climes. It is peculiarly sensitive to cold, and always likes to have its 
house well furnished with soft and warm bedding, which it piles up in a corner, and under 
which it delights to hide itself. 

The Marmosets do not seem to be possessed of a very large share of intelligence, but yet 
are engaging little creatures if kindly treated. They are very fond of flies and other insects, 
and will often take a fly from the hand of the visitor. One of these animals with whom I 
struck up an acquaintance, took great pleasure in making me catch flies for its use, and taking 
them daintily out of my hand. When it saw my hand sweep over a doomed fly, the bright 
eyes sparkled with eager anticipation ; and when I approached the cage, the little creature 
thrust its paws through the bars as far as the wires would permit, and opened and closed the 




NIGHT-MONKEY, OR DOVROVCOVLI.-A-yclipittteau liirirgatut. 



90 



THE MARMOSET. 



tiny fingers with restless impatience. It then insinuated its hand among my closed fingers, 
and never failed to find and to capture the imprisoned fly. 

When properly tamed, the Marmoset will come and sit on its owner' s hand, its little paws 
clinging tightly to his fingers, and its tail coiled over his hand or wrist. Or it will clamber 
up his arm and sit on his shoulders, or if chilly, hide itself beneath his coat, or even creep 
into a convenient pocket. 

The Marmoset has a strange liking for hair, and is fond of playing with the locks of its 
owner. One of these little creatures, which was the property of a gentleman adorned with a 
large bushy beard, was wont to creep to its master's face, and to nestle among the thick masses 
of beard which decorated his chin. Another Marmoset, which belonged to a lady, and which 




GBOUP OF MARMOSETS. 

was liable to the little petulances of its race, used to vent its anger by nibbling the end of her 
ringlets. If the hair were bound round her head, the curious little animal would draw a tress 
down, and bite its extremity, as if it were trying to eat the hair by degrees. The same indi- 
vidual was possessed of an accomplishment which is almost unknown among these little 
monkeys, namely, standing on its head. 

Generally the Marmoset preserves silence ; but if alarmed or irritated, it gives vent to a 
little sharp whistle, from which it has gained its name of Ouistiti. It is sufficiently active 
when in the enjoyment of good health, climbing and leaping about from bar to bar with an 
agile quickness that reminds the observer of a squirrel. 

Its food is both animal and vegetable in character ; the animal portion being chiefly com- 
posed of various insects, eggs, and it may be, an occasional young bird, and the vegetable diet 
ranging through most of the edible fruits. A tame Marmoset has been known to pounce upon 
a living gold fish, and to eat it. In consequence of this achievement, some young eels were 



THE PINCHE. 



91 



given to the animal, and at first terrified it by their strange writhings, but in a short time they 
were mastered, and eaten. 

Cockroaches are a favorite article of food with the Marmoset, who might be put to good 
service in many a house. In eating these troublesome insects, the Marmoset nips off the head, 
wings, and bristly legs, eviscerates the abdomen, and so prepares the insect before it is finally 
eaten. These precautions, however, are only taken when the cockroach is one of the larger 
specimens, the smaller insects being eaten up at once, without any preparation whatever. 

Several instances of the birth of young Marmosets have taken place in Europe, but the 
young do not seem to thrive well in these climates. The color of the young animal is a dusky 
gray, without the beautiful markings which distinguish them when adult, and the tail is 
destitute of hair. 

The length of the full-grown Marmoset is from seven to eight inches, exclusive of the tail, 
which measures about a foot. 

Among the elegant little animals which are represented in the preceding page are members of 
the same genus as the Marmoset, inhabitants of nearly the same localities, and possessed of many 
similar qualities. 



-- 




THE PWCBK.Ba 



The PINCHE is remarkable for the tuft of white and long hair which it bears on its head, 
and which is so distinctly marked, that the little creature almost seems to be wearing an arti- 
ficial head of hair. The throat, chest, abdomen, and arms, are also white, and the edges of 
the thighs are touched with the same tint. On each shoulder there is a patch of reddish- 
chestnut, fading imperceptibly into the white fur of the chest, and the grayish-brown hair that 
covers the remainder of the body. Its eyes are quite black. 

The tail of the animal is long and moderately full ; its color slightly changes from the 
russet-brown tint with which it commences, to a deeper shade of brownish-black. Its voice is 
soft and gentle, and has often been compared to the twittering of a bird. 

The Pinche is quite as delicate in point of health as its slight form seems to indicate, and 
can with difficulty endure the privations of a voyage. "When the animal is full-grown, the 
length of its head and body is about eight inches, and that of its tail rather exceeding a foot. 

Among the various members of the money tribe, there is hardly any species that can com- 
pare with the exqisite little MARIKINA, either for grace of form, or soft beauty of color. 

The hair with which this creature is covered is of a bright and lustrous chestnut, with a 
golden sheen playing over its long glossy locks. To the touch, the fur of the Marikina is pecu- 
liarly smootli and silken ; and from this circumstance it is sometimes called the Silky Monkey. 

Both for the texture and color of the hair, the name is happily chosen, for the tint of the 
Marikina' s fur is just that of the orange-colored silk as it is wound from the cocoon, while in 
texture it almost vies with the fine fibres of the unwoven silk itself. 

Another name for the same animal is the Lion Monkey, because its little face looks out of 
the mass of hair like a lion from out of his mane. 



92 



THE LEMURS. 



The color of the hair is nearly uniform, but not quite so. On the paws it darkens con 
siderably, and it is of a deeper tint on the forehead and the upper surface of the limbs than on 
the remainder of the body. Some specimens are wholly of a darker hue. In no place is the 
fur very short ; but on the head, and about the shoulders, it is of very great length in propor- 
tion to the size of the animal. 

The Marikina is rightly careful of its beautiful clothing, and is fastidious to a degree about 
preserving its glossy brightness free from stain. Whether when wild, it keeps its own house 

clean, or whether it has no house at all, is 
not as yet accurately ascertained ; but in 
captivity, it requires that all cleansing shall 
be performed by other hands. This sloth- 
fulness is the more peculiar, because the 
creature is so sensitive on the subject, that 
if it be in the least neglected, it loses its 
pretty gaiety, pines away and dies. 

It is fond of company, and can seldom 
be kept alone for any length of time. The 
food of the Marikina is chiefly composed 
of fruits and insects ; but in captivity, it 
will eat biscuit and drink milk. It is a 
very timid animal, unable to fight a foe, 
but quick in escape, and adroit in con- 
cealment. Its voice is soft and gentle 
when the animal is pleased, but when it is 
excited by anger or fear, it utters a rather 
sharp hiss. The dimensions of the Mari- 
kina are much the same as those of the 
Pinche. 

The Marmosets (Jacc7ius) are repre- . 
sented by several species, all very small, 
and delicate in their features. They have 
much the same habits as the squirrels. 
Being so petite they readily climb out 
upon the slender branches of trees, where 
they rob nests of birds and prey upon 




The little caricatures of a lion seen in some of the species, are highly suggestive of the 
king of beasts in the full array of flowing mane. 



THE LEMURS. 

THE form of the monkeys which are known by the name of Lemurs, is of itself sufficient 
to show that we are rapidly approaching the more quadrupedal mammalia, the which, how- 
ever, we shall only reach through the wing-handed animals, or bats, and the strangely formed 
flying-monkey, which seems to span the gulf between the monkeys and bats. 

The head of all the Lemurs is entirely unlike the usual monkey head, and even in the 
skull the distinction is as clearly marked as in the living being. Sharp, long, and pointed, 
the muzzle and jaws are singularly fox-like, while the general form of these animals, and 
the mode in which they walk, would lead a hasty observer to place them among the true 
quadrupeds. Yet, on a closer examination, the quadrumanous characteristics are seen so 
plainly, that the Lemurs can but be referred to their proper position among, or rather, at the 
end of, the monkey tribe. 

The word Lemur signifies a night-wandering ghost, and has been applied to this group 



THE LEMURS. 



of animals on account of their nocturnal habits, and their stealthy, noiseless step, which 
renders their progress almost as inaudible as that of the unearthly beings from whom they 
derive their name. 

The RUFFED LEMUR is one of the handsomest of this family, challenging a rivalship even 
with the Ring-tailed Lemur in point of appearance. 

The texture of the fur is extremely fine, and its color presents bold contrasts between pure 
white and a jetty blackness, the line of demarcation being strongly defined. The face of the 
Ruffed Lemur is black, and a fringe of long white hairs stands out like a ruff round the face, 
giving to the creature its very 
appropriate title. 

As is the case with all the 
Lemurs, it is a native of Mada- 
gascar and of the adjacent 
islands, and seems to take the 
place of the ordinary monkeys. 
Of all the Lemurs this species 
is the largest, its size equalling 
that of a moderately grown cat. 
Its voice is a sepulchral, deep 
roar, peculiarly loud, consider- 
ing the size of the animal, and 
can be heard at a great distance 
in the stilly night. As the Le- 
murs delight in gathering to- 
gether in large companies, the 
effect of their united voices is 
most deafening. The eyes are 
furnished with a transverse pu- 
pil, which dilates as darkness 
draws on, enabling the creature 4 

to see even in a dark night, and 
to make search after their daily, 
or rather their nightly food. 

This species is timid at the 
presence of man, and hides itself 
at the sound of his footsteps. 
But if pursued and attacked, it 
takes instant courage from de- 
spair, and flinging itself boldly 

on its antagonist, wages fierce battle. In the conflict, its sharp teeth stand it in good stead, 
and inflict wounds of no trifling severity. 

It is easily tamed, and although it is not a very intellectual animal, it displays much gentle 
affection, readily recognizing its friends, and offering itself for their caresses, but avoiding the 
touch of those with whom it is not acquainted, or to whom it takes a dislike. It is very 
impatient of cold, and likes to sit before a fire, where it will perch itself for an hour at a time 
without moving, its attention solely taken up by the grateful warmth. 

It is an active creature, being able to leap to some distance, and always attaining its mark 
with unfailing accuracy. While leaping or running rapidly, the tail is held in a peculiar and 
graceful attitude, following, indeed, Hogarth's line of beauty. 

The RING-TAILED LEMUR, or MACAO, is at once recognizable by the peculiarity from which 
it derives its popular name. 

It is not quite so large as the Ruffed Lemur, as it only measures a foot from nose to tail, 
the tail itself being some seven or eight inches in length. In captivity it soon becomes familiar, 
and when it chooses to exhibit its powers, is very amusing with its merry pranks. If several 




RUFFED LEMUR.- Lemur macaco. 



94 



THE LEMURS. 



individuals are confined in the same cage, they are fond of huddling together, and involving 
themselves in such a strange entanglement of tails, limbs, and heads, that until they separate, 
it is almost impossible to decide upon the number of the animals that form the variegated mass. 
It sometimes breeds in confinement, and then affords an interesting sight. The young 
Lemur is not so thickly clothed as its mother, but makes up deficiencies in its own covering 
by burying itself in the soft fur of its parent. Many a time have I seen the little creature 
sunk deeply in the soft fur of its mother's back, and so harmonizing with her, that the child 
could hardly be distinguished from the parent. Sometimes it would creep under the mother, 
and cling with arms and legs so firmly, that although she might move about her cage, the little 
one was not shaken off, but held as firmly as Ulysses to the Cyclops' mm. 

There is a curious structure in the 
hand and arm of this Lemur, bearing con- 
siderable analogy to the formation of the 
spider monkey's tail. By means of this 
construction of the limb, the fingers of the 
hand are closed when the arm is stretched 
out, so that the animal can suspend itself 
from a tree-branch, without incurring 
fatigue. It sometimes utters a sound which 
resembles the purring of a cat, and from 
that habit is derived the name of Cattus. 
The manner in which the dark spots and 
rings are distributed over the body and 
tail is well shown in the engraving, and 
need not be described. 

The WHITE-FRONTED LEMUR derives 
its name from the patch of white hairs 
which appears on its forehead. Some natu- 
ralists suppose it to be the female of ;i 
similar animal on whose forehead a sable 
patch is substituted for the white, and is 
therefore called the Black-fronted Lemur. 
At present, however, the Black-fronted 
animal is considered to be a distinct spe- 
cies ; and the only difference between the 
sexes of the White-fronted Lemur seems 
to be, that in the male animal the forehead 
and some other portions of the fur are 
white, while in the female they are of a 

light gray. The general color of the animal is a brownish chestnut, but in some examples a 
gray tint takes the place of the darker color. 

It is a gentle and engaging creature, and not at all shy, even to strangers, unless they 
alarm it by loud voices or hasty gestures. It is possessed of great agility, climbing trees, and 
running among the branches with perfect ease, and capable of springing through a space of 
several yards. So gently does it alight on the ground after it leaps, that the sound of its feet 
can hardly be heard as they touch the ground. 

The RED LEMUR possesses a fur which has somewhat of a woolly aspect, the hair separating 
I into tufts, each of which is slightly curled. It is a beautifully decorated animal, displaying 
considerable contrast of coloring. The body, head, and the greater portion of the limbs, are 
of a fine chestnut, with the exception of a large white patch covering the back of the head and 
nape of the neck, and a smaller one in the midst of each foot. The face, the tail, and paws, 
are black, as is all the under side of the body. This latter circumstance is most remarkable, as 
it is almost a general rale that the under parts of animals are lighter in tint than the upper. 
Around the sides of the face, the hair is of a paler chestnut than that which covers the body. 




RING-TAILED LEMUR. Lemur calta. 



THE LEMURS. 



95 



In habits it is similar to the Lemurs which have already been described. Being naturally 
a nocturnal animal, it passes the day in a drowsy somnolence, its head pushed between its 
legs, and the long, bushy tail wrapped round its body, as if to exclude the light and retain the 
heat. Should it be accustomed to be fed during the daytime, it shakes off its slumber for the 
purpose of satisfying the calls of hunger ; but even though urged by so strong an inducement, 
it awakes with lingering reluctance, and sinks to sleep again as soon as the demands of its 
appetite are satisfied. Its entire length is nearly three feet, of which the tail occupies about 
twenty inches. Its height is about a foot. , 

The curious animal which is known by the name of the DIADEM LEMUR, is generally 
thought to belong quite as much, if not more, to the Indris than to the Lemurs, and has, there- 
fore, been placed by Mr. Bennett in a separate genus, which he names, Propithecus. 




PKOPITHECE, OR DIADEM lEtfVR.-PmpiUitcm diadema. 

The name of Diadem Lemur is given to this creature on account of the white semi-lunar 
stripe which runs across the forehead ; the curve being just the opposite to the crescent on the 
head of the Diana monkey, and therefore assuming the shape of a diadem. This white stripe 
is very conspicuous, and serves by its bold contrast with the black head and face, to distin- 
guish the animal from any of its relatives. The shoulders and upper part of the back are of 
a sooty tint, not so black as the head, and fading almost imperceptibly into palest brown on 
the hinder quarters and the limbs. The under parts of the body are very light gray, nearly 
white. The paws are nearly black. The tail is tawny at its commencement, but gradually 
changes its color by the admixture of lighter hairs, until at its tip it is nearly white, although 
with a slight golden tinge. 

The hair of the tail is not so long as that of the body, which is long and rather silky in 
texture, with the exception of the fur about the lower end of the spine, which has a slight 
woolliness to the touch. As may be seen from the engraving, the thumbs of the hinder paws 



96 



THE LOR IS. 



are large in proportion, and suited for taking a firm grasp of any object to which the animal 
may cling ; while the corresponding members of the fore-paws are not so largely developed, 
but yet can be used with some freedom. The face of the Propithece is not so long as that of 
the true Lemurs, and the round tipped ears are hidden in the bushy hair which surrounds the 
head. The length of the animal, exclusively of the tail, is about twenty -one inches, and the 
length of the tail is about four inches less. 

Resembling the Lemurs in many respects, and given to similar customs, the swiimals which 
are known by the name of Loris are distinguished from the Lemurs by several peculiarities of 
structure. 

The first point which strikes the eye of the observer, is the want of that long and bushy 

tail which is possessed by the Lemurs, 
and which is only rudimentary in the 
Loris. The muzzle too, although sharp 
and pointed, is abruptly so, whereas 
that of the Lemur tapers gradually 
from the ears to the nose. The country 
which they inhabit is not the same as 
that which nurtures the Lemurs, for 
whereas the latter animals are found ex- 
clusively in Madagascar, the Loris is 
found in Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, and 
other neighboring parts. 

The SLENDER LORIS is a small ani- 
mal, measuring only nine inches in 
length, and possessed of limbs so deli- 

I& _p cately slender, as to have earned for it 

H|^ J the popular name by which it is distin- 

guished from the Slow-paced Loris. Its 
color is gray, with a slight rusty tinge, 
the under portions of the body fading 
into white. Round the eyes, the fur 
takes a darker hue, which is well con- 
trasted by a white streak running along 
the nose. 

Small though it be, and apparently 
without the power to harm, it is a ter- 
rible enemy to the birds and insects on 
which it feeds, and which it captures, 
"like Fabius, by delay." 

The SLOW-PACED LORIS, or KUKANG, is very similar in its habits to the animal just 
mentioned, but differs from it in size, color, and several parts of its form. 

The fur is of a texture rather more woolly than that of the Slender Loris, and its color has 
something of a chestnut tinge running through it, although some specimens are nearly as gray 
as the Slender Loris. As may by seen from the engraving on page 97, a dark stripe surrounds 
the eyes, ears, and back of the head, reaching to the corners of the mouth. Prom thence it 
runs along the entire length of the spine. The color of this dark band is a deep chestnut. It 
is rather larger than the preceding animal, being a little more than a foot in length. 

In the formation of these creatures some very curious structures are found, among which 
is the singular grouping of arteries and veins in the limbs. 

Instead of the usual tree-like mode in which the limbs of most animals are supplied with 
blood, one large trunk-vessel entering the limb, and then branching off into numerous sub- 
divisions, the limbs of the Loris are furnished with blood upon a strangely modified system. 
The arteries and veins as they enter and leave the limb, are suddenly divided into a great num- 
ber of cylindrical vessels, lying close to each other for some distance, and giving off their 




SLENDER WBSS.Stmops graeiUi. 



THE GAL AGO. 



97 



tubes to the different parts of the limb. It is possible that to this formation may be owing 
the power of silent movement and slow patience which has been mentioned as the property of 
these monkeys, for a very similar structure is found to exist in the sloth. 

In captivity, this Loris appears to be tolerably omnivorous, eating both animal and vege- 
table food, preferring, however, the former. Living animals best please its taste, and the 
greatest dainty that can be offered to the creature is a small bird, which it instantly kills, 
plucks and eats entirely, the bones included. Eggs are a favorite food with it, as are insects. 
It will take butcher's meat, if raw, but will not touch it if cooked in any way. Of vegetable 
substances, sugar appears to take its fancy the most, but it will eat fruits of various kinds, 
such as oranges and plantains, and has been known to suck gum arabic. 

Another curious inhabitant of Madagascar is the LSDRI, or AVAHI, a creature that has 
sometime been considered as one of the lemurs, and placed among them by systematic natu- 



.-' , '^-\ 

T' & 

vo 

K " ' ' - \V 
/ .4 ?. 

. 




KUK.ANQ, OR SLOW-PACED LORIS. -Stmops tardigrade. 



ralists. Prom the curled and woolly hair with which the body is covered it derives its name of 
"Laniger," or Wool -bearer. Just over the loins, and partly down the flanks, the soft wool- 
like hair takes a firmer curl than is found to be the case in any other part of the body or 
limbs. It is but a small animal, the length of its head and body being only a foot, and its tail 
nine inches. The general color of the fur is a lightish brown, with a white stripe on the back 
of the thigh, and a tinge of chestnut in the tail. In some individuals a rusty red, mingled 
with a yellow hue, takes the place of the brown ; and in all the under parts are lighter than 
the upper. Its face is black, and the eyes are gray, with a greenish light playing through 
their large orbs. 

The name Indri is a native word, signifying, it is said, "man of the woods." Its voice is 
not very powerful, but can be heard at some distance. It is of a melancholy, wailing character, 
and has been likened to the cry of a child. 

The LITTLE GALAGO is sometimes called by the name of the Madagascar Rat, on account 
of its rat-like form, and the color of the fur. It is about the size of a small rat, and might 
easily be mistaken for one of those animals by a non-zoologist. The tint of its fur is a very 
lighf mouse-color. 



98 



THE GALAGO. 




AVAHI, OR INDRI. Indris laniger. 

very bushy, excepting at the extremity, and its color 
of the fur is very soft, and there is a slight woolliness in 

Nocturnal in habits, it sleeps dxiring the day, with 
its large ears folded over the head in such a mannei 
as to give it the aspect of an earless animal. More 
active than the loris, the Moholi does not secure its 
prey by stealing on it with slow and silent movements, 
but leaps upon the flying insects on w r hich it loves to 
feed, and seizes them in its slender paws. Besides 
insects, various fruits form part of the Moholi' s food, 
more especially such as are of a pulpy nature, and it 
is said that the Moholi eats that vegetable exudation 
which is known by the name of Gum-Senegal. Its 
diurnal repose is taken in the curious nest which it 
builds in the forked branches of trees, using grass, 
leaves, and other soft substances for the purpose. In 
this lofty cradle the young are nurtured until they are 
of an age to provide for themselves. 

The face is full of expression, in which it is aided 
by the large and prominent ears ; and the creature is 
said to contract its cotmtenance into strange grimaces, 
after the fashion of the ordinary monkeys. Like the 
monkeys, too, it can leap for some little distance, and 
springs from one branch to another, or from tree to tree 
with agility and precision. The Moholi Galago is an 
inhabitant of Southern Africa, having been found by 
Dr. Smith hopping about the branches of the trees 
that bordered the Limpopo river, in twenty -five degrees 
of south latitude. 

At first sight, there is some external resemblance 
between the Galago and the little animal which is 
figured on page 99. The ears, however, are not so-large 



The ears of the Ga- 
lago are large, and, during 
the life of the animal, are 
nearly transparent. The 
eyes are very large, and 
of that peculiar lustre 
which is always seen in 
the nocturnal animals. 
It is a native of Mada- 
gascar. 

The MOHOLI GALAGO 
is a larger animal than the 
preceding, being nearly 
sixteen inches in length, 
inclusive of the tail. Its 
color is gray, with irreg- 
ular markings of a deeper 
hue. The under parts of 
the body are nearly white, 
and the limbs are slight- 
ly tinged with a golden 
lustre. The tail is not 

is a chestnut brown. The texture 

its setting. 




THE GALAGO. Otalienw galaqo. 



THE TAKSIER. 



as those of the Galago, and the tail is less thickly covered with fur, being almost devoid of hair, 
except at its extremity, where it forms a small tuft. On reference to the figure, it will be seen 
that the hands are of extraordinary length, in proportion to the size of the creature. This pecu- 
liarity is caused by a considerable elongation of the bones composing the "Tarsus," or back 

of the hands and feet, and lias earned for the animal the title of TARSIER. This peculiarity is 

more strongly developed in the hinder than in the fore-paws. 

The color of the Tarsier is a grayish-brown, with slight olive tint washed over the body. 

A stripe of deeper color surrounds the back of the head, and the face and forehead are of a 

warmer brown than the body and limbs. 

It is a native of Borneo, Celebes, the 

Philippine Islands, and Banca. From 

the latter locality it is sometimes called 

the Banca Tarsier. Another of the titles 

by which it is known, is the Podji. 

It is a tree-inhabiting animal, and 

skips among the branches with little 

quick leaps that have been likened to 

the hoppings of a frog-. In order to give 

the little creature a firmer hold of the 

boughs about which it is constantly leap- 
ing, the palms of the hands are furnished 

with several cushions. The back of the 

hands are covered with soft downy fur, 

resembling the hair with which the tail is 

furnished. Excepting on the hands and 

tail, the fur is very thick and of a woolly 

character, but at the root of the tail, and 

at the wrists and ankles, it suddenly 

changes to the short downy covering. 
The true position of that very rare 

animal the AYK-AYK, seems very doubt- 
ful, some naturalists placing it in the 

position which it occupies in this work, 
and others, such as Van der Hoeven, 

considering it to form a link between 
the monkeys and the rodent animals. 

As will be seen by a reference to 
the figure, in its head and general shape 
it resembles the Galagos, but in the 
mimber and arrangement of its teeth it 
approaches the rodent type. There are 
no canine teeth, and the incisors are 
arranged in a manner similar to those 
of the rodents, the chief difference being 
that, instead of the chisel-like edge which distinguishes the incisor teeth of the gnawing animals, 
those of the Aye-aye are sharply pointed. These curious teeth are extremely powerful, and are 
very deeply set in the jaw-bones, their sockets extending neary the entire depth of the bone. 

The color of the animal is a rusty brown on the upper portions of the body, the under 
parts, as well as the cheeks and throat, being of a light gray. The paws are nearly black. 
The fur of the body is thickly set, and "is remarkable for an inner coating of downy hair of a 
golden tint, which sometimes shows itself through the outer coating. On the tail the hair is 
darker than on the body, greater in length, and in texture much coarser. The tail seems to be 
always trailed at length, and never to be set up over the body, lik the well-known tail of the 
squirrel. The ears are large, and nearly destitute of hair. 




TARSIER -Tarsia 



100 



THE A YE- A YE. 



It is probable that the natural food of the Aye-aye, like that of the preceding animals, is 
of a mixed character, and that it eats fruit and insects indiscriminately. In captivity it usually 
ate boiled rice, which it picked up in minute portions, like Amine in the "Arabian Nights," 
using, however, its slender fingers in lieu of the celebrated bodkin with which she made her 
mock meal. But in its wild state it is said to search the trees for insects as well as fruits, and 

to drag their larvae from their 
concealment by means of its 
delicate fingers. Buds and 
various fruits are also said 
to be eaten by this animal 
possibly the buds may con- 
tain a hidden grub, and the 
entire flower be eaten for the 
sake of the living .creature 
which it contains, as is the 
case with many a bud that 
is plucked by small birds in 
this country. 

It is a nocturnal animal 
like the Galagos and Lemurs, 
and seeks its prey by night 
only, spending the day in 
sleep, curled up in the dark 
hollow of a tree, or in some 
similar spot, where it car. 
retire from view and from 
light. 

As is shown by the scien- 
tific name of the Aye-aye, it 
is a native of Madagascar, 
and even in that island is ex- 
tremely scarce, appearing to 
be limited to the western 
portions of the country, and 
to escape even the quick eyes 
of the natives. Sonnerat, the 
naturalist, was the first to 
discover it, and when he 
showed his prize to the na- 
tives, they exhibited great 
astonishment at the sight of 
an unknown animal, and the 
exclamations of surprise are 
said to have given the name 
of Aye-aye to the creature. The name " Cheiromys," signifies "Handed Mouse," and is given 
to the animal because it bears some resemblance to a large mouse or rat which is furnished 
with hand-like paws instead of feet. 

With the exception of the Aye-aye, all the Quadrumanous animals bear their mammse 
upon the breast, and clasp their young to their bosoms with their arms. But in the Aye-aye, 
the milk-giving organs are placed on the lower portion of the abdomen, and thus a great dis- 
tinction is at once made between this creature and the true quadrumana. Indeed, there are 
so many points of discrepancy in this strange being, that it is quite impossible to make it agree 
with the systematic laws which have hitherto been laid down, and naturalists place it in one 
order or another, according to the stress which they lay on different points of its organization. 




THE AYE-AYE. Chiromys madagascarensif. 



THE CO LUGO. 



101 



The eyes are of a brownish-yellow color, and very sensitive to light, as may be expected 
in a creature so entirely nocturnal in its habits. The movements of the Aye-aye are slow 
and deliberate, though not so sluggish as those of the Loris. It is not a very small animal, 
measuring almost a yard in total length, of which the tail occupies one moiety. 

On a review of this and the Lemurine monkeys, it can hardly fail to strike the observer 
that there must be something very strange in the climate or position of Madagascar perhaps 
in both that forbids the usual quadrumanous forms, and produces in their stead the Lemurs, 
the Indris, and the Aye-aye. So very little is known of this important island, that it may be 
the home of hitherto unknown forms 
of animal life, which, when brought 
under the observation of competent 
naturalists, would fill up sundry blanks 
that exist in the present list of known 
animals, and afford, in their own per- 
sons, the clue to many interesting sub- 
jects which are now buried in mystery. 

THE strange animal which is known 
by the name of the FLYING LEMUR, or 
COLUGO, presents a singular resem- 
blance to the large bat which is popu- 
larly called the Flying Fox, and evi- 
dently affords an intermediate link of 
transition between the f oiir-handed and 
the wing-handed mammals. 

By means of the largely-developed 
membrane which connects the limbs 
with each other, and the hinder limbs 
with the tail, the Colugo is enabled to 
leap through very great distances, and 
to pass from one bough to another with 
ease, although they may be situated so 
far apart that no power of leaping 
could achieve the feat. This membrane 
is a prolongation of the natural skin, 
and is covered with hair on the upper 
side as thickly as any part of the body, 
but beneath it is almost naked. When 

the creature desires to make one of its long sweeping leaps, it spreads its limbs as widely as 
possible, and thus converts itself into a kind of living kite. By thus presenting a large sur- 
face to the air, it can be supported in its passage between the branches, and is said to be able 
to vary its course slightly by the movement of its arms. 

When the animal is walking or climbing about among the branches, the wide membrane 
is folded so closely to the body, that it might escape the observation of an inexperienced eye. 
The membrane is not used in the manner of wings, but is merely employed as a sustaining 
power in the progress through the air. It is evident, therefore, that at every leap, the spot 
at which it aims must be lower than that from which it starts, so that it is forced, after some 
few aerial voyages, to run up the trees and attain a higher station. It is said that the Colugo 
will thus pass over nearly a hundred yards. 




COLUGO. OaleopUhecMi volitaus. 





A GROUP OF WATER BATS. 




CHEIROPTERA; 

OR, WING-HANDED ANIMALS. 

'HE Cheiroptera, literally Wing-handed Animals, are placed as ranking next after 
the Primates, though later authorities regard them as representing features of 
a more inferior grade. Over four hundred species of bats have been described, 
being distributed over the entire globe. In the family Phyllostomidse thirty -one 
genera and sixty species are recorded. These are the leaf -nosed Bats, and are 
confined to the range east of the Andes, in Chili. The blood-sucking Vampires 
belong to this group. 

In the group called the Short-headed Bats (Noctilionidce), there are fourteen genera and 
fifty species. They range from Mexico and California to Chili. 

The family Vespertilionidce embraces eighteen genera and two hundred species, inhabit- 
ing various parts of the world ; in America as far north as Hudson's Bay and the Columbia 
River. 

From the earliest times in which the science of zoology attracted the attention of observant 
men, the discovery of a true systematic arrangement has been one of the great objects of those 
who studied animal life, and the forms on which it is outwardly manifested. Among the more 
conspicuous of those enigmatical beings are the strange and wierd-like animals which are 
popularly known by the terse title of Bats, and, scientifically, by the more recondite name of 
Cheiroptera. 

A most remarkable example of the occurrence of bats in large numbers is recorded in the 
seventh volume of the Smithsonian Institution, in the form of a letter from M. Figaniere, 
Portuguese Minister, resident in or near Washington. He had purchased a piece of property 
at Seneca Point, in Maryland. The house had remained unoccupied some time, and had 
become the abode of bats. A detailed account is given of how much trouble the creatures 
gave the owner before they would yield up their domiciles. "Upon actual count of those killed 



CHEIROPTERA; THE BATS. 



103 



in the main building, besides several thousand in out-buildings, there were nine thousand six 
hundred and forty killed. 

Audubon relates an amusing incident which occurred to a guest of his, whom he does not 
mention by name, but who is known to have been the late M. Rafinesque, an eminent naturalist 
who made his home in our country. "The latter had been assigned a room, and when it was 
waxed late, and we had all retired to rest, every person I imagined was in profound slumber, 
save myself, when of a sudden I heard a great uproar in the naturalist's room. I got up and 
reached the door, when, to my astonishment, I saw my guest running about the room naked, 
holding the handle of my favorite violin, the body of which he had battered to pieces against 
the walls trying to kill the Bats which had entered by the open window ; probably attracted 
by the insects around his burning candle. 1 stood amazed, but he continued running around 
the room until he was fairly exhausted, when he begged me to capture one of the animals, as 
he felt sure they were a new species." 

The first peculiarity in the Bat form which strikes the eye, is the wide and delicate mem- 
brane which stretches round the body, and which is used in the place of the wings with which 




SKELETON OF BAT. 

birds are furnished. This membrane, thin and semi-transparent as it is, is double in structure, 
being a prolongation of the skin of the flanks and other portions of the animal, and, therefore, 
having its upper and under surface, in the same manner as the body of the creature itself. The 
two surfaces are so clearly marked that, with ordinary care, they can be separated from each 
other. Along the sides, this double membrane is rather stronger and thicker, but, as it 
extends from the body, it assumes greater tenuity, until at the margin it is so exquisitely thin, 
that the tiny blood-corpuscules, which roll along the minute vessels that supply the wing with 
nourishment, can be seen clearly through its integument, by the help of a good microscope. 

In order to support this beaxitiful membrane, to extend it to its requisite width, and to 
strike the air with it for the pxirposes of flight, the bones of the fore-part of the body, and 
especially those of the arms and hands, undergo a singular modification. 

The two bones of the fore-arm are extremely long, and the bone which is scientifically 
known by the name of the "ulna," is extremely small, and in many species almost wholly 
wanting. The reason for this arrangement is, that the great object of these two bones is, by 
the mode in which th^y are jointed to each other, to permit the arm to rotate with that move- 
ment which is easily shown by the simple process of turning the hand with its palm upwards. 
This latitude of motion would not only be useless to the Bats, but absolutely injurious, as the 
wing -membranes would not be able to beat the air with the steady strokes which are needful 
for maintaining flight. Therefore the arm is rendered incapable of rotation. 



104 



THE VAMPIRE BAT. 



Passing onwards from the arms to the hands, the finger-bones are strangely dispropor- 
tioned to the remainder of the body, the middle finger being considerably longer than the 
head and body together. The thumb is very much shorter than any of the fingers, and fur- 
nished with a sharp and curved claw. By means of this claw, the Bat is enabled to proceed 
along a level surface, and to attach itself to any object that may be convenient. In some of 
the Bats the thumb is much longer than that which is here figured. 

The bones of the breast and the neighboring parts are also formed in a peculiar manner, 
being intended to support the broad surface of the wing-membrane, and to enable it to beat 
the air with sufficient force. The collar-bones are long, considerably arched, and strongly 




VAMPIKE BA.T.Phyllostoma spectrum. 

jointed to the breast-bone and the shoulder-blades. In the insect-eating Bats, these bones are 
more developed than in the fruit-eaters ; probably because the former need a better apparatus 
for the capture of their quick- winged prey than the latter for seeking their vegetable food. 
Some species of Bat present a collar-bone which is half the length of the elongated upper arm. 

The VAMPIRE BAT is a native of Southern America, and is spread over a large extent of 
country. It is not a very large animal, the length of its body and tail being only six inches, 
or perhaps seven in large specimens, and the spread of wing two feet, or rather more. The 
color of the Vampire's fur is a mouse tint, with a shade of brown. 

Many tales have been told of the Vampire Bat, and its fearful attacks upon sleeping 
men, tales which, although foimded on fact, were so sadly exaggerated as to cause a reaction 
in the opposite direction. It was reported to come silently by night, ajid to search for the 
exposed toes of a sound sleeper, its instinct telling it whether the intended victim were 
thoroughly buried in sleep. Poising itself above the feet of its prey, and fanning them with 
its extended wings, it produced a cool atmosphere, which, in those hot climates, aided in 
soothing the slumberer into a still deeper repose. The Bat then applied its needle-pointed 



THE VAMPIRE BAT. 105 

teeth to the upturned foot, and inserted them into the tip of a toe with such adroit dexterity, 
that no pain was caused by the tiny wound. The lips were then brought into action, and the 
blood was sucked until the bat was satiated. It then disgorged the food which it had just 
taken, and began afresh, continuing its alternate feeding and disgorging, until the victim 
perished from sheer loss of blood. 

For a time, this statement gained dominion, but, after a while, was less and less believed, 
until at last, naturalists repudiated the whole story as a "traveller's tale." However, as 
usual, the truth seems to have lain between the two extremes ; for it is satisfactorily ascer- 
tained, by more recent travellers, that the Vampires really do bite both men and cattle during 
the night, but that the wound is never known to be fatal, and, in most instances, causes but 
little inconvenience to the sufferer. 

When they direct their attacks against mankind, the Vampires almost invariably select 
the foot as their point of operation, and their blood-loving propensities are the dread of both 
natives and Europeans. With singular audacity, the bats even creep into human habitations, 
and seek out the exposed feet of any sleeping inhabitant who has incautiously neglected to 
draw a coverlet over his limbs. 

When they attack quadrupeds, they generally fix themselves on the shoulders and flanks 
of the animal, and inflict wounds sufficiently severe to cause damage unless properly attended 
to. It is quite a common occurrence that when the cattle are brought from the pastures 
wherein they have passed the night, their shoulders and flanks are covered with blood from 
the bites of these blood-loving bats. It might be said that the bleeding wounds might be 
accounted for by some other cause, but the matter was set at rest by a fortunate capture of a 
Vampire "red-handed" in the very act of wounding a horse. 

Darwin, who narrates the circumstance, states that he was travelling in the neighborhood 
of Coquimbo, in Chili, and had halted for the night. One of the horses became very restless, 
and the servant, who went to see what was the matter with the animal, fancied that he could 
see something strange on its withers. He put his hand quickly on the spot and secured a 
Vampire Bat. Next morning there was some inflammation and soreness on the spot where 
the bat had been captured, but the ill effects soon disappeared, and three days afterwards the 
horse was as well as ever. 

It does not seem to be the severity of the wound which does the harm, but the irritation 
which is caused by pressure, whether of a saddle, in the case of a horse, or of clothing, in the 
case of a human being. 

The Vampire seems to be very capricious in its tastes, for while one person may sleep in 
the open air with perfect impunity, another will be wounded almost nightly. Mr. Waterton, 
urged by his usual enthusiastic desire for personal investigation, slept for the space of eleven 
months in an open loft, where the Vampires came in and out every night. They were seen 
hovering over the hammock, and passing through the apertures that served for windows, but 
never made a single attack. Yet an Indian, who slept within a few yards, suffered frequently 
by the abstraction of blood from his toes. This distinction was not on account of color, for a 
young lad about twelve years of age, the son of an English gentleman, was bitten on the fore- 
head with such severity, that the wound bled freely on the following morning. The fowls 
of the same house suffered so terribly, that they died fast ; and an unfortunate jackass was 
being killed by inches. He looked, to use Mr. Waterton' s own language, "like misery steeped 
in vinegar." 

Although these bats have so great a predilection for the blood of animals, they are not 
restricted to so sanguinary a diet, but live chiefly on insects which they capture on the wing. 
Indeed, they would have but a meagre diet were they to depend wholly on a supply of human 
or brute blood, for there are sufficient Vampires in existence to drain the life-blood from man 
and beast. Many other creatures have the same propensities happy if they can gratify them ; 
satisfied if they are withheld from so doing. The common leech is a familiar example of a 
similar mode of life ; for it may be that not one leech out of a thousand ever tastes blood a.t 
all, although they are so ravenously eager after it when they have the opportunity for gratify- 
ing their sanguinary taste. 



106 THE VAMPIRE BAT. 

On reference to the figure of the Vampire Bat, it will be seen that the wide and flattened 
membrane which supports the body in the air, connects together the whole of the limbs and 
the tail, leaving free only the hinder feet, and the thumbs of the fore-paws. This membrane 
is wondrously delicate, and is furnished not only with the minute blood-vessels, to which allu- 
sion has already been made, but with a system of nerves which possess the most exquisite 
power of sensation. 

It has been long known that bats are able to thread their way among boughs of trees and 
other impediments with an ease that almost seems beyond the power of sight, especially when 
the dark hours of their flight are considered. Even utter darkness seems not to impede these 
curious animals in their aerial progress, and when shut up in a darkened place, in which 
strings had been stretched in various directions, the bats still pursued their coiirse through 
the air, avoiding every obstacle with perfect precision. In order to ascertain beyond doubt 
whether this faculty were the result of a more than usually keen sight, or whether it were 
caused by some hitherto unknown structure, Spallanzani deprived a bat of its eyes, and dis- 
covered by this most cruel experiment, that the bat seemed as capable of directing its flight 
among the strings without its eyes as with them. 

Whether this curious power were resident in any part of the animal's structure, or whether 
it were the result of a sixth and unknown sense, was long an enigma to naturalists. The diffi- 
culty, however, seems to have been solved by the investigations which have been made into 
the formation of the bat's wing, and it is now universally allowed, that to the exquisite 
nervous system of its wings the bat is indebted for the above-mentioned faculty. 

The Vampires are said to unite in themselves the progressive power of quadrupeds and 
birds, and to run on the ground as swiftly as rats, while they fly through the air as easily as 
any bird. But this accomplishment of running is by no means general among the bats, whose 
mode of progress is awkward in the extreme, and when the animal is hurried or alarmed, 
positively ludicrous. 

Bats are in general very much averse to the ground, and never, unless under compulsion, 
place themselves on a level surface. Their mode of walking is grotesque and awkward in the 
extreme ; and the arduous task of proceeding along the ground is achieved with such diffi- 
culty, that it seems almost to be painful to the animal which is condemned for the time to 
exchange its easy aerial course for the tardy and uncongenial crawl to which its earthly prog- 
ress is limited. Quadrupedal in its form, although that form may be strangely modified, the 
bat will occasionally assume quadrupedal action, and walk on the ground by the aid of all its 
four feet. The method of advancing is as follows : 

The bat thrusts forward one of the fore-legs or " wings," and either hooks the claw at its 
extremity over any convenient projection, or buries it in the ground. By means of this hold, 
which it thus gains, the animal draws itself forward, raises its body partly off the earth, and 
advances the hind leg, making at the same time a kind of tumble forward. The process is 
then repeated on the opposite side, and thus the creature proceeds in a strange and unearthly 
fashion, tumbling and staggering along as if its brain were reeling from the effects of disease. 
It steers a very deviating course, falling first to one side and then to the other, as it employs 
the limbs of either side. 

None of the bats like to raise themselves into the air from a perfectly level surface, and 
therefore use all their endeavours to climb up some elevated spot, from whence they may 
launch themselves into the air. 

They climb with great ease and rapidity, being able to hitch their sharp and curved claws 
Into the least roughness that may present itself, and can thus ascend a perpendicular wall 
with perfect ease and security. In so doing they crawl backwards, raising their bodies against 
the tree or wall which they desire to scale, and drawing themselves up by the alternate use 
of the hinder feet. When they have attained a moderate height they are able to fling them- 
selves easily into the air, and to take to immediate flight. They have the power of rising at 
once from the ground, but always prefer to let themselves fall from some elevated spot. 

The reason is now evident why the bats take their repose in the singular attitude which 
has been already mentioned. When suspended by their hind feet, they are in the most favor- 



THE HORSESHOE BAT. 



107 



able position for taking to the air, and when they desire to fly need only to spread their 
wings, and loosing their foothold, to launch themselves into the air. 

There may be, and probably are, other reasons for the curious reversed attitude, but that 
which has already been given accounts in some measure for it. Even among the birds 
examples are found of a similar mode of repose ; members of the genus Colius, an African group 
of birds, sleep suspended like the bats, clinging with their feet, and hanging with their heads 
downwards. But these birds cannot assume this attitude for the purpose of taking to flight, 
as their wings are used as readily as those of most other feathered creatures, and therefore the 
reason which was given for the reversed position of the bats will not apply to the birds. 

On the nose of the Vampire Bat may be observed a curious membrane of a leaf -like shape. 
This strange and not prepossessing appendage to the animal is found in some of the bate which 



r. . . . - -.:;-.-- -- 




THE GREAT HORSESHOE BAT. - Rhln6taph.ua ferrum-equlnum. 

inhabit Great Britain. Among the bats which possess the leaf-decorated nose, the GREAT 
HORSESHOE BAT is the most conspicuous. In its wings and body it differs but very little 
from other bats. 

The membrane which gives to this creature the title of Horseshoe Bat, is extremely large 
in proportion to the size of the animal, though not so large as in some of the foreign bats. It 
is double in form, that portion which is in front resembling a horseshoe in shape, and curving 
from the lips upwards, so as to embrace the nostrils. The second leafy membrane is placed on 
the forehead, and is sharply pointed. 

The ears of this bat are large, pointed, and marked with a succession of ridges, which 
extend from the margins nearly half-way across the ears. The "tragus," or inner ear, is 
wanting in this bat, but its office seems to be fulfilled by a large rounded lobe at the base 
of the ear. 

The color of the fur is gray with a slight tinge of red above, while on the under portions 
of the- animal the ruddy tint vanishes, and the hair is of a very pale gray. The membrane 
is of a dusky hue. The bat is not a very large one, the length of the head and body being 
only two inches and a half, while that of the extended wings is about thirteen inches. The 
ears are half an inch in breadth, when measured at their widest part, and are about three- 
quarters of an inch in length. 

What may be the object of the wonderful nasal appendage seems to be quite unknown. 
The most obvious idea is, that it is given to the animals for the purpose of increasing the 



108 



THE BARBASTELLE. 



delicacy of their sense of smell in seeking food and avoiding foes. But even if such be the case, 
there seems to be no apparent reason why such a privilege should be granted to one species 
and denied to another both animals being in the habit of seeking their nutriment and escaping 
pursuit in a similar manner. The generic term, Rhinolophus, which is applied to these bats, 
is derived from two Greek words, the former signifying a nose, and the latter a crest. 

Another peculiarity of form which has been noticed in these animals, is the presence of two 
prominences on the groin, which have been taken for supplementary mammae, and described 
as such. As, however, no mammary glands exist beneath these projections, they are evidently 
no true mammae, and probably belong only to the skin. 

The Great Horseshoe Bat seems to be less endurent of light than many of its relatives, 
and takes up its abode in caverns so dark and gloomy that no other species of bat will bear 
it company. This instinct of concealment induces the bat to leave its home at a later and 
to return at an earlier hour than the other bats, and consequently it has only recently been 




THE BARBASTELLE. Barbast^lue communte. 

found to exist in England. The first specimen which was captured had fixed its abode in 
rather a precarious situation, and was found in a building belonging to the Dartmouth powder 
mills. Since that time it has been discovered in many places, but always in some dark and 
retired situation. 

There is another similar animal found in England, called the Lesser Horseshoe Bat 
(RhinblopJms Jiipposideros). This creature was for some time thought to be the young of 
the last mentioned animal, but is now known to be a distinct species. The name Hipposideros 
is Greek, and in that language signifies the same as Ferrum-equinum in Latin, i.e. Horseshoe. 

The bats which we shall now examine are devoid of that strange nasal leafage which gives 
so unique an aspect to its wearer. The BARBASTELLE does not seem to be very plentiful in 
Europe, although specimens have several times been taken in various parts of it. It is a 
singular coincidence that the first acknowledged British specimen was captured in a powder 
mill, as was the case with the Great Horseshoe Bat. 

One of these animals which was for some weeks in the possession of Mr. Bell, was taken 
in Kent, at the bottom of a mine seventy feet in depth. It did not seem to be so active as 
some Long-Eared and other bats which were taken in the same locality, and preferred lying 
on the hearth-rug to using its wings. It fed readily on meat and would drink water, but 
never became so tame as its companions. Its captive life lasted only a few weeks, its death 
being apparently hastened by the attacks of the other bats, one of which was detected in the 
very act of inflicting a bite on the Barbastelle's neck. 

The color of the Barbastelle is extremely dark, so much so, indeed, that by depth of tint 
alone it can be distinguished from almost any other bat. On the hinder quarters, a rusty 



THE LONG-EARED BAT. 



109 



brown takes the place of the brownish-black hue which characterizes the fore-part of the body. 
Underneath, the hair is nearly gray, being, however, much darker towards the neck. 

The length of its head and body is just two inches, that of the ears half an inch, and 
the expanse of wing measures between ten and eleven inches. The ears are tolerably 
large, and slightly wrinkled. The tragus is sharply pointed at its tip, and widened at its 
base. A full view of the face shows a rather deep notch in the outer margin and near the 
base of the ear. 

One of the most common, and at the same time the most elegant, of the Cheiroptera, is 
the well-known LONG-EARED BAT. j 

This pretty little creature may be found in all parts of England ; and on account of its 
singularly beautiful ears and gentle temper has frequently been tamed and domesticated. I 
have possessed several specimens of this bat, and in every case have been rewarded for the 
trouble by the curious little traits of temper and disposition which have been exhibited. 




LONG-EABED BAT.-PfeoXw auritui. 

The enormous ears, from which the animal derives its name, are most beautiful organs. 
Their texture is exquisitely delicate, and the bat has the power of throwing them into graceful 
folds at every movement, thereby giving to its countenance a vast amount of expression. 

It sometimes happens that the Long-eared Bat has lived long in captivity, and even pro- 
duced and nurtured its young under such conditions. For the following very interesting 
account of a maternal bat, I am indebted to the kindness of Mrs. S. C. Hall. 

"While living in an old rambling country house in Ireland, without any companions of 
my own age, an only solitary child left (after my ' lessons ' were finished) to create my own 
amusements I made friends, of course, with our own dogs and horses ; and as all the servants 
loved 'little Miss,' and anxiously ministered to her desires, I became well acquainted with the 
habits and peculiarities of the wild creatures in our own grounds and neighborhood. We 
were within a mile of the sea, and there was a beautiful walk from the dear old house, on to 
the cliff that sheltered our bathing cove, which I have traversed, accompanied by our New- 
foundland dog, the old retriever-spaniels, and a fine deerhound, at nearly all hours of the day 
and night. 

"A lovely ivy -covered cottage near the orchard, which, before I was born, was occupied 
by an old gardener, was at last given over to my menagerie, as the only way of keeping the 
'big house' free from 'Miss Mary's pets/ My 'help' was a strong-bodied girl, one of the 
'weeders,' who had the rare merit of not being afraid of anything 'barring a bull ;' and she 
always intimated if I made a pet of a bull, she would ' wash her hands clean out of the mena- 
geeree for ever Amin !' 

"As I never did, poor Sally remained my assistant until the death of my dear grand- 



110 THE LONG-EARED BAT. 

mother broke up the establishment ; and I came to England in the first blush of girlhood, to 
be civilized and educated, and made 'like other young ladies.' 

"But those years were precious years to me ; I grew, and fostered in those wild hours, 
an acquaintance with, and a love of Nature, which has refreshed my life with greenest memo- 
ries. My dear young mother knew every bud and blossom of the parterre and the field, and 
though she disliked my seal, and obliged my young badger to be sent away (I was not very 
sorry for him, he bit so furiously, and would not be friends with the dogs, which the seal 
was), yet she tolerated my owl, my kites, and even a most prosperous colony of mice of many 
colors, and a black rat who was really an affectionate companion. My hare I was permitted 
to keep at the house, for he would hold no friendship with rabbits. 

"Song birds I never attempted to cage, but robins and pigeons followed me (according to 
Sally), 'like their born mother.' 

"The gable end of an old stable was covered by one of the finest myrtles I ever saw : it 
was twenty -two feet high and seventeen wide, and standing out here and there from the wall. 
Swallows and bats loved to shelter in the holes of the old building. I was just a small bit 
afraid of the ' leather- winged bat ; ' my nurse often told me how they sucked cows, and even 
scratched out children's eyes. 

"But one cold spring morning I saw a boy tossing into the air and catching again what 
I fancied to be a large mouse : of course, my sympathy awoke at once, and I rushed to the 
rescue ; it proved to be a half -dead bat, very large and fat ; its beautiful broad ears were still 
erect, and when I took it in my hands I felt its heart beat. I placed it in a basket, covered it 
with cotton, and put it inside the high nursery fender. I peeped frequently under the lid, 
and at last had the pleasure of seeing it hanging bat-fashion on the side of the basket, its keen 
bright eyes watching every movement. When it was fully restored, I endeavored to take it 
out, and then discovered that one of its hind feet had been crushed, and was hanging by a bit 
of skin. With trembling hands I removed the little foot, and applied some salve to the 
extremity. 

"All this time the poor thing continued hooked on to the basket, and during the first day 
she would take no food, would not be tempted by meat or milk, by a fly or a spider. The 
next morning I saw her cowering in the cotton, and when I attempted to touch her she 
endeavored to bite my finger, and made the least possible noise you can imagine. I then 
offered her a fly, and in a moment it was swallowed ; a bit of meat shared the same fate, and 
then she folded her wings round her, intimating, as I imagined, that she had had enough. 
All day she never moved, and at dusk, when I again tempted her with food, she took it. 
This continued for some days ; she became tamer, and seemed to anticipate 'feeding- time.' 

"At last, to my astonishment, I saw a baby-bat covered with light brownish fur, but still 
looking as young mice look, under the folds of her wing (I do not know what else to call it). 
Doubtless Nature had taught her that for the sake of this little one she must take food. I 
believe it sucked, for, afterwards, when she again suspended herself against the side of the 
basket, the young bat was not in the cotton, and I fancied that it hung from the mother while 
imbibing nutriment. 

"The old bat became furious if I attempted to touch the young one ; her soft hair stood 
up, and she would tremble all over, and utter little, short, sharp sounds. I wanted very much 
to see if the baby like Chloe's puppies was blind, but she would not allow an investigation. 
Certainly before a fortnight had passed, I saw its eyes, like little bright beads in the candle- 
light. 

"My bat and her baby excited great curiosity, and she was too frequently disturbed ; the 

, young one lived for about a month, when, to my great grief, I found it dead in the cotton, the 

parent hanging, as usual, from the side of the basket. I am sorry to add, that the wee bat 

had what might have been a bruise, but which looked very much like a bite, at the back of 

the neck. 

"The old bat became as tame as a mouse, would hang itself to any convenient portion of 
my dress, and devour whatever I gave it of animal food, and lick milk off my finger. It knew 
me well, would fly round my room in the evening, and go out at the window hawking for 



NOCTULE, OR GREAT BAT. 



Ill 



insects, and return in a couple of hours and hang to the window-sill, or to the sash, until 
admitted. At night, it would sometimes fasten in my hair, but never went near my mother 
or the servants. It did not seem to experience any inconvenience from the loss of its foot, 
and continued a great favorite for more than two years. I suppose the heat of my room 
prevented its becoming torpid in winter, though certainly it never prowled about as it used to 
do in spring and summer ; I do not think it ate in winter, but of this I cannot be certain. It 
disappeared altogether at last, falling a prey, I believe, to some white owls, who held time- 
honored possession of an old belfry. I was very sorry for my bat, and should be glad to culti- 
vate the intellect and affections of another, if I had the opportunity." 

It is curious, by the way, to mark the analogy that exists between the swallows and bats. 




NOCTULE, OR GREAT BAT. Vtspert/go nnehila. 



Each of these groups loves the air, and is mostly seen on the wing. Their food consists of the 
flying insects, which they chase by their exquisite command of wing ; and it will be noticed 
that, as soon as the swallows retire to rest at dusk, after clearing the air of the diurnal insects, 
the bats issue from their homes, and take up the work, performing the same task with the 
insects of night, as the birds with those of day. Then, as the dawn breaks, out come the 
swallows again, and so they fulfil their alternate duties. 

The NOCTULE is not so pleasant a companion as the Long-eared Bat, for it gives forth a 
most Tinpleasant odor. Its cry is sharp and piercing, thereby producing another analogy with 
the swifts, which are popularly known by the name of " Jacky-screamers." 

The voice of all bats is singularly acute, and can be tolerably imitated by the squeaking 
sound which is produced by scraping two keys against each other. There are many people 
whose ears are not sensible to the shrill cry of these animals which, in some cases, is rather 
fortunate for them. I well remember being on a heath, one summer's evening, when the air 
was crowded with bats hawking after flies, and their myriad screams were so oppressive, that 
I longed for temporary deafness. Yet my companion an accomplished musician was per- 



112 THE FLYING FOX, OR ROUSSETTE. 

fectly insensible to the shrill cries, which seemed to pierce into the brain like so many needles. 
It is also known that many ears are deaf to the stridulous call of the grasshoppers. 

One use of the tail is, evidently, that it should act as a rudder, in order to guide the flight 
while the creature is on the wing. There is, however, another purpose which it serves, and 
which would never have been discovered, had not the bat been watched. It seems that the 
female bat uses its tail, and the membrane which stretches on either side from the tail to the 
hind legs, as a cradle, in which to deposit its young when newly born and comparatively 
helpless. 

Bats are generally found to assemble in great numbers wherever they find a convenient 
resting-place, and in such localities as church towers, rocky caverns, hollow trees, and the 
like, they may be found by the hundred together. These numerous assemblies are the cause 
of a large deposition of guano, which consists almost wholly of the refuse of insects, such as 
wings, legs, and the harder coverings. In this guano are found, by the aid of the microscope, 
very many curious infusorial objects, which may be separated from the guano by the usual 
modes of preparation. 

The odor which arises from this substance is peculiarly sharp and pungent, and cannot 
easily be mistaken. The animals themselves are readily alarmed when disturbed in their 
home ; they disengage themselves from their perches, and flap about in great dismay, knocking 
themselves against the intruder's face, much as the great nocturnal beetles are wont to do on 
summer's evenings. A visit to a bat-cave is, therefore, no pleasant affair. 

The bats which have heretofore been mentioned feed on animal substances, insects appear- 
ing to afford the principal nutriment, and raw meat or fresh blood being their occasional 
luxuries. But the bats of which the Flying Fox is an example, are chiefly vegetable feeders, 
and, in their own land, are most mischievous among the fruit-trees. 

They are the largest of the present bat tribe, some of them measuring nearly five feet in 
expanse of wing. Their popular name is FLYING FOXES, a term which has been applied to 
them on account of the red, fox-like color of the fur, and the very vulpine aspect of the 
' head. Although so superior in size to the Vampires, the Flying Foxes are not to be 
dreaded as personal enemies, for, unless roughly handled, they are not given to biting ani- 
mated beings. 

But though their attacks are not made directly upon animal life, they are of considerable 
importance in an indirect point of view, for they are aimed against the fruits and other vegeta- 
ble substances by which animal life is sustained. Figs and other soft fruits appear to be the 
principal food of these bats ; and so pertinacious are the animals in their assaults on the crops, 
whether of field or tree, that they are held in no small dread by the agriculturist. 

It is no easy matter to guard against .such foes as these winged devourers, for as the air 
is an ever open path by which they can proceed on their destructive quest, and the darkness 
of night shields them from watchful eyes, the ordinary precautions which are taken against 
marauders would be useless. 

There are but two alternatives for any one who desires to partake of the fruit which he 
has cherished the one, to cover the whole tree with netting or similar fencing, and the other, 
to enclose each separate fruit-cluster with a sufficient protection. As the trees which the 
Kalongs, as these bats are often called, most affect, are of considerable size, the latter plan is 
that which is generally pursued. For this purpose, the natives weave from the split branches 
of the bamboo, certain basket-like armor, which is fastened round the fruit as it approaches 
maturity, and is an effectual guard even against the Kalong's teeth. 

When the trees are small, they are sometimes covered entirely with netting, but not to 
such good purpose as when each fruit is separately protected. For these bats are so cunning, 
that they creep under the nets and render nugatory all the precautions which have been taken. 
One proprietor of a garden at Perriambuco was never able to secure a single fig from his trees, 
in spite of nets by night and guns by day. The bats are wise animals, and do not meddle 
with unripe fruit. 

The flight of these creatures is unlike that of the more active insect-feeding Cheiroptera. 
The stroke of the wings is slow and steady, and instead of the devious course which charac- 



THE FLYING FOX, OR ROVSSETTE. 



113 



terizes the carnivorous bats as they flit about the air in chase of their insect prey, these fru- 
givorous species fly in straight lines and to great distances. 

The Kalongs do not seem to care much for dark and retired places of abode ; and pass the 



.1 I 
THE EDIHLE K ALONG .Pitt (a 







day, which is their night, suspended from 
the trunks of large trees, preferring those 
which belong to the fig genus. On these 
boughs they hang in vast numbers, and 
by an inexperienced observer, might read- 
ily be taken for bunches of large fruits, 
so closely and quietly do they hang. If 
disturbed in their repose, they set up a 
chorus of sharp screams, and flutter about 
in a state of sad bewilderment, their night- 
loving eyes being dazzled by the hateful 
glare of the sun. They are apt to quarrel 
under such circumstances, and fight for 

theii roosting, or rather their hanging places, much as birds do when retiring to rest for the night. 
Bats do not seem to be very tempting additions to the cuisine, but man is an omnivorous 

animal, and eats everything, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, the last-named diet being 



114 THE FLYING FOX, OR ROUSSETTE. 

exemplified by the "stone-butter" of the German miners, and the clay balls of the Indian 
savage. Some nations there are which feed on their own kind. Many there are which live 
habitually on the quadrumana that inhabit their country, and there are some who find a 
favorite article of diet in the Cheiroptera. 

The species which is most generally eaten is the Edible Kalong (Pteropus Edulis), a bat 
which is found in great quantities in the island of Timor and other places. It is a very large 
animal, the expanse of wing rather exceeding five feet, and the length of head and body being 
about a foot. The eye is a fine brown. The flesh of these bats is said by those who have ven- 
tured upon so strange a diet, to be very delicate in flavor, tender in substance, and white in color. 

It is probably to these animals that Bennett refers, in his "Whaling Voyage round the 
Globe." 

"The only animals that came under our notice at Timor, were bats and foxes. The bats 
were of that large kind which sailors call Flying Foxes. When our woodcutters commenced 
their labors in the forest, the first blow of the axe caused a large flock of these creatures to 
mount in the air, and wing their way to a less precarious retreat. They flew in a 
body to the distance of more than two hundred yards, then returned as simul- 
taneously to the vicinity of the spot which they had quitted, and ultimately 
settled in the depths of the jungle. 

"Considering how little their vision is adapted for day duty, it was inter- 
esting to notice the systematic manner in which they directed their flight : one 
which arose some time after the others, taking immediately the right direction 
to follow and join the main body of fugitives." 

In this latter passage is mentioned one distinguished peculiarity of these 
creatures, namely their habit of flying in long lines, somewhat after the manner 
of rooks returning to roost 

"The blackening train of crows to their repose." 

One bat seems to take the lead, and the others follow at short and irregular 
intervals, pursuing the same course as their pioneer. 

The bats which belong to this genus (Pteropus) are remarkable for the fact 
that they possess fewer vertebrae than any other known mammalian animal. In QF 

the entire spinal column there are but twenty -four of these bones ; this paucity INDIAN BAT. 
of number being caused by the entire absence of a tail. 

The hair with which the bat tribe is furnished, is of a very peculiar character, and 
although closely resembling the fur of a rat or mouse when seen by the unaided eye, is so 
unique in aspect when seen under a microscope, that a bat's hair can be detected almost at a 
glance. Each hair is covered with very minute scales, which are arranged in various modes 
around a central shaft. 

The accompanying figure exhibits the central portion of a hair taken from one of the 
Indian bats, magnified five hundred diameters, or two hundred and fifty thousand times super- 
ficially. Near the root, the hair is almost devoid of these scales, and therefore appears much 
smaller than in the central and terminal portions. Some of these external scales bear a close 
resemblance to the scales- which are placed on the surface of a butterfly's wing ; but can easily 
be distinguished from them by their smaller size, and the absence of the striated markings 
that are found on the scales of the butterfly's wing. 

The strange similitude between the bat's hair, and the plant which is popularly known 
by the name of "Mare's-tail," cannot but strike any one who is in the least acquainted with 
botany. It may be, that so remarkable an outward resemblance would not exist unless there 
were some cause, at present hidden, which would account for it. 

Before leaving the study of the bats, we must take a cursory view of the strange condition 
of life in which these animals pass the colder months of the year, which condition is known 
by the name of hibernation, because it takes place in the winter. 

The insect tribes on which the bats chiefly feed and maintain their subsistence, are either 
quiescent during the winter months, or are abroad in such limited numbers that they could 



HIBERNATION OF THE BATS. 115 

not afford a subsistence to the bats or swallows. The latter creatures meet the difficulty by 
emigrating to more genial lands, and there finding the food which they would lose in these 
cold climes ; but the former are obliged by the laws of their being to remain in the country 
where they were born. It is evident, therefore, that unless some provision were made for 
them during the insectless time of year, every bat would perish of hunger. 

Such a provision exists, and exerts its power by throwing the bats into a deep lethargy, 
during which they require no food and take no exercise, but just live throughout the winter 
in a state of existence that seems to partake more of the vegetable than the animal life. 

During hibernation, the respiration ceases almost wholly, and if it takes place at all, is so 
slight as to defy investigation. The air in which these creatures pass the winter seems to 
undergo no change by the breath, as would be the case if only one inspiration were made ; 
and, strangest of all, the animal seems capable of existing for some time in gases that would 
be immediately fatal to it in the waking state, or even without any air at all. The tempera- 
ture, too, sinks to that of the surrounding atmosphere, although, as a general fact, the animal 
heat of these creatures is rather high, as is the case with most flying beings, whether mammals 
or birds. 

Many curious and valuable trials have been made upon bats while in a state of torpidity, 
the subjects of experiment being placed in such a manner that the least act of respiration 
made itself clearly visible, by the movements of a delicate index. The wing was extended 
in such a manner, that the circulation of the blood was perceptible through its semi-trans- 
parent membrane, and a thermometer was arranged so as to register the temperature. 

Very great care is requisite in conducting these experiments, because the least excitement, 
or the slightest raising of the temperature, suffices to rouse the somnolent animal, and to alter 
the conditions which are absolutely necessary for true hibernation. A hasty footfall, or an 
accidental tap given to the table on which the creature rested, would cause it to make several 
respirations, and to recover sufficient vitality to raise the temperature, and to consume some 
portion of oxygen from the air. The same animal which passed ten hours in a state of perfect 
somnolence, without producing any perceptible effect on the oxygen contained in the atmos- 
pheric air, consumed in a single hour more than four cubic inches of oxygen, when aroused 
and lively. 

The curious subject of hibernation will be again noticed in connection with the various 
animals, such as the marmot, dormouse and others, which pass the cold months in a state of 
torpidity. 




FELID^E; 




OR, THE CAT TRIBE. 

HE beautiful and terrible animals which are known by the general name of the 
Cat Tribe, now engage our attention. 

With the exception of one or two of the enigmatical creatures which are 
found in every group of beings, whether animal, vegetable, or mineral, the Cats, 
or FELED^E as they are more learnedly termed, are as distinct an order as the 
monkeys or the bats. Pre-eminently carnivorous in their diet, and destructive 
in their mode of obtaining food, their bodily form is most exquisitely adapted 
to carry out the instincts which are implanted in their nature. 

All the members of the cat tribe are light, stealthy, and silent of foot, quick of ear and 
eye, and swift of attack. Most of them are possessed of the power of climbing trees or rocks, 
but some few species, such as the Lion, are devoid of 
this capability. 

The teeth of the exclusively carnivorous animals 
are always of a form w r hich permits them to seize and 
tear their prey, but does not give them the power of 
masticating their food after the manner of the vege- 
table feeders. We are all familiar with the mode in 
which the domestic cat consumes her food, whether 
it be a piece of butchers' meat which is given to her 
by the hand of man, or a mouse which she has cap- 
tured by her own paws. Instead of the grinding 
process which is employed by monkeys and other 
creatures whose teeth are fitted for grinding their 
food, the cat tears the meat into conveniently sized 

morsels, and then eats the food by a series of pecking bites. The annexed engraving of a 
Lion's teeth and jaws will explain the reason for this mode of action. 

In the accompanying figure the mechanism of the claw 
is exhibited. 

When the animal is at rest, the upper tendons draw 
the claw backwards, so that it is lifted entirely from the 
ground, and the weight of the body rests only on the soft 
pads which stud the under surface of the foot. But when 
the creature becomes excited, and thrusts out its paw for 
the purpose of striking a blow, or clutching at its prey, 
the upper tendons become relaxed, while the lower ten- 
dons are tightened, and the claw is thrown boldly forward, 
sharp and ready for either use. 

The claw which is represented is that of the Lion, 
but the mechanism is common to all the true cats. 

Another curious structure is common to the group of feline animals ; and as the 
Lion seems to be their most perfect representative, the example has been ta,ken from that 
animal. 

Every one who cares for cats, and who in consequence is cared for by those graceful 




JAWS AND TEETH OP LION. 




CLAW OP LION. 




THE LION. 1 i 7 

creatures, is familiar with the dry roughness of pussy's tongue, as she licks the hand of her 
human friend. This peculiarity of formation is the more conspicuous because it presents so 
great a contrast with the wet, smooth tongue of the dog ; and, as a general rule, men are more 
accustomed to the lingual caresses of the dog than of the cat. The cause of the strangely dry 
tongue of the Felidse is at once seen by reference to the tongue of a lion or tiger, or by apply- 
ing a magnifying glass to the tongue of a domestic cat. 

The entire surface of the tongue is covered with innumerable conical projections, which 
are so curved that their points He towards the throat. On the central line of the tongue these 
projections are larger than at the side. Their chief, if not their only use, is to aid the cat in 
stripping the flesh from the bones of the animals which it has killed, and so to prevent the 

least avoidable waste of nutriment. Truly, in 
nature the economical system reigns supreme, and 
waste is an impossibility. 

So strongly made are these armatures, that 
the constant licking of a cat's tongue will remove 
the living tissues from a delicate skin, while the 
tongue of the Lion can rapidly cause the outflow 
of blood. There is a well-authenticated anec- 
dote of a tame Lion cub and its owner, which 
exhibits strongly the rasping power of the feline 
tongue. 

Of the magnificent and noble creatures called 
Lions, several species are reported to exist, 
TONGUE OF LION. although it is thought by many experienced 

judges that there is really but one species of 
Lion, which is modified into permanent varieties according to the country in which it lives. 

The best known of these species or varieties is the SOUTH AFRICAN LION, of whom so 
many anecdotes have been narrated. This noble animal is found in nearly all parts of Southern 
Africa, where the foot of civilized man has not stayed its wanderings. Before the tread of the' 
white man, the Lion shrinks unwillingly, haunting each advanced post for a time, but driven 
surely and slowly backward as the human intellect gains opportunity for manifesting its 
supremacy over the lower animals. So entirely does man sweep the wild beasts from his 
presence, that even in the Cape colony, a living Lion is just as great a rarity as in England, 
and there are very few of the colonists who have ever beheld a living Lion except when 
pent in a cage. 

The color of the Lion is a tawny yellow, lighter on the under parts of the body, and darker 
above. The ears are blackish, and the tip of the tail is decorated with a tuft of black hair. 
This tuft serves to distinguish the Lion from any other member of the cat tribe. The male 
Lion, when full grown, is furnished with a thick and shaggy mane of very long hair, which 
falls from the neck, shoulders, and part of the throat and chin, varying in tint according to 
the age of the animal, and possibly according to the locality which it inhabits. The Lioness 
possesses no mane, and even in the male Lion it is not properly developed until the animal 
has completed his third year. 

When fully grown, the male Lion measures some four feet in height at the shoulder, and 
about eleven feet in total length. These measurements are only applicable to the noble animals 
which have passed their lives in the free air of their native land, and have attained their 
majority with limbs unshackled and spirits unbroken. 

Tl^ Lioness is a smaller animal than her mate, and the difference of size appears to be 
much greater than really is the case, because she is devoid of the thick mane which gives such 
grandeur and dignity to her spouse. Although smaller in size, she is quite as terrible in com- 
bat ; and, indeed, the Lioness is oft-times a foe much more to be dreaded than the Lion. When 
she has a little family to look after, Lesena is a truly fearful enemy to those who cross her 
path, assuming at once the offensive, and charging the intruders with a fierce courage that 
knows no fear and heeds no repulse. 



118 



THE LION. 



Of the character of the Lion, opinions the most opposite have been promulgated. 

Until later days the Lion was considered to be the very type of fiery courage and kingly 
generosity, indomitable in conflict with the strong, but merciful in sparing the weak and 
defenceless. Latterly, however, writers have passed to the opposite extreme, speaking of the 
Lion as a cowardly sneaking animal, and have even gone so far as to declare him to be no more 
formidable than a mastiff. It must be remarked that these opposite ideas have been put forth 
by men of practical experience, who have been personally acquainted with the king of beasts 
in his own domains. 

Making due allowance for the "personal error," as astronomers would term the difference 



-- 




SOUTH AFRICAN LION.-Leo capaute. 

of idiosyncrasy in the narrators, we may safely conjecture that the truth lies somewhere 
between the two extremes, and that the Lion is not always so fierce an animal as is said to be 
the case by some, nor always so cowardly as it is said to be by others. 

Even the same individual may be at one time ferocious and truculent, attacking a party of 
armed men, in spite of their fire-rampart, and carrying off one of their number from among 
them ; or at another time it may be timid and cowardly, skulking out of sight if discovered, 
and flying in terror before the shouts and cries of a few savages. 

Hunger seems to be the great cause of a Lion' s defiance of danger ; and it but seldom 
happens that a Lion which has had plenty to eat troubles itself to attack man or beast. 

There seems to be a considerable spice of indolence in the Lion, which indeed is the case 
in most of the members of the cat tribe. It is capable of very great muscular efforts, and for 
a time will exert the most wary vigilance. But as soon as the existing cause is removed, the 
creature seems overcome with lethargy, and, seeking the cover of its lair, yields itself to repose. 

Even when aroused by the calls of hunger, the Lion will not take more trouble than is 



THE LION. 119 

necessary for the attainment of its end, and if it can strike down an antelope or jagiiar with a 
blow of its paw, will be quite satisfied with its success, and will not trouble itself about such 
difficult game as a buffalo or a giraffe. 

It is supposed by those who have had much experience of the leonine character, that the 
terrible "man-eating" Lions owe their propensity for human flesh to the indolence of their 
character or the infirmity of their frame, and not to their superior activity or courage. 
Unwilling, or unable, to expend strength and patience in the pursuit of the swift-footed 
antelope or powerful buffalo, the Lion prowls about the villages, thinking to find an easy prey 
in the man, woman, or child that may happen to stray from the protecting guardianship of 
the kraal and its dogs. Unarmed, man is weaker of limb, slower of foot, and less vigilant of 
senses than any of the wild animals, and therefore is a victim that can be slain without much 
trouble. 

It is said that the taste for human flesh is often engendered by the thoughtless conduct of 
the very people who suffer from the "man-eaters." The Kaffirs are apt to leave their slain 
exposed in the bush, "a prey to dogs and all kinds of birds." 

As a general rule, the Lion is no open foe. He does not come boldly out on the plain and 
give chase to his prey, for he is by no means swift of foot, and, as has already been mentioned, 
has no idea of running into danger without adequate cause. He can make tremendous leaps, 
and with a single blow from his terrible paw can crush any of the smaller animals. So he 
creeps towards his intended prey, availing himself of every bush and tree as a cover, always 
taking care to advance against the wind, so that the pungent feline odor should give no alarm, 
and when he has arrived within the limits of his spring, leaps on the devoted animal and 
strikes it to the ground. 

This mode of action gives a clue to the object of the fear-instilling roar which has made 
the Lion so famous. 

As the Lion obtains his prey by stealth, and depends for nutrition on the success of his 
hunting, it seems strange that his voice should be of such a nature as to inspire with terror 
the heart of every animal which hears its reverberating thunders. Yet it will be seen, 1;hat 
the creature could find no aid so useful as that of his voice. 

If the Lion has been prowling about during the evening hours, and has found no prey, he 
places his mouth close to the earth, and utters a terrific roar, which rolls along the ground on 
all sides, and frightens every animal which may chance to be crouching near. Not knowing 
from what direction the fearful sound has come, they leave their lairs, and rush frantically 
about, distracted with terror and bewildered with the sudden arousing from sleep. In their 
heedless career, one or two will probably pass within a convenient distance of the lurking foe. 

These nocturnal alarms cause great trouble to those who travel into the interior of Africa. 
When night draws on, it is the custom to call a halt, and to release the draught oxen from 
their harness. A kind of camp is then made, a blazing fire is kept alight as a defence against 
the wild beasts, and the oxen are fastened either to the wagons or to the bushes by which 
the encampment is made. 

The Lion comes and surveys the mingled mass of oxen, men, and wagons, but fears to 
approach too closely, for he dreads the blaze of a fire. In vain does he prowl around the 
encampment, for he can discover no stragglers from the protecting flame, and, moreover, finds 
that the watchful dogs are on the alert. So he retires to some little distance, and putting his 
mouth to the ground, pours forth his deepest roar. Struck with frantic terror, the stupid 
oxen break away from their halters, and quitting their sole protection, gallop madly away 
only to fall victims to the jaws and talons of the author of the panic. 

It often happens that several Lions combine in their attacks, and bring their united forces 
to bear upon the common prey, each taking his appointed part in the matter. One of these 
joint attacks was witnessed by two English officers engaged in the late Kaffir war, with one 
of whom I am well acquainted. 

A small herd of zebras were quietly feeding in a plain, all unconscious of the stealthy 
approach of several Lions, which were creeping towards them in regular order, under cover of 
a dense reed thicket. So quietly did the Lions make their advance, that their progress was 



120 



THE LION. 



unnoticed even by the zebra-sentinel. The Lions crept on, until they reached the sheltering 
thicket, when the sentinel took the alarm. It was too late with a single bound, the leading 
Lion sprang over the reeds, felled one of the zebras, and set the others scampering in all direc- 
tions so as to fall an easy prey to his companions. 

It has happened that such alliances have come to a tragical end for the assailant as well 
as the victim. 

"Early one morning," says Mr. Anderson, in his "Lake Ngami," "one of our herdsmen 
came running up to us in a great fright, and announced that a Lion was devouring a Lioness. 
We thought at first that the man must be mistaken, but his story was perfectly true, and only 
her skull, the larger bones, and the skin were left. On examining the ground more closely, the 
fresh remains of a young springbok were also discovered. We therefore conjectured that the 
Lion and Lioness, being very hungry, and the antelope not proving a sufficient meal for both, had 
quarrelled ; and he, after killing his wife, had coolly eaten her also." 

The same writer relates a curious instance of a wounded Lion 
being torn in pieces by a troop of his fellows. 

In the attack of large animals, the Lion seldom attempts an 
unaided assault, but joins in the pursuit with several companions. 
Thus it seems to be that the stately giraffe is slain by the Lion, 
five of which have been seen engaged in the chase of one giraffe, 
two actually pulling down their prey, while the other three were 
waiting close at hand. The Lions were driven off, and the neck of 
the giraffe was found to be bitten through by the cruel teeth of the 
assailants. 

When the Lion kills an eland, and does not happen to be very 
ravenously hungry, he feeds daintily on the heart and other viscera, 
not often touching the remainder of the flesh. In so doing, he rips 
open the abdomen with his powerful claws, and tearing out his 
favorite morsels, devours them. Sometimes, after satisfying his 
hunger, he will leave the eland lying on the ground apparently unin- 
jured, the only visible wound being that which he has made by 
tearing the animal open. 

Owing to the uniform tawny color of the Lion's coat, he is hardly distinguishable from 
surrounding objects even in broad daylight, and by night he walks secure. Even the practised 
eyes of an accomplished hunter have been unable to detect the bodies of Lions which were 
lapping water at some twenty yards' distance, betraying their vicinity by the sound, but so 
blended in form with the landscape, that they afforded no mark for the rifle even at that short 
distance. 

Under such circumstances, their glowing eyes afford the only means by which they can 
be discovered, and even with such assistance the position of the body cannot be made out. 
The felidse tread so silently that no footfall gives notice of their whereabouts ; and aided by 
the beautiful mechanism of the "whiskers," they appear to be enabled to thread their 
stealthy way, almost without the aid of eyes. 

Each whisker hair is, in fact, an organ endued with an exquisite sense of touch, and in 
connection with a set of large nerves that convey to the brain the least touch. In the engraving 
is given a magnified representation of a single hair-bulb of one of the whiskers, together with 
the nerves by means of which the hair is converted into a tactile organ. It will be seen, on 
reference to the figure, that if the extremity of the hair is touched, a pressure wall instantly 
be made on the nerves at its root. By means of these delicate feelers, the animals are able to 
guide themselves through the thickets, and to escape the risk of alarming their intended prey 
by too rude a contact with the branches. 

Among the more inland settlers of Southern Africa, adventures with the Lion are of com- 
mon occurrence. As may by expected, many of these rencontres are of a deeply tragic nature, 
while others are imbued with a decidedly comic element. A great number of original anec- 
dotes of this nature have been most kindly placed at my disposal by Captain Drayson, who 




ROOT AND NERVES OF LION'S 
WHISKER HAIB, 



THE LION. 181 

heard them from the lips of the actors themselves. In these narratives, the characters of both 
man and beast are well shown. 

ANY person who has mixed much with either Dutch, Hottentot, or Kaffir sportsmen, is 

sure to have heard many exciting and curious adventures connected with the chase of the 

Lion. From amongst a somewhat large stock I will now select one or two anecdotes which 

will serve to illustrate either the habits and character of the animal, or the method of hunting 

him. 

" A soldier, belonging to a line regiment, had heard that a great quantity of money might 
be obtained from amongst the Dutch Boers in the interior, by various simple processes with 
which he fancied himself acquainted. 

"Selecting a favorable opportunity, he deserted, taking care to well fill his haversack 
with meat, to serve him during his march across the wild uninhabited district which separated 
the Dutch locations from our frontier. 

"The soldier marched, during two days, some sixty miles or so, taking care when he slept 
to place the bag containing his meat under his head. On the third or fourth night, he lay 
down as usual to rest, with his head upon his pillow. It happened that in the country to 
which he belonged Lions were very common, and one of these unwelcome visitors happened to 
be prowling about in search of a supper, and dropped upon the military hero who was quietly 
snoring. 

"Whether the Lion were aware of the fierce calling of the sleeper, and therefore paid him 
some respect, is not mentioned ; but, instead of carrying off the man, he merely clawed up the 
bag, and trotted away growling with his trophy. The only damage that he had inflicted on 
the soldier was the abstraction of a few inches of his scalp. 

"A Dutch Boer found the deserter wandering half starved on the plain, where he had 
been without food for a day and a night. The Boer fed and doctored him, but in return made 
him act as leader to the oxen and wagon, a position considered by the Dutch Boers to be the 
most degrading to man." 



the sources of the Mooi river there are several extensive plains on which large 
herds of elands and hartebeest were formerly found. Bordering on these plains are several 
ranges of hills, spurs from the Quathlomba mountains,, and between these rocky spurs, kloofs 
or ravines exist, affording shelter for bush-buck, buffaloes, and many other animals which 
seek cover amongst either reeds or bushes. 

"At the time when the following scene occurred, there was scarcely an inhabitant in this 
locality besides a few Welshmen, who resided amongst the stony hills, and lived by the chase, 
and two or three Dutch Boers, the remnants of those who had accompanied Maritz in his 
migration from the old colony. 

"The Dutchmen had built themselves some wattle-and-daub huts, and were contented to 
remain where they were, as hunting and grazing-grounds were plentiful. A few thefts per- 
formed by their little neighbors, the Bushmen, had caused a commando to be raised, and, 
during the invasion of the hills that were then occiipied by these little men, a boy had been 
captured by one of the Boers, and had been retained as a domestic. This individual will 
figure in the following scene with the Lion. 

' ' One evening, whilst one of these Boers was sitting with his son, a lad of about sixteen 
years of age, in front of his hut, smoking his stone pipe, and looking with pride upon his 
sleek herds which grazed about him, he noticed some object that moved slowly along the side 
of an old watercourse at a considerable distance from him. A telescope was an article of value 
which few of these residents possessed ; it was therefore by patient watching only that the 
father and son at length discovered that the object was a Lion, which appeared to be carefully 
stalking a valuable black stallion grazing near the old watercourse. Instantly seizing their 
guns, which were as usual loaded and at hand, the two ran down towards the Lion, shouting 
as they went to the Hottentots who were engaged about the farm. 

"These individuals did not appear to be anxious about hurrying towards the scene of 



j.22 THE LI OX. 

danger, and, consequently, the Dutchman and his son reached the stallion before any other aid 
arrived. 

"The course which they had followed caused them to lose sight of the Lion in con- 
sequence of intervening slopes of ground, so that, upon reaching the horse, which was grazing 
unconscious of danger, no Lion was to be seen. The young Boer, acting against the advice of 
his father, walked along the side of a ravine, in search of the grim monster. The old Boer 
repeatedly called to his incautious son to come back, and wait for the Hottentots and the dogs, 
which would soon come up ; but, finding his advice disregarded, he left the horse, and walked 
towards his son, whom he found throwing stones into the long grass which fringed the edge 
of the ravine for the purpose of starting the Lion. When the Boer was about a hundred yards 
from the lad, he saw him stop, raise his gun, and fire suddenly, though apparently without 
aim, and then turn, running a few paces towards him. At the same instant, he saw the Lion 
make two prodigious bounds, and alight on his boy, whom he instantly dragged to the ground. 

"All this occurred in a very few seconds ; so that before the Boer, who ran to the rescue, 
arrived, the young Dutchman was mortally wounded. The Lion, croiiching down among the 
long grass, retreated a few yards, then bounded over the rocks and reeds until out of sight, 
the shot which was fired by the old Boer being unheeded by him. When the father reached 
the fatal spot, he found his son senseless, and torn so fearfully as to preclude all possibility of 
recovery. He, however, had him conveyed home, but the lad never again spoke, and died 
during the night. Revenge was the first thought of the old Dutchman, who immediately sent 
round to his neighbors to warn them that a Lion was in their vicinity, and to beg their 
assistance on the following day in tracing the Lion to its den. 

"The night was passed by the Boer as usual ; for these men are very philosophic, and 
rarely allow any circumstance to interfere with their comfort. On the following morning, 
however, he was up very early,, busily preparing for the great business of the day; bullets 
were being cast and powder-horn filled, etc., etc., when he was suddenly interrupted by the 
entrance of his little Bushman, who had, since his capture by the Boer some years before, 
reached his full growth, and might be estimated at any age between sixteen and sixty. 

" ' What do you here ? ' asked the Dutchman. 

"The Bushman, who was armed with his tiny bow and arrows, answered by showing a 
small tuft of black hair like a shaving brush. 

"This was an intelligible answer to the Boer, who, with eagerness, demanded the par- 
ticulars ; and the following is a translation of the Bushman's account. 

"When the Lion struck down the young Dutchman, the Bushman was sitting upon a 
rock which commanded a view of the scene. The little creature then watched the Lion in its 
retreat, and marked it down amongst some long grass and bushes at the distance of a mile or 
so. He then procured an old and nearly useless ox from the cattle kraal, and arming himself 
with his bow and poisonous arrows, drove the beast close to the Lion's retreat, made it fast to 
a bush, and concealed himself in some long grass. 

"The Bushman, from his nocturnal habits, can see by night nearly as well as by day ; and 
so, when, shortly after dark, the Lion left his lair and walked on to the open plain outside, 
the Bushman was an attentive observer of his movements. 

"The ox soon attracted the attention of the Lion, which approached with caution upon 
its victim ; the Bushman at the same time holding his bow and arrows in readiness for an 
attack upon Ms victim. Soon the Lion sprang upon the ox, and, at the instant when he was 
engaged in the death struggle, the Bushman, with great rapidity, twice twanged his bow, and 
lodged two poisoned barbs in the Lion's flesh. 

"The ox was soon overcome, and was dragged amongst the reeds, whilst the Bushman 
sought shelter in the crannies of the rocks near the scene of his operations. 

"As soon as day began to dawn, the Bushman commenced his stealthy approach, through 
the grass and reeds, towards the Lion's lair, and was shortly sitting grinning on the carcass of 
the Lion, which, but a few hours before, was a terror to all the Hottentots on the farm, but 
now, overcome by the malignant poison with which the arrows had been prepared, was as 
harmless as one of the stones on which he lay. 



THE LION. 123 

" Being anxious to proclaim his triumph, the Bushman merely cut off the tuft of hair 
from the tail of the Lion and returned with this trophy to the Dutchman, who was not, how- 
ever, quite satisfied with the business, for he would have preferred to shoot the Lion himself ; 
moreover, he grudged the loss of the old ox, which he thought might have been spared to die 
the usual death of a draught ox, i.e. to work until it drops from fatigue, and to die where it 
falls. The Bushman, however, explained that, if he had wounded the Lion as it was walking 
along, it would have sprung upon him as soon as it felt the sharp arrow in its side ; but, when 
it was busily employed in killing the ox, it would only think that the ox had pricked it with 
its horns, and would neither see nor think of its human enemy. Therefore it was safer and 
more certain to take the ox for a bait, and so, to save many a young and vigorous animal by 
the sacrifice of one old and worn-out beast." 

"A BOER, a very humorous fellow, told me that he was returning to his wagons one 
evening, when he was far in the interior ; at the time, he had with him only the single charge 
of powder with which his gun was loaded, as he had been out buck-shooting all day. 

" Straight in Ms path he disturbed a Lion, which jumped up and turned to look at him. 
Very naturally, his first impulse was to fire, but remembering that he had but that one charge 
in his gun, he changed his tactics. 

"The Dutchmen usually wear large broad-brimmed felt hats, around which several ostrich 
feathers are fastened. The Boer jumped from his horse, and pulled off his hat, which he held 
with his teeth by the brim, so that the upper part only of his face could be seen above the 
conglomeration of feathers. He then dropped upon his hands and knees, and commenced 
crawling towards the Lion. Such a strange animal had never before been seen by the aston- 
ished Leeuw, which turned and fled without a moment's hesitation. 

"This method of alarming animals is not always successful; for whilst I was on the 
frontier, a Hottentot, who had been told of a somewhat similar plan to frighten a savage ox, 
met with a severe accident. 

"The man had been instructed that to stoop down and look back at an animal from 
between the knees was a certain means of driving it away. So, being pursued by an infuriated 
ox, he stopped short, and doubled himself up for his peep ; but unfortunately without the 
desired result. For the animal charged home, ripped up the Totty's leather crackers, wounded 
him, and sent him sprawling into a bush." 

"Aw OLD Dutch Boer, who lived under the shadow of the Draakensberg mountains, gave 
me the following account of an interview with a Lion. The man was a well-known sportsman, 
and lived principally by means of the dollars which he realized upon ivory and skins. He was 
accustomed to make a trip each year into the game country, and traded with the Kaffirs or 
other inhabitants, under very favorable auspices. His stock-in-trade consisted of his guns 
and ammunition, several spans of fine oxen, some horses, and about a dozen dogs. 

"A Lion, which appeared to have been roaming about the country, happened to pass near 
this Boer's location, and scenting the three coursers kept by the Boer, thought that the 
locality might suit him for a short period. A dense kloof, situated about a mile from the 
farm, afforded both shelter and water, and this spot the Lion selected as a favorable position 
for his head-quarters. 

"The Boer had not to wait for more than a day, before the suspicions which had been 
excited in his mind by some broad footmarks which he saw imprinted in the soil, were con- 
firmed into a certainty that a full-grown Lion had passed near his residence. 

"It now became a question of policy, whether the Boer should attack the Lion, or wait 
for the Lion to attack him. He thought it quite possible, that Leeuw, having been~warned 
off by the dogs, whose barking had been furious and continued during the night on which the 
Lion was supposed to have passed the farm, might think discretion to be the better part of 
valor, and consequently would move farther on, in search of a less carefully guarded locality 
upon which to quarter himself. He determined, therefore, to wait, but to use every precau- 
tion against a night surprise. 



124 THE LION. 

" The Lion, however, was more than a match for the Boer. For during the second night, 
Roeberg, the stout after-ox of the pet span, was quietly carried off, and although there was 
some commotion amongst the dogs and cattle, it was supposed that the alarm had scared the 
Lion, which had then decamped. 

" The morning light, however, showed that the poacher had leapt the palisade which sur- 
rounded the kraal, and having killed the ox, had evidently endeavored to scramble over it 
again, with the ox in his possession. The joint weight of the Lion and ox had caused the 
stakes to give way, and an exit had then been easily effected. 

"The spoor of the Lion was immediately followed by the Boer, who took with him a 
Hottentot and half-a-dozen of his best dogs. The traces were easily seen, and the hunters had 
no difficulty in deciding that the Lion was in the kloof. But this in itself was no great 
advance, for the kloof was about a mile in length, and three or four hundred yards in breadth ; 
and the cover was composed of wait-a-bit thorns, creepers, and long grass, forming a jungle so 
thick and impenetrable, that for a man to enter appeared almost impossible. 

"It was therefore agreed that the Boer should station himself on one side, whilst the 
Hottentot went to the other side of the kloof, and that the dogs should be sent into the cover. 
This arrangement, it was hoped, would enable either the Dutchman or Hottentot to obtain a 
shot ; for each concluded that the dogs, which were very courageous animals, would drive the 
Lion out of the kloof, and that it would, upon breaking cover, afford one or the other a good 
chance. 

"The excited barks of the dogs soon indicated that they had discovered the Lion, but 
they appeared to be unable to drive him from his stronghold : for although they would 
scamper away every now and again, as though the enraged monster were charging them, still 
they returned to bay at the same spot. 

" Both of the hunters lired several shots, upon the hope that a stray bullet might find its 
way through the underwood to the heart of the savage. But a great quantity of ammunition 
was expended, and no result achieved. 

"At length, as the dogs had almost ceased to bark, it was considered advisable to call 
them off. But all the whistling and shouting failed in recalling more than two out of the six, 
and one of these was fearfully maimed. The others, it was afterwards found, had been dis- 
posed of by the Lion in the most unceremonious manner ; a blow from his paw had sufficed 
either to break the back or smash the skull of the nearest intruder. 

"It thus happens that the bravest dogs are not always the best adapted for Lion or 
buffalo hunting. A cur is, perhaps, the most suitable ; for while a courageous dog will boldly 
face a Lion, and even venture within reach of his deadly stroke, and thus soon be 'expended,' 
a cur will continue to annoy and occupy the attention of the fierce game, but at the same time 
will take good care of its own safety. It is not expected that a dog is to struggle with either 
a Lion or a buffalo ; its duty is merely to distract the animal, and prevent it from devoting too 
much of its time to the hunter. Well-bred dogs are nearly useless when employed against 
dangerous game. 

" This, the first attempt on the Lion, was a total failure, and the Boer returned home to 
lament the loss of his dogs, and to refresh himself after his exertions. During the night, he 
watched beside his kraal, but the Lion did not pay him a second visit. 

"Early on the following evening, he, accompanied by his Hottentot, started afresh for the 
kloof, and having marked the spot from which the Lion had on the former occasion quitted 
the dense thorny jungle, the two hunters ascended a tree, and watched during the whole night 
for a glimpse at their purposed victim. But whilst they were paying the residence of the 
Lion a visit, lie favored the farm with a call, and this time, by way of variety, carried away a 
very valuable horse, which he conveyed to the kloof, having been wise enough to walk out 
and return by a different path to that which he used on the former occasion. Consequently 
he had avoided the ambush which had been prepared for him. 

"When the Boer returned to his farm, he became furious at his new loss, abused the 
Totties and Kaffirs for their neglect and cowardice, but soon became reasonable, and deter- 
mined on a plan which, although dangerous, was still the one which appeared the most likely 



THE LION. 125 

to insure the destruction of this ravenous monster. This plan was to enter the dense kloof on 
foot, without dogs, and to endeavor by fair stalking to obtain his shot at the Lion. 

"Now, when we consider the difficulty of moving through any cover without making a 
noise, and also the watchful habits of every member of the feline race, we may be certain that 
to surprise the Lion was a matter of extreme difficulty, and that the probability was that the 
Dutchman would meet with a disaster. 

"At about ten o'clock on the morning after the horse slaughter, the Boer started for the 
kloof, armed with a double-barrelled smooth bore, and clothed in the most approved bush 
costume. He would not allow his faithful Hottentot to accompany him, because, as success 
mainly depended upon surprise, he considered that the highly flavored Totty might be scented 
by the Lion ; whereas he alone would be more likely to escape detection. By this arrange- 
ment the Boer demonstrated the truth of the proverb with reference to the pot and the kettle, 
for the Dutchmen are not fonder of lavations than their Hottentot servants, and it is probable 
that, although a wide-awake Lion might have scented the Totty at 600 yards down wind, he 
would have discovered the Boer under similar conditions at 400 yards. We must, however, 
take the Boer's reason as a just one, and conclude that to leave his Totty at home was a wise 
precaution. 

"On the first occasion, when the Lion was attacked by the Boer, it had been bayed by 
the dogs near some tall trees, far down in the kloof. If the animal had again selected the 
same location, the Boer would have had to creep through two or three hundred yards of 
thorny bush, and lie would probably have alarmed the Lion long before he arrived within shot. 
He had thought over this, and had concluded that after dragging the carcass of the horse all 
the way from the farm, the Lion would not be disposed to drag it very far through the under- 
wood in the kloof, and that, therefore, he should find the carcass of the horse at least at no 
great distance from the edge of the ravine, and probably the Lion close to it. 

"Now it is the nature of the Lion, when gorged, to sleep during the day; and if the 
animal has carried off any prey, it usually conceals itself near the remains to watch them until 
it is ready for another feast. 

"The Boer was aware of all this, and had laid his plans very judiciously. He approached" 
the kloof slowly and silently, hit off the spoor of the Lion, and traced the spot where the 
horse had been allowed to remain on the ground for a short time. 

"Although he moved onwards very slowly and with great caution, he was soon surrounded 
by the bush ; and the brightness of the plain was succeeded by the gloom of the kloof. Being 
a most experienced hand at bushcraft, he was enabled to walk or crawl without causing either 
a dried stick to crack or a leaf to rustle, and he was aware that his progress had been accom- 
plished without noise ; for the small birds, usually so watchful and so much on the alert, flew 
away only when he approached close to them, thus showing that their eyes and not their ears 
had made them conscious of the presence of man. 

" Birds and monkeys are the great obstacles in the bush to the success of a surprise, for 
the birds fly from tree to tree, and whistle or twitter, whilst the monkeys chatter and grimace, 
and express, by all sorts of harlequin movements, that some curious creature is approaching. 
When, therefore, the bushranger finds that birds and monkeys are unconscious of his presence 
until they see him, he may be satisfied that he has traversed the bush with tolerable silence, 
and has vanquished such formidable obstacles as sticks hidden by leaves, broken and dead 
branches, etc. 

" There is a vast difference between hearing or reading how any dangerous work has been 
accomplished, and doing that work itself. But we can, by imagining ourselves in the position 
of the performer, realize in a measure the sort of sensations which he must have experienced, 
and we can then weigh the effect which the circumstance would have produced upon our own 
moderately strong nerves. It is highly probable that those who sigh for new sensations, might 
possibly find them were they to enter a dense bush on foot, and expect momentarily to meet, 
within speaking distance, a Lion of capacious maw, or a long-tusked, heavy-footed elephant, 
or even such a moderate opponent as a bull buffalo. 

"The effect produced upon the system is much decreased when many individuals are 



126 THE LION. 

together. To obtain the most satisfactory results, therefore, a person should undertake the 
journey alone, and he will soon learn to consider those only as epicures who thus conjointly 
enjoy solitude and excitement. 

"The Boer had penetrated scarcely fifty yards into the bush, when he had reason to 
suspect that he was close upon the lair of the Lion. He believed that such was a fact in 
consequence of the strong leonine scent, and from a part of the carcass of the horse being 
visible between the intervening branches. Instead, therefore, of advancing, as an incautious 
or inexperienced bushranger would have done, he crouched down behind a bush, and assumed 
a convenient attitude, so that he could remain still without inconvenience. . 

"All the animal creation are aware of the advantages of a surprise, and the feline tribe 
especially practise the ambuscading system. The Boer therefore determined, if possible, to 
turn the tables on the Lion, and to surprise, rather than to be surprised. He concluded that 
the Lion, even when gorged with horse-flesh, would not be so neglectful of his safety as to 
sleep with more than one eye at a time, and that, although he had walked with great care 
through the bush, he had probably caused the Lion to be watchful ; if, therefore, he should 
go up to the carcass of the horse, he might be pounced upon at once. 

"To sit down quietly within a few yards of a Lion, whose exact hiding-place was not 
known, required a certain amount of nerve ; but the Boer knew what he was about, and had 
adopted the best and safest method to conquer his foe. 

"After remaining silent and watchful for several minutes, the Boer at length saw that an 
indistinctly outlined object was moving behind some large, broad-leafed plants, and at about 
twenty paces from him. This object proved to be the Lion, which was half -crouched behind 
some shrubs, and was attentively watching the bushes near the Boer. The head only was 
clearly visible, the body being concealed by the foliage. 

"It was evident that the Lion was aware that some '-person or thing had approached, but 
was not certain where this thing was now concealed. The Boer knew that this was a critical 
period for him, and therefore remained perfectly steady ; he did not like to risk a shot at the 
forehead of the Lion, for it would require a very neat shot to insure a death wound, and the 
number of branches and twigs which were on the line of flight of the bullet would render a 
clear course almost impossible. 

"The Lion, after a careful inspection, appeared to be satisfied, and laid down behind the 
shrubs. The Boer then cocked both barrels of his heavy roer, and turned the muzzle slowly 
round, so that he covered the spot on which the Lion lay, and shifted his position so as to be 
well situated for a shot. 

"The slight noise which he made in moving attracted the attention of the Lion, who imme- 
diately rose to his feet. A broadside shot could not be obtained, so the Boer fired at a spot 
between the eyes ; the bullet struck high, as is usually the case when the range is short and 
the charge of powder is heavy, but the Lion fell over on its back, rising, however, immediately, 
and uttering a fierce roar. As it regained its feet, it showed its side to the Boer, who sent his 
second bullet into its shoulder. 

" The Lion bounded off through the bush, much to the satisfaction of the Boer, who felt 
more calm as each snap of a branch showed that the animal was farther from him. 

"The Boer immediately started off home, and brought his Hottentots and dogs to assist 
in the search after the wounded animal, which the Boer concluded would be found dead, as 
the second wound, he thought, must be a mortal one. 

"Before sunset that evening, the skin of the Lion was pegged down outside the Boer's 
house, and the Hottentots were drunk with delight at the success of 'the master.' " 
J 

KOLBEN, a traveller who visited the Cape about the year 170.5, described the appearance 
and character of the African Lion. He gives a rule by which all travellers may know to a 
certainty the state of mind in which Leeuw may be. He, however, does not mention whether 
he actually tested the truth of his assertions, but merely states as follows : 

"The Lions here are remarkable for their strength. When they come upon their prey 
they knock it down, and never bite till they have given the mortal blow, which is generally 



THE LION. 127 

accompanied by a fearful roar. When the Lion is pinched with hunger, he shakes his mane 
and lashes his sides with his tail. When he is thus agitated it is almost certain death to come 
in his way, and as he generally lurks for his prey behind the bushes, travellers sometimes do 
not discover the motion of his tail till it is too late ; but if a Lion shakes not his mane, nor 
lashes himself with his tail, a traveller may pass safely by him. 

"If we could drive a bargain with the Felis Leo that he should always thus signal to 
travellers, we might pass through the African wilderness with less risk than at the present 
time. But from the experience gained by more modern hunters, it appears that the lion 
will frequently attack horses, oxen, etc., without any intimation from mane or tail. 

"The most formidable attacks are those which take place during a dark night, when it 
would be impossible to be prepared in consequence of not observing the shaking and lashing 
above referred to." 

It has already been mentioned, that several naturalists accept the Lion of Western Africa 
as a species distinct from the Lion of Southern Africa, and have therefore given to the animal a 
different specific name, which is derived from the country in which it is found. Whatever may 
be said of the distinction between the Asiatic and African Lion, there seem to be scarcely suffi- 
cient grounds for considering the very slight differences which are found in Lions of Africa to 
be a sufficient warrant for constituting separate species. They may be permanent varieties, and 
even in that case are not nearly so different from each other as the mastiff from the spaniel. 

From all accounts, however, it seems that the habits of all Lions are very similar, and that 
a Lion acts like a Lion, whether he resides in Africa or Asia. 

We all are familiar with the self-gratulatory half -threatening mixture between a purr and 
a growl, which is emitted by the domestic cat when she has laid her paws on a mouse or a 
bird, and is divided in mind between the complacent consciousness of having won a prize by 
her own efforts, and the ever present fear that it should escape or be taken away. If we 
substitute a Lion for a cat, and suppose ourselves to be in the position of the victim, we may 
partly realize the feeling which must have filled the mind of a recent traveller and hunter in 
Southern Africa. 

He had built for himself a "skarm," or slight rifle-pit, composed of stones, logs, and other 
convenient substances, and had watched during the night in hopes of finding game worthy the 
sacrifice of time and sleep. Nothing, however, had come within range of the concealed hunter 
excepting a white rhinoceros, which was shot, and fell dead on the spot. Wearied out 
with the prolonged vigil, the hunter dropped asleep, and lay for some time wrapped in 
unconsciousness. 

But the active desert life requires that its votary should be ever prepared for any emer- 
gency, and even during sleep should be capable of instantaneous awaking ready for action. 
So it happened, that although the deep sleep of wearied nature had wrapped the hunter's 
senses in oblivion, a part of his being remained awake, ready to give the alarm to that portion 
which slept. Suddenly a sense of danger crept over the sleeper, and he awoke to a feeling 
that a monotonous rumbling sound, which reverberated in his ears, was in some way connected 
with imminent peril. A moment's reflection told him that none but a Lion could produce 
such sounds, and that one of those fearful animals was actually stooping over him, its breath 
playing on his face. 

Taught by practical experience of the danger of alarming the Lion, the hunter quietly felt 
for his gun, which was lying ready loaded and cocked in front of him, and raised himself in 
order to get a glimpse at the foe. Slight as the movement was, it sufficed to alarm the Lion, 
which uttered a sharp, menacing growl, speaking in a language well known to the intended 
victim. Knowing that not a moment could be lost, he pointed his weapon towards an indistinct 
mass, which loomed darkly through the mists of night, and fired. 

The report of the gun was instantly mingled with the fierce roarings of the infuriated 
Lion, maddened with the pain of its wound, seeking to wreak its vengeance on its foe, and 
tearing up the ground in its fury, within a very few paces of the skarm. By degrees the 
fierce roars subsided into angry growls, and the growls into heavy moans, until the terrible 
voice was hushed, and silence reigned during the remainder of the night. 



128 THE LION. 

When the dawn broke, the hunter ventured from his place of concealment, and 
searched for the carcass of the Lion, which lie found lying within fifty yards of the spot 
from whence the fatal shot had been fired. Even in that short space of time the hyenas 
and jackals had been busy over the body of their departed monarch, and had so torn his 
skin that it was entirely spoiled for any purpose except that of a memorial of a most 
fearful night. 

The hero of this adventure was C. J. Andersson, who has recorded his valuable African 
experiences in his visit to " Lake Ngami." 

The same author relates a curious anecdote of a half-starved, and entirely bewildered 
Lion, which contrived to get into the church at Bichterfeldt. The unfortunate brute was so 
weakened by fasting, that the Damaras dragged him out of the edifice by his tail and ears, 
and speared him without trouble. 

In the leonine character is no small craft, which displays itself in various modes. Keen 
of scent in perceiving the approach of an enemy, the Lion appears to be well aware of the 
likelihood that his own approach might be manifested by the powerful odor that issues from 
his body. He therefore keeps well to leeward of the animal which he pursues, and employs 
the direction of the wind to conceal him from the olfactory senses of his game, and the position 
of the rocks, trees, or reeds, to hide his approach from their organs of vision. 

A curious property connected with the Lion's tooth is worthy of notice. It has happened 
that, when a man has been bitten by a Lion, and escaped from its fangs, he has long felt the 
after effects of the injury, and this in a singular manner. Although the wound has healed 
kindly, and to all appearance has left no evil result except the honorable scar, yet that wound 
has broken out afresh on the anniversary of the time when it was inflicted. There is probably 
some poisonous influence upon the Lion's tooth by which this effect is produced, for it has 
been recorded that two men have been attacked by the same Lion, one of whom, who was 
bitten tipon his bare limb, suffered from the annual affliction, while the other, whose limb was 
protected by his coat, felt no after inconvenience of a similar nature from the bite of the same 
1 animal. 

A similar effect, lasting for several years, has been produced by the bite of a rabid dog, 
where the poisonous effects of the envenomed tooth were not sufficiently powerful to produce 
the fearful disease of hydrophobia. In an instance with which I am acquainted, the wound 
continued to re-open annually at least for the space of six years, and possibly for some years 
longer. The bite of a venomous snake has sometimes been known to produce the same phe- 
nomenon. 

The Lion is by no means so fastidious a feeder as is popularly supposed. It is true that 
he does very much like to strike down a living prey, and lap the hot blood as it wells from 
the lacerated victim. But he is very well satisfied with any dead animal that he may chance 
to find, and indeed is in no way particular whether it be tainted or otherwise. So thoroughly 
is this the case, that Lion-hunters are in the habit of decoying their mighty game by means of 
dead antelopes or oxen, which they lay near some water-spring, knowing well that the Lions 
are sure to seize so excellent an opportunity of satisfying at the same time the kindred appe- 
tites of thirst and hunger. 

In default of larger game, the Lion feels no hesitation in employing his mighty paw in the 
immolation of the small rodents, and frequently makes a meal on locusts, diversified with an 
occasional lizard or beetle. Led by implanted instinct, this animal will, when water is not to 
be found, quench its thirst by devouring the juicy water-melons that so marvellously store up 
the casual moistures of the desert, which would otherwise be exhaled in vapor before the fierce 
rays of the burning sun. Many other carnivorous animals, and one or two carnivorous birds, 
are known to possess the same instinctive knowledge. The scientific name of this water-melon 
is "Cucumis Gaffer," and its native title "Kengwe," or "Kerne." 

That a carnivorous animal should voluntarily take to vegetable food is a very curious fact, 
and seems to argue a high state of intellectual power. It is true that herbivoi'ous animals, 
such as the rhinoceros and others, will resort to the same plant for the purpose of quenching 
their thirst ; but then it must be remembered that these latter creatures are but following their 



THE LION. 129 

usual dietary system, while the Lion is acting in a manner directly opposed to his own flesh- 
loving nature. 

The cautious habits which the Lion acquires when its domain has been invaded by man 
are most singular, and exhibit a considerable degree of reasoning power. The Lion which has 
never known man, knows no fear at the sight of man and his deadly weapons, attacking him 
with as much freedom as it would attack an antelope. But after it has had some experience 
of man and his wiles, it can only be induced by the calls of pressing hunger to venture upon 
an open attack, or to approach any object that looks as if it might be a trap. 

Lions have been known to surround an escaped horse, and to prowl round it for two entire 
days, not daring to attack so apparently defenceless a prey, simply because its bridle was 
dangling from its neck, and made the creature suspicious, even though the rein had acci- 
dentally been hitched over a stump. On another occasion, a Lion crept close to a haltered ox, 
saw the halter, and did not like it, crept away again until he reached a little hillock about 
three hundred yards away, and there stood and roared all night. 

The hunters take advantage of this extreme caution to preserve the game which they have 
killed from any marauding Lion that may happen to pass in that direction. A simple white 
streamer tied to a stick, and waving over the dead beast, is amply sufficient to prevent the 
Lions from approaching so uncanny an object. Sometimes, when no streamer can be manu- 
factured, a kind of clapper is substituted, which shakes in the wind, and by the unaccustomed 
sound, very much alarms the Lion. It does truly seem absurd, that so terrible a beast as the 
Lion should be frightened by the fluttering of a white handkerchief, or the clattering of two 
sticks devices which would be laughed to scorn by a tomtit of ordinary capacity. 

Nearly all the feline animals seize their prey by the back of the neck, but the Lion seems 
to prefer the flank or shoulders as his point of attack. It seldom happens that the Lion 
springs upon the back of his prey, as is the case with many of the felidse, for in the chase of 
a large animal, he chooses rather to pull down the doomed creature by main strength, his 
hinder feet resting on the earth, and his fore-paws and fangs tearing deeply into the neck and 
shoulders of his victim. There are, of course, exceptional instances, but the general rale 
seems to be that the Lion either strikes down his prey with a furious blow of his paw, or drags 
it to the ground by hanging on its neck with teeth and claws. 

The young of the Lion are various in number, sometimes amounting to three or foiir at a 
birth, thus entirely contraverting the well-known fable of the Lioness and Fox. For some 
time, the young Lion cubs present a curioxis appearance, their fur being faintly brindled in a 
manner very similar to that of the tiger, or, to give a more familiar illustration, resembling 
the coat of a tabby cat, very indistinctly marked upon a light tawny ground. These faint 
brindlings are retained for some months, when they gradually fade into the deeper brown 
which tinges the tawny fur, and after awhile become wholly merged in the darker hue. I have 
observed a similar absorption of the brindled markings in a kitten. In its earliest youth, it 
was of a lightish brown, marked with tolerably defined stripes ; but as it grew older, the dark 
streaks gradually became more faint, and, when the animal was about three months old, 
vanished entirely. 

A cub-lion is just as playful an animal as a kitten, and is just as ready to romp with any 
one who may encourage its little wanton Immors. Only it is hardly so safe a playfellow, for 
the very small Lion is as large as a very big cat, and sometimes becomes rather unpleasantly 
rough in its gamesomeness. It has no idea of the power of its stroke, and if it should deal a 
playful blow with its claws protruded, is apt to do damage which it never intended. 

The weight of a Lion-cub is extraordinary in comparison with its size. I have personally 
tested the weight of several cubs, and was surprised at the massive build of the little creatures. 
Their bones are very large, and the muscular system very solid, so that a cub which about 
equals a large cat in actual measurement, far exceeds that animal in weight. 

The development of the young Lion is very slow, three or four years elapsing before he 
can lay claim to the full honors of Lionhood, and shake his tawny mane in conscious strength. 

At the tip of the Lion's tail is sometimes found a curious appendage, which was once 
thought to be a veritable claw, and to be used for the purpose of exciting the Lion to rage, 



130 THE TIGER. 

when he lashed his sides with his tail. It is now, however, proved to be nothing but a piece 
of thickened skin, whicli is only slightly attached by its base to the member on which it rests, 
and falls off at a very gentle touch. A similar protuberance has been discovered on the tail of 
an Asiatic leopard. 

Before bidding farewell to the African Lion, it is but right to refer to the species or variety 
which inhabits the more northern portion of this huge continent. According to the account 
of Jules Gerard, the French lion-hunter, the Northern Lion is far more formidable an antago- 
nist than his Southern relative. But to an unprejudiced reader, the spirited narratives which 
are given in the name of that author seem rather to bear reference to the singular cowardice 
of the native Algerian mind when brought in contact with the Lion, than the absolute ferocity 
of the animal, or the courage of the hunter. 

To take but one instance. 

That a large party of warriors, each armed with loaded musket, should stand in a row 
with their backs against a rock, trembling in deadly fear, whilst a Lion walked coolly along 
the line, with tail erect, in calm defiance of the firelocks that waved their faltering muzzles 
before his gaze like ears of corn before the gale, speaks but little for the courage of the war- 
riors, and, in consequence, for that of their impudent foe. 

It is true, also, that the North African Lion is a terribly fearful opponent on a dark night, 
when he is met face to face, with but a few yards between his body and the rifle-muzzle of the 
hunter ; but so is the Lion of Southern Africa, in similar circumstances. All animals, like 
dogs, "bark best on their own threshold," and it behoves a man, who dares alone to make his 
nocturnal quest after the Lion, to bear a bold heart, a quick eye, and a ready hand. Yet 
these accomplishments are far more general than some writers would have us suppose, and 
there is many an unassuming hunter who sallies out at night and shoots a Lion or two 
without thinking that the beast was so inordinately ferocious, or himself so marvellously 
coiirageous. 

There is really nothing in the character or history of the Lion of Algeria that could sepa- 
rate him from the Lion of Southern Africa. 

UPON the African continent, the lion reigns supreme, sole monarch over the feline race. 
But in Asia his claims to undivided royalty are disputed by the TIGER, an animal which equals 
the lion in size, strength, and activity, and certainly excels him in the elegance of its form, the 
grace of its movements, and the beauty of its fur. The range of the Tiger is not so widely 
spread as that of the lion, for it is never found in any portions of the New World, nor in 
Africa, and, except in certain districts, is but rarely seen even in the countries where it 
takes up its residence. Some portions of country there are, which are absolutely infested 
by this fierce animal, whose very appearance is sufficient to throw the natives into a state of 
abject terror. 

In its color the Tiger presents a most beautiful arrangement of markings and contrasts of 
tints. On a bright tawny yellow ground, sundry dark stripes are placed, arranged, as may be 
seen by the engraving, nearly at right angles with the body or limbs. Some of these stripes 
are double, but the greater number are single dark streaks. The under parts of the body, the 
chest, throat, and the long hair which tufts each side of the face, are almost white, and upon 
these parts the stripes become very obscure, fading gradually into the light tint of the fur. 
The tail is of a whiter hue than the upper portions of the body, and is decorated in like manner 
with dark rings. 

So brilliantly adorned an animal would appear to be very conspiciious among even the 
trees and bushes, and to thrust itself boldly upon the view. But there is no animal that can 
hide itself more thoroughly than the Tiger, or which can walk through the underwood with 
less betrayal of its presence. 

The vertical stripes of the body harmonize so well with the dry dusky jungle grass among 
which this creature loves to dwell, that the grass and fur are hardly distinguishable from each 
other except by a quick and experienced eye. A Tiger may thus lie concealed so cleverly, 
that even when crouching among low and scanty vegetation, it may be almost trodden on with- 



THE TIGER. 



181 



out being seen. The step, too, is so quiet and stealthy, that it gives no audible indication of 
the creature's whereabouts, and the Tiger has, besides, a curious habit of drawing in its breath 
and flattening its fur, so as to reduce its bulk as far as possible. When a Tiger thus slinks 
away from the hunters or from any dreaded danger, it looks a most contemptible and cowardly 
creature, hardly to be recognized in the fiery beast, which, when driven to bay, rushes, regard- 
less of danger, with fierce yells of rage and bristling hair, upon the foremost foe. 

When seeking its prey, it never appears to employ openly that active strength which 
would seem so sure to attain its end, but creeps stealthily towards the object, availing itself 
of every cover, until it can spring upon the destined victim. Like the lion, it has often been 
known to stalk an unconscious animal, crawling after it as it moves along, and following its 
steps in hopes of gaining a nearer approach. It has even been known to stalk human beings 



' 




regalls. 



in this fashion, the Tiger in question being one of those terrible animals called "Man-eaters," 
on account of their destructive propensities. It is said that there is an outward change caused 
in the Tiger by the indulgence of this man-slaying habit, and that a "Man-eater" can be 
distinguished from any other Tiger by the darker tint of the skin, and a redness in the cornea 
of the eyes. Not even the Man-eating Tiger dares an open assault, but crawls insidiously 
towards his prey, preferring, as does the lion, the defenceless women and children as the object 
of attack, and leaving alone the men, who are seldom without arms. 

The Tiger is very clever in selecting spots from whence it can watch the approach of its 
intended prey, itself being couched under the shade of foliage or behind the screen of some 
friendly rock. It is fond of lying in wait by the side of moderately frequented roads, more 
particularly choosing those spots where the shade is the deepest, and where water may be 
found at hand wherewith to quench the thirst that it always feels when consuming its prey. 



132 THE TIGER. 

From such a point of vantage it will leap with terrible effect, seldom making above a single 
spring, and, as a rule, always being felt before it is seen or heard. 

It is a curious fact that the Tiger generally takes up his post on the side of the road 
which is opposite his lair, so that he has no need to turn and drag his prey across the road, 
but proceeds forward with his acquisition to his den. Should the Tiger miss his leap, he 
generally seems bewildered and ashamed of himself, and instead of returning to the spot, for 
a second attempt, sneaks off discomfited from the scene of his humiliation. The spots where 
there is most danger of meeting a Tiger, are the crossings of nullahs, or the deep ravines 
through which the water-courses run. In these localities the Tiger is sure to find 'his two 
essentials, cover and water. So apathetic are the natives, and so audacious are the Tigers, 
that at some of these crossings a man or a bullock may be carried off daily, and yet no steps 
will be taken to avert the danger, with the exception of a few amulets suspended about the 
person. Sometimes the Tigers seem to take a panic, and make a general emigration, leaving, 
without any apparent reason, the spots which they had long infested, and making a sudden 
appearance in some locality where they had but seldom before been seen. 

In the districts where these terrible animals take up their abode, an unexpected meeting 
with a Tiger is by no means an uncommon event. While engaged in hog-spearing, the sports- 
men have many times come suddenly upon a Tiger that was lying quite composedly in the 
heavy "rhur" grass from which the hog had started. In such cases, the terror of the native 
horses is excessive, for their dread of the Tiger is so great, that the very scent of a Tiger's 
presence, or the sight of a dried skin, is sufficient to set them plunging and kicking in their 
attempts to escape from the dreaded propinquity. One horse, which had been terrified by ;i 
Tiger, could not afterwards endure the sight of any brindled animal whatever, and was only 
restored to ordinary courage by the ingenious device of his master, who kept a brindled dog 
in the same stable with the horse until the poor beast became reconciled to the abhorred 
striped fur. 

A very curious introduction to a Tiger occurred to a gentleman who was engaged in deer 
shooting. 

He had crept up to a convenient spot, from whence he could command a clear view of the 
deer, which were lying asleep in the deep grass ; had taken aim at a fine buck which was only 
at twelve yards' distance, and was just going to draw the trigger, when his attention was 
roused by a strange object which was waving above the grass, a few feet on the other side of 
the deer. It was the tail of a Tiger, which had approached the deer from the opposite direc- 
tion, and had singled out the very animal which was threatened by the rifle. Not exactly 
knowing what kind of an object it was that stirred the grass, the sportsman re-adjusted his 
piece, and was again going to fire, when a Tiger sprang from the cover of the "moonje" grass, 
and leaped upon the very buck which had been marked out as his own. Under the circum- 
stances, he did not choose to dispute the matter, but retreated as quietly as possible, leaving 
the Tiger in possession of the field. 

The deer was an Axis, or Spotted Deer, animals which are very common in some parts of 
India, and are much appreciated by Tigers as well as men. Peacocks also abound in the same 
districts ; in short, wherever spotted deer and peacocks may be found, Tigers are sure to be at 
no great distance from them. On one occasion, another sportsman had wounded a peacock, 
which fluttered about for a time, and then fell into a little open space in the bushes. As these 
birds, when winged, can run too fast to be overtaken by a man, the sportsman ran after the 
bird in order to catch it as it fell, and on entering the little area found himself in the presence 
of three Tigers, -which had been evidently asleep, but were just roused by the report of the 
gun, and were looking about them in a dreamy and bewildered manner. The peacock lay dead 
close to the Tigers, who probably made a light repast on the game thus unexpectedly laid 
before them, for the sportsman took to his heels, and did not feel himself safe until he was 
fairly on board of his vessel. 

The chief weapons of the Tiger are his enormous feet, with their sharp sickle-like talons, 
which cut like so many knives when the animal delivers a blow with his powerful limbs. Even 
were the talons retracted, the simple stroke of that sledge-hammer paw is sufficient to strike 



THE TIGER. 133 

to the ground as large an animal as an ox ; while, if the claws lend their trenchant aid to the 
heavy blow of the limb, the terrible effects may be imagined. 

Besides the severity of the wound which may be inflicted by so fearful a weapon, there 
are other means of destruction that lie hid in the Tiger's claws. From some cause or other, 
it may be presumed on account of some peculiar manner in which the claws affect the nervous 
system, even a trivial wound has often been known to produce lockjaw, and to destroy the 
victim by the effects of that fearful disease. It may be, that the perturbation of mind caused 
by the attack of the Tiger, may have some hand in the matter. Captain Williamson, an officer 
of twenty years' experience in Bengal, states that he never knew a person to die from the. 
wounds inflicted by a Tiger's claws without suffering from lockjaw previous to death ; and he 
adds, that those cases which appeared the least alarming were the most suddenly carried off. 

Many modes are adopted of killing so fearful a pest as the Tiger, and some of these plans 
are very ingenious. 

There is the usual spring-bow, which is placed in the animal's path, the bow drawn to the 
arrow's head, and a string leading from the trigger across the path in such a manner that the 
creature presses against it with its breast, discharges the weapon, and so receives the arrow in 
its heart. 

The bow is set by fastening it to two strong posts set by the side of the Tiger's path, the 
string of the bow being parallel with the path. The string is then drawn back to its utmost 
limits, and a stick placed between the bow and the string, thus keeping the weapon bent. A 
long wedge is inserted between the stick and the bow, and the liberating cord tied to is pro- 
jecting end. Lastly, the arrow is laid on the string, and the engine is ready for action. Of 
necessity, as soon as the Tiger presses the cord, the w T edge is drawn away, the guarding stick 
drops, and the bow hurls its deadly missile. So rapidly does this simple contrivance act, that 
the Tiger is generally hit near the shoulder. The arrow is usually poisoned by means of a 
thread dipped in some deadly mixture, and wrapped round the arrow-point. 

There is another plan, in which human aid is requisite, namely, by building a strong 
bamboo enclosure, in which the hunter lies, armed with a spear. At nightfall the Tiger comes 
prowling along and smelling the man, rears up on its hind legs, trying to claw down the. 
bamboo bars. The hunter in the meanwhile takes- his spear, and mortally wounds the brindled 
foe, by striking the spear-point between the bars of the edifice. 

A still more ingenious mode of Tiger killing is that which is employed by the natives 
of Oude. 

They gather a number of the broad leaves of the prauss tree, which much resembles the 
sycamore, and having well besmeared them with a kind of birdlime, they strew them in the 
animal' s way, taking care to lay them with the prepared side uppermost. Let a Tiger but put 
his paw on one of these innocent looking leaves, and his fate is settled. Finding the leaf stick 
to his paw, he shakes it, in order to rid himself of the nuisance, and finding that plan unsuc- 
cessful, he endeavors to attain his object by rubbing it against his face, thereby smearing the 
ropy birdlime over his nose and eyes, and gluing the eyelids together. By this time he has 
probably trodden upon several more of the treacherous leaves, and is bewildered with the 
novel inconvenience ; then he rolls on the ground, and rubs his head and face on the earth, in 
his efforts to get free. By so doing, he only adds fresh birdlime to his head, body, and limbs, 
agglutinates his sleek fur together in unsightly tufts, and finishes by hoodwinking himself so 
thoroughly with leaves and birdlime, that he lies floundering on the ground, tearing up the 
earth with his claws, uttering howls of rage and dismay, and exhausted by the impotent 
struggles in which he has been so long engaged. These cries are a signal to the authors of his 
misery, who run to the spot, armed with guns, bows, and spears, and find no difficulty in 
despatching their blind and wearied foe. 

Another mode of destroying the Tiger is by means of a strongly constructed trap, made 
on the same principle as the ordinary mousetraps, which take their victim by dropping a door 
over the entrance. The Tiger trap is little more than the mousetrap, only made on a much 
larger scale, and of strong wooden bars instead of iron wires. The bait is generally a pariah 
dog, or a young goat, both of which animals give vent to their anxiety by loud wailings, and 



134 THE TIGER. 

so attract the prowling foe. In order to secure the living bait from being drawn out of the 
trap by the Tigers claws, it is protected by an inner cage, to which the animal cannot gain 
access without dropping the door against his egress. This plan, however, is not very generally 
followed, as it possesses hardly sufficient elements of success. 

A more productive plan productive, because the reward for killing a Tiger, together with 
the sum for which the skin, claws, and teeth sell, is sufficient to keep a native for nearly a 
twelvemonth, is, by digging a hole in the ground near a Tiger's haunt, putting a goat in the 
.hole, and tethering it to a stake which is firmly driven into the centre of the little pit. A 
stone is then tied in one of the goat's ears, which cruel contrivance causes the poor animal to 
cry piteously, and so to call the attention of the Tiger. On hearing the goat cry, the Tiger 
comes stealthily to the spot, and tries to hook up the goat with his paw. Not succeeding, on 
account of the depth of the pit, he walks round and round, trying every now and then to 
secure the terrified goat, and thus exposing himself fairly to the hunters, who, quietly perched 
on a neighboring tree, and taking a deliberate aim with their heavy firelocks, lay him dead 
on the spot of his intended depredation. 

A somewhat similar, but more venturesome mode of proceeding is that which is adopted 
by the Shikarries, as these native hunters are called. 

When a Tiger has carried off a bullock, or some such valuable animal, the shikarrie pro- 
ceeds to the spot, and after waiting sufficient time for the robber to gorge himself, and become 
drowsy, he sets off in search of the murdered bullock ; a dangerous task, but one which is 
much lightened by the indications afforded by vultures, jackals, and other carrion-loving 
creatures, which never fail to assemble round a dead animal, of whatever race it may be. 

Having found the half -eaten carcase, and ascertained that the Tiger is fast asleep, the 
hunter calls together as many assistants as possible, and with their aid, rapidly builds a 
bamboo scaffold, some twenty feet high, and four feet wide, which is planted close to the spot 
where the dead and mangled bullock lies. On the summit of the scaffold the shikarrie mounts ; 
his gun and ammunition are handed up to him by his companions, his sharp "tulwar," or 
sword, is hung ready to his grasp, and after offering their best wishes for success, the assistants 
take their leave, each putting in a claim for some part of the spoils. The claws are the most 
coveted portion of the animal, for the natives construct from two of these weapons a charm, 
which, on the homoeopathic principle, is supposed to render the wearer invulnerable to attacks 
from similar weapons. 

After awhile the Tiger wakes from the drowsy lethargy which was caused by repletion, 
and after shaking himself, and uttering a few yawns, which draw the attention of the watchful 
hunter, proceeds to his temporary station, for the purpose of making another meal on the 
remains of the slaughtered animal. 

The shikarrie takes advantage of the opportunity, and resting his gun on the platform, 
takes a deliberate aim, and lodges a bullet often an iron one in the body of the Tiger. 
Generally the aim is so true that the Tiger falls dead, but it sometimes happens that the wound, 
although a mortal one, is not instantaneously fatal, and the animal springs furiously upon the 
foe who dealt the blow. The Tiger is no climber, but rage will often supply temporary ability ; 
and so fiercely does the animal launch itself against the scaffolding, that if made of a softer 
material, permitting the hold of the Tiger' s claws, the creature might reach the hunter ; or 
that if not firmly planted, the whole edifice would be brought to the ground. But the smooth, 
hard surface of the bamboo affords little hold for the sharp talons ; and, even if the animal 
should siicceed in approaching the platform where the hunter sits, a blow from the razor-edged 
tulwar strikes off a paw, and the Tiger falls helplessly to earth, only to meet its fate by a 
second bullet from the deadly firelock. 

Attracted by the report of the hunter's gun, the neighbors flock to the spot, each man 
armed according to his ability ; and if the beast is killed outright, join in a chorus of lauda- 
tion towards the successful hunter, and of anger towards his victim, which may now be insulted 
with perfect impunity. Besides the ordinary trophies, which consist of the skin, claws, teeth, 
and the ordinary reminiscences of success, other portions of the Tiger are eagerly sought by 
the natives, the tongue and liver bearing the highest value. These organs are appropriated to 



THE TIGER. 135 

the medical art, and after being chopped into little dice-like cubes, are prepared after some 
Esculapian and mysterious fashion, and thenceforward hold rank as remedies of the first order. 

Another, though less gallant, mode of killing Tigers is by setting certain enormous nets, 
supported on stakes, so as to form an inclosure, into which the animal is partly enticed and 
partly driven. 

The height of the stakes to which the nets are suspended is about thirteen feet ; so that, 
allowing for the droop at the upper portion of the toils, the nets are about eleven feet in height 
at their lowest point. It is, however, rather a stupid, and withal hazardous, mode of Tiger- 
hunting, and is not very often employed. It requires the aid of a very large body of men, and 
besides there is always a risk of inclosing some large animal, such as the buffalo or elephant, 
which rushes madly forward, and with the irresistible impetus of its huge body bears to the 
ground nets, stakes, and sentinels, leaving a wide path free for the remainder of the inclosed 
game to follow. 

In order to induce the Tiger to leave its lair and to enter the toils, all possible means are 
used. Fires are lighted, burning torches are waved, guns are fired, drums are beaten, and, 
lastly, fireworks are largely employed. The most effective kind of firework is one which is 
made on the rocket principle, the tube which holds the fiery composition being of iron, and 
the "tail," or shaft, of bamboo. The rocket is held in the hand like a spear, and the fuse 
lighted. When it begins to fiing out its burning contents, and to pull against the hand of the 
thrower, it is launched by hand, as if it were a spear, in the direction of the concealed quarry. 
An extremely powerful impulse is given by the burning composition, and the missile rushes 
furiously onward, scattering on every side its burden of fiery sparkles, hissing and roaring 
with a terrible sound, and striking right and left with its long wooden tail. 

No Tiger can endure this fiery dragon which comes on with such fury, and accordingly 
the terrified animal dashes out of cover, and makes for the nearest place of concealment. But 
so artfully managed is the whole business that his only path of escape takes him among the 
nets, and, once there, his doom is certain. He cannot leap over the toils, because they are too 
high, nor break them down, because they are so arranged that they would only fall on him, 
and inclose him in their treacherous folds. Should he endeavor to climb over the rope fence, 
he exposes himself as a target for bullets and arrows innumerable ; and, if he yields the point, 
and tries to conceal himself as best he may, he only delays his fate for a time, falling a victim 
to the watchful enemies who start him from his last fortress, and, from the safe eminence of 
an elephant's back, or the branches of a tree, pour their leaden hail on the devoted victim. 

This mode of hunting, as well as the more legitimate custom of following the Tiger into 
the jungle, while mounted on elephants, requires the aid of many men, elephants, and horses, 
and cannot be undertaken every day. There is, however, another method of killing this 
terrible beast, which, when employed by hunters who understand each other's plans, and can 
place the fullest reliance on their mutual courage and tact, is more destructive to the fierce 
quarry than even the netting system, with its mob of beasts and men. 

Two, or at the most three, hunters set ont on their campaign, accompanied by their chosen 
"beaters" and other servants, and start with the determination of bearding the Tiger in his 
den, unaided by horse or elephant. It is a bold plan, yet, like many bold plans, succeeds 
through its very audacity. 

The object of the beaters is by no means to give assistance when a Tiger is started, because 
they always run away as soon as the brute shows itself ; but to make so astounding a noise 
that the Tiger cannot remain in the vicinity. When they reach a likely, or as it is termed, a 
"Tigerish" spot, they shout, they yell, they fire pistols, they rattle stones in metal pans, they 
beat drums, they ring bells, they blow horns, and, by their united endeavors, produce such 
horrible discord, that not even a Tiger dare face such a mass of men and noise. This precau- 
1 A>n is absolutely necessary, for the Tiger loves to hide itself in as close a covert as it can find, 
and, unless driven from it? place of refuge by such frightful sounds as have been mentioned, 
would lie closely crouched upon the ground, and either permit the hunters to pass by, or leap 
on them with a sudden spring, and so obtain a preliminary revenge of its own death. 

A few bold and active beaters are sent forward as scouts, whose business is to climb trees, 



136 THE TIGER. 

and, from that elevated position, to keep watch over the country, and detect the Tiger if it 
attempt to steal quietly away. 

Not only is the Tiger skin considered as an article possessing a commercial value, but the 
fat commands an equally high price among the natives, who employ it as an infallible specific 
against rheumatic affections. It is prepared for use in rather a curious, and withal, a simple 
manner. 

Were the fat to be exposed to the action of the atmosphere, it would soon become rancid, 
and then putrid ; but by subjection to the native mode of treatment, it clarifies itself with no 
trouble to the preparer. As soon as removed from the animal, the fat is cut into long strips 
of a convenient size to enter the necks of sundry bottles, which are cleansed for the purpose. 
By the aid of a stick, as many as possible of these strips are pushed into the bottle, which is 
then corked, and set in the sunshine for a whole day. The heat of the sim's rays soon melts 
the fat, and liquefies it as if it were oil. In this state it is permitted to remain until the even- 
ing, when it cools down into a firm white mass, resembling lard. This prepared fat is as 
useful to Europeans as to natives, not so much to rub on their rheumatic joints, as to lubricate 
their guns and locks, on which may depend the life of the owner. 

Those who have hunted the Tiger in a genuinely sportsmanlike manner, matching fairly 
man against beast, are unanimous in asserting it to be a very cunning animal, putting all the 
powers of the human intellect to the proof. As is the case with the fox, our most familiar 
instance of astuteness among brutes, each Tiger seems to have its peculiar individuality so 
strongly marked, that it must be separately matched by the hunter' s skill. 

In India, many tales are told of the Tiger and its ferocious daring. It has often been 
known to leap on the roof of a native hut, tear up the slight covering with its claws, and leap 
into the room below. However, when a Tiger acts in this manner, the tables are generally 
turned, for the noise made by the scratchings and clawings on the roof give warning for the 
inhabitants to make their escape by the door, and bar the entrance behind them. It is not so 
easy to jump out of the house as into it, and in consequence, the neighbors speedily change 
' the course of events by getting on the roof in their turn, and shooting the burglarious quad- 
ruped through the opening which its own claws had made. 

A rather ludicrous adventure occurred to an old w r oman who was on her way home. She 
had just arrived in sight of her doorway, when she perceived a large Tiger crawl up to the 
entrance, and allured, probably, by the scent of provisions, walk coolly into her house. With 
great presence of mind she closed the door on the intruder, and calling for aid from her friends, 
soon had the satisfaction of placing her hand upon the Tiger's carcass as he lay on her floor, 
pierced with the missiles hurled at him through the window. 

Many of these beautiful animals have been brought to America, and through the medium 
of Zoological Gardens and travelling menageries are familiar to us all. When caught in its 
first infancy, or when born and bred in captivity, the Tiger is as tameable an animal as the 
lion or any of the feline race, displaying great attachment to its keeper, and learning many 
small accomplishments, such as jumping through hoops and over sticks, enacting the part of 
a couch to its keeper, letting him pull its huge jaws open, and all with perfect good humor. 
These exhibitions, however, are never quite safe, and ought not to be permitted. 

On some occasions the animal may be in a bad temper, and not willing to go through its 
performances, and upon being urged strongly to act against its inclination, may turn upon its 
persecutor and inflict a fatal wound in a moment. The creature may not intend to commit 
murder, but its strength is so great that, having no mathematical knowledge of the theory of 
forces, it cannot calculate the effect of a blow from its paw, or a grip of its teeth. Such events 
have more than once occurred, one of which, the death of the well-known "Lion Queen," was 
singularly tragical. The Tiger was required by the "Lion Queen" to exhibit some part of his 
usual performances, and being in a sulky mood, refused to obey. The girl struck him with her 
whip, when he sprang upon her, forced her against the side of the cage, and seized her by the 
throat. She was almost immediately extricated from his grasp and removed from the cage, but 
although no apparently mortal injury had been inflicted, she died within a very few minutes. 

Dissimilar as are the lion and Tiger, there has been an example of a mixed offspring of 



THE LEOPARD. 137 

these animals, the lion being the father and the Tigress the mother. The lion had been born 
and bred in captivity, and the Tigress Mad been captured at a very early age, so that the 
natural wildness of their character had been effaced by their captive life, in which they felt no 
need to roam after living prey, as their daily sustenance was always forthcoming. 

UNLIKE the Tiger, which is confined to the Asiatic portion of the world, the LEOPARD is 
found in Africa as well as in Asia, and is represented in America by the Jaguar, or, perhaps, 
more rightly, by the Puma. 

This animal is one of the most graceful of the graceful tribe of cats, and, although far less 
in dimensions than the tiger, challenges competition with that animal in the beautiful mark- 
ings of its fur, and the easy elegance of its movements. It is possessed of an accomplishment 
which is not within the powers of the lion or tiger, being able to climb trees with singular 



^t-;ifef 




LEOPARD. Leopardus antiquorum. 

agility, and even to chase the tree-loving animals among their familiar haunts. On account 
of this power, it is called by the natives of India "Lakree-baug," or Tree-tiger. Even in 
Africa it is occasionally called a "Tiger," a confusion of nomenclature which is quite bewil- 
dering to a non-zoologist, who may read in one book that there are no tigers in Africa, and in 
another, may peruse a narrative of a tiger hunt at the Cape. Similar mistakes are made with 
regard to the American felidae, not to mention the numerous examples of mis-called animals 
that are insulted by false titles in almost every part of the globe. For, in America, the Puma 
is popularly known by the name of the Lion, or the Panther, or "Painter," as the American 
forester prefers to call it, while the Jaguar is termed the "Tiger." 

In Africa, the Leopard is well known and much dreaded, for it possesses a most crafty 
brain, as well as an agile body and sharp teeth and claws. It commits sad depredations on 
flocks and herds, and has sufficient foresight to lay up a little stock of provisions for a future 
day. A larder belonging to a Leopard was once discovered in the forked branches of a tree, 
some ten feet or so from the ground. Several pieces of meat were stowed away in this novel 
receptacle, and hidden from sight by a mass of leaves piled upon them. 

When attacked, it will generally endeavor to slink away, and to escape the observation 
of its pursuers ; but, if it is wounded, and finds no mode of eluding its foes, it becomes furious, 



138 THE LEOPARD. 

and charges at them with such determinate rage, that, unless it falls a victim to a well-aimed 
shot, it may do fearful damage before it yields up its life. In consequence of the ferocity and 
courage of the Leopard, the native African races make much of those warriors who have been 
fortunate enough to kill one of these beasts. 

The fortunate hunter is permitted to decorate his person with trophies of his skill and 
courage, and is looked on with envy by those who have not been able to earn such honorable 
distinctions. The teeth of the Leopard are curiously strung, with beads and wire, into a neck- 
lace, and hung about the throat of the warrior, where they contrast finely with their polished 
whiteness against the dusky hue of the native's brawny chest. The claws are put to similar 
uses, and the skin is reserved for the purpose of being dressed and made into a cloak, or 
"kaross," as this article of apparel is popularly termed. The tail is cut off, and, being hung 
to a string that passes round the waist, dangles therefrom in a most elegant and fashionable 
manner. If a Kaffir is able to procure some eight or ten tails, which he can thus suspend 
around his person, he is at the very summit of the aristocratic world, and needs no more 
attractions in the eyes of his comrades. Generally these "tails" are formed from the skin 
of the monkey, which is cut into strips, and twisted so as to keep the hairy side of the fur out- 
wards. But these are only sham tails, and are as nothing in comparison to the real tail which 
is taken from a veritable Leopard. 

The natives seem in some way to connect the Leopard's skin with the idea of royalty, and 
to look upon it as part of the insignia of majesty, even when it is spread on the kingly throne, 
instead of hanging gracefully from the kingly shoulders. And, though the throne be but a 
mound of earth, and the shoulders be redolent with rancid grease, yet the native African 
monarch exercises a sway not less despotic than that of the former Turkish Sultans. 

The Leopard, like most of the feline tribe, is very easily startled, and, if suddenly alarmed, 
will in most cases make off with the best speed possible. As the creature is so formidable a 
foe, it may be imagined that to meet it on equal terms would be a proceeding fraught with the 
utmost danger. Yet this is not the case, for there are innumerable instances of such rencon- 
tres, where both parties seemed equally surprised by the meeting, and equally anxious to 
shorten its duration as much as possible. One of these adventures, which was told me by 
Captain Drayson, R.A., who had learned the tale from the hero if so he may be called of the 
narrative, was a most singular one, and one in which was more of peril than is usually the case. 

A Dutch Boer one of the colonists of Southern Africa was travelling across country, 
and, permitting the wagons to precede him at their slow uniform pace, amused himself by 
making a wide detour in search of game. Towards the end of his circuit, and just as he was 
coming in sight of the wagons in the far distance, he came Tipon a clump of scattered rocks, 
from which suddenly leaped no less then seven Leopards. In the hurry of the moment he 
acted in a very foolish manner, and fired his single-barrelled gun at the group. Fortunately 
for himself, the result of the adventure turned out better than he deserved ; for, instead of 
springing upon the Boer, who was quite at the mercy of so formidable a party, the Leopards 
only started at the report of the gun, and one or two of them, leaping on their hind legs, 
clawed at the air as if they were trying to catch the ball as it sang by their ears. 

In its own country the Leopard is as crafty an animal as the British fox ; and being aided 
by its active limbs and stealthy tread, gains quiet admission into many spots where no less 
cautious a creature could plant a step without giving the alarm. It is an inveterate chicken- 
stealer, creeping by night into the hen-roosts, in spite of the watchful dogs that are on their 
posts as sentinels, and destroying in one fell swoop the entire stock of poultry that happen to 
be collected under that roof. Even should they roost out of doors they are no less in danger, 
for the Leopard can clamber a pole or tree with marvellous rapidity and with his ready paw 
strike down the poor bird before it is fairly awakened. 

The following narratives of the Cape Leopard and its capture are taken from the anecdotes 
so kindly placed at my disposal by Captain Drayson. 

THE LEOPARD acts in a very subtle manner, remaining in some unlikely spot near a 
village, and committing a great amount of havoc before its whereabouts is discovered. I knew 



THE LEOPARD. 139 

that two Leopards were located in the bush at Natal within half a mile of the barracks, and 
yet they were never seen. The disappearance of a dog and a stray pig were the only indica- 
tions that they gave to the non-observers of their being in the vicinity. 

I became acquainted with their presence in rather a curious way. Being alone in the bush 
one day, as was my usual custom, I sat down under the shade of a dark Euphorbia, to watch 
the habits of a chameleon which I had caught. I set him upon a branch, and saw him try 
every change of color of which he was capable. At first he was a dull green, then some spots 
of brown came over him, and he changed all over of a brownish tint ; when I irritated him 
with my finger he opened his comical mouth and gave a gaping sort of hiss, whilst his swivel 
eyes pointed each in different directions at the same time. 

Suddenly I heard the scream of a buck at a short distance from me ; and concluding that 
the animal had been caught in a trap set by the Kaffirs, I grasped my gun, and pushed through 
the underwood towards the spot. Before I had gone far the noise ceased, and when I reached 
the place whence I conceived it had come, I saw nothing remarkable ; there was no sign of a 
buck or of a trap. I therefore examined for spoor, and found that there had been a scuffle on 
the ground ; and a few yards from the sign blood-spots lay on the leaves, together with small 
pieces of fur which I recognized as belonging to a Leopard. 

I followed the trail for some distance, but at length lost it. On several successive occa- 
sions I went over the ground, and always found the spoor of one, and sometimes of two 
Leopards, either fresh or a day or two old. 

It is a practice of this cunning animal to take up its position near a village, and then go 
to the farms of another village quite at a distance, so that its lair shall neither be suspected 
nor discovered. 

THE LEOPARD when seen in its wild state is a most beautiful and graceful animal ; its 
motions are easy and elastic, and its agility amazing. Although far inferior to the tiger in 
size, strength, and intrepidity, and though it shuns man, it is nevertheless, when wounded or 
driven to desperation, a most formidable antagonist. When hunted with dogs, the Leopard 
usually takes to a tree, if one should happen to be near. But to approach him here is a pro- 
ceeding fraught with danger ; for from this elevated position he will leap to the ground, and 
with one spring will be beside his pursuer, who will then fare badly unless he be sufficiently 
handy with his gun to kill (not wound) the animal in its advance. The Leopard usually 
selects some elevated position from which to bound upon his prey as it passes underneath. 

I have been told by Hottentots and Kaffirs that this animal has the habit of lying on the 
ground half concealed by long grass or branches, and then twisting itself about so as to attract 
the attention of any antelope which may be near. The Leopard, being aware that curiosity is 
one of the failings of the antelope tribe, carries on its mysterious movements until its victim 
approaches to investigate what is going on, when it springs on and kills the weak-minded animal. 

It is a well-known fact that the Leopard does a very good business when it devotes its 
attention to a herd of baboons. Success in this line speaks well for the Leopard ; for he must 
be an adept in stalking who succeeds in surprising and capturing one of these wide-awake 
caricatures of humanity. I suspect, however, that the victims are either the old and infirm, 
or those reckless youngsters who have not paid sufficient attention to the instructions which 
their anxious parents have endeavored to instil into them. 

It may by said, and with some truth, that when hunting and shooting are made the 
regular business of life, and more important pursuits neglected, we are merely expending our 
abilities and sacrificing our energies upon a frivolous pleasure. These objections may certainly 
have some weight when they are directed against those who devote the whole of their time to 
mere sporting matters ; whereas field sports should merely be taken up as a relaxation, and as 
a means of obtaining exercise and skill in those affairs which make an individual "more of a 
man." But these requirements cannot be employed against those who, having a great amount 
of leisure, occupy their time in hunting such animals as are to be found in India and Africa, 
and in ridding the country of man-eating tigers and lions, destructive Leopards, or other 
dangerous and formidable neighbors, and even when engaged in the pursuit of less noble 



140 THE LEOPARD. 

game. The African sportsman is either providing himself and his servants with venison, or is 
enabled to feed whole families of hungry Kaffirs, who have fasted from meat for many days. 

To shoot or capture a Leopard is therefore useful as well as gratifying, and we shall be 
sure when we catch one of these beasts to have the opportunity of punishing either an old 
offender or one that is likely to become so. 

When the Leopard has committed many deeds of rapine in one locality, he often appears 
to think it better to decamp and try some far-removed scene of operations. 

THE habits of the Indian Leopard are almost identical with those of its African relative. 
Equally cautious when caution is necessary, and equally bold when audacity is needed, the 
animal achieves exploits of a similar nature to those which have been narrated of the African 
Leopard. The following anecdote is a sample of the mixed cunning and insolence of this 
creature. 

An ox had been killed, and the joints were hung tip in a hut, which was close to a spot 
where a sentry was posted. In the evening the sentry gave an alarm that some large animal 




BLACK LEOPARD. 

had entered the hut. A light was procured and a number of people searched the several 
rooms of which the hut was composed, without discovering the cause of the alarm. They 
were just about to retire, when one of the party caught sight of a Leopard, which was clinging 
to the thatched roof immediately above the hooks on which the meat was suspended. No 
sooner did the animal discover that its presence was known, than it dropped to the floor, laid 
about it vigorously with its claws, and leaping through the doorway, made its escape, leaving 
several souvenirs of its visit in various scratches, one of which was inflicted on the sentry who 
gave the alarm, and kept him to his bed for several weeks. 

The consternation caused by such an attack was very great, and many who escaped the 
Leopard's claws, suffered severely from bruises which they received in the general rush 
towards the door. 

The usual color of the Leopard's fur is a golden-yellow ground, which is thickly studded 
with dark rosette-shaped spots. The form of the rosettes and the color of the fur are by 
no means uniform. 

There are some Leopards whose fur is so very dark as to earn for them the name of Black 
Leopard. This is probably only a variety, and not a distinct species. Although at first sight 
this Leopard appears to be almost uniformly black, yet on a closer inspection it is seen to be 
furnished with the usual pardine spots, which in certain lights are very evident. There have 
been often exhibited sundry Leopards of an exceedingly dark fur, and yet partaking largely 



THE LEOPARD. 141 

of the distinct spottings of the ordinary Leopard. These were a mixed breed between the 
Black Leopard and the Leopard of Africa. The black variety of this animal is found in Java, 
and has by some authors been considered as a separate species under the title of "Felis 
(Leopardus) melas," the latter word being a Greek term, signifying "black." 

The strength of the Leopard is marvellous when compared with its size. One of these 
animals crept by night into the very midst of a caravan, seized two wolf -greyhounds that were 
fastened to one of the tent pegs, tore up the peg to which they were tethered, and although 
both the dogs were linked together, and were of that powerful breed which is used for the 
pursuit of wolves and other fierce game, the Leopard dragged them clean out of the camp and 
carried them for some three hundred yards through dense thorny underwood. A pursuit was 
immediately set on foot, and the dogs rescued from the daring foe. To one of them aid came 
too late, for its skull was literally smashed by a blow from the Leopard's paw. The same 
animal had sprung upon and killed a goat which was picketed in the midst of the numerous 
servants that accompany an European. 

Another Leopard committed an act of audacity which very much resembled the exploit of 
the roof -clinging Leopard mentioned before in these pages. 

In a native hut some goats were kept, and as night had drawn on, the human inhabitants 
of the hut were beneath the shelter of their own roof. A Leopard which was prowling aboiit, 
and was probably attracted either by the bleating or the scent of the goats, clambered up the 
low walls of the hut, and tearing away with his claws the fragile thatch, leaped into the middle 
of the room. In this case, the Leopard fared well enoiigh, for the terrified inhabitants were 
without arms, and as soon as they saw the unexpected visitor come tumbling through the roof, 
they hid themselves like so many lean Falstaffs, in some wicker corn baskets that were 
standing in the hut, leaving the Leopard to his own devices and in full possession of the 
ground. 

The Leopard has a curious and ingenious habit of obtaining a meal. He pays a visit to 
some village, and taking up a convenient post, at some little distance, sets up a loud and con- 
tinuous growling. 

The pariah dogs, which swarm in every village, present a curious contradiction of 
qualities. At the sound of a Leopard's voice they will rush furiously to the spot, uttering 
their yelling barks, as if they meant to eat up the enemy on the spot. But when they come 
to close quarters, self -preservation obtains the upper hand, and they run away as fast as they 
had appeared, turning again and baying at their foe as soon as they see that he is not pursuing 
them. These habits render them of invaluable assistance to the hunter, who employs the pariah 
dogs to point out the locality of his fierce quarry, and to distract its attention when found. 

So at the sound of the angry growl, out rush the pariahs towards the spot from whence 
the sounds proceeded, yelping as if they would split their throats by the exertion. To draw 
the dogs away from the protecting vicinity of man is just the object of the concealed Leopard, 
who springs from his hiding place upon one of the foremost dogs, and bounds away into the 
woods with his spoil. 

Fond as is the Leopard of well wooded districts, it appears to have a distaste for trees 
around which there is no underwood. The long grass jungle which is so favored by the tiger, 
is no way suited to the habits of the Leopard ; so that if the hunter seeks for tigers, his best 
chance of success is by directing his steps to the grass jungles, while, if Leopards are the 
objects of his expedition, he is nearly sure to find them among wooded places where the trees 
are planted among underwood reaching some seven or eight feet in height. 

\Vhen a Leopard is "treed," i.e. driven to take refuge in a tree, it displays great skill in 
selecting a spot where it shall be concealed so far as possible from the gazers below, and even 
when detected, covers its body so well behind the branches, that it is no easy matter to obtain 
a clear aim at a fatal spot. Its favorite arboreal resting places are at the junction of the larger 
limbs with the trunk, or where a large bough gives off several smaller branches. The Leopard 
does not take to water so readily as the tiger, and appears to avoid entering a stream unless 
pressed by hunger or driven into the water by his pursuers. When fairly in the water, however, 
the Leopard is a very tolerable swimmer, and can cross even a wide river without difficulty. 



142 THE LEOPARD. 

The Leopard has often been tamed, and indeed, almost domesticated, being permitted to 
range the house at will, greatly to the consternation of strange visitors. This complete state 
of docility can, however, only take place in an animal which lias either been bom in captivity, 
or- taken at so early an age that its savage propensities have never had time to expand. Even 
in this case, the disposition of the creature must be naturally good, or it remains proof against 
kindness and attention, never losing a surliness of temper that makes its liberation too perilous 
an experiment. The very same treatment by the same people will have a marvellously different 
effect on two different animals, though they be of the same species, or even the offspring of 
the same parents. 

Some years ago, a couple of Leopards, which lived in England, afforded a strong proof of 
the innate individuality of these animals. One of them, a male, was always sulky and 
unamiable, and never would respond to offered kindnesses. The female, on the contrary, was 
most docile and affectionate, eagerly seeking for the kind words and caresses of her keeper. 
She was extremely playful, as is the wont of most Leopards, and was in the habit of indulging 
in an amusement which is generally supposed to be the specialty of the monkey tribe. 
Nothing pleased her so well as to lay her claws on some article of dress belonging to her 
visitors, to drag it through the bars of her cage and to tear it in pieces. Scarcely a day passed 
that this anrasingly mischievous animal did not entirely destroy a hat, bonnet, or parasol, or 
perhaps protrude a rapid paw and claw off a large piece of a lady' s dress. 

The cubs of the Leopard are pretty, graceful little creatures, with short pointed tails, and 
spots of a fainter tint than those of the adult animal. Their number is from one to five. Even 
in captivity, the Leopard is a most playful animal, especially if in the society of companions 
of its own race. The beautiful spotted creatures sport with each other just like so many 
kittens, making, with their wild, graceful springs, sudden attacks upon one companion, or 
escaping from the assaults of another, rolling over on their backs, and striking playfully 
at each other, and every now and then uniting in a general skirmishing chase over their 
limited domains. 

Even when they are caged together with lions and tigers, their playfulness does not desert 
them, and they treat their enormous companions with amusing coolness. *I remember seeing 
rather a comical example of the sportful propensities which take possession of the Leopard. 
Several of the feline race, such as lions, tigers, and Leopards, were shut up in a rather large 
cage, and being docile animals, had been taught some of the usual tricks which are performed 
by tamed felidse. They jumped through hoops, or over the keeper's whip, always taking 
advantage of the barred front of their den to afford a temporary support in their leaps ; they 
stood on their hind legs, they rolled on their backs, and opened their huge jaws at the word 
of command, and, in fine, went through the established feline accomplishments. 

Among the inhabitants of the cage, two were specially conspicuous. One was a very fine 
lion, all-glorious in redundant mane and tufted tail, demure and dignified in movement, as 
became the monarch of the predacious animals. The other was a slight, agile, malapert 
Leopard, who recked little of dignities, and, so that he could play a saucy trick, cared nothing 
for the personal stateliness of the object of his joke. 

One day, the imprisoned animals had gone through their several performances with the 
usual accompaniments of growls and snarls, when the lion, as if to assert his dignity, which 
had been somewhat chafed by his obedience to the commands of his keeper, began to parade 
up and down the den in a solemn and stately manner, his nose thrown up, and his tail held 
perfectly erect, with the tufted tip bending to and fro in a majestic and condescending manner. 
The Leopard had, in the meantime, taken up his post on a little wooden bracket that was 
hitched over the upper bars of the cage, and formed a portion of the machinery that was 
employed in the exhibition. As this bracket was hooked over the bars of the cage, and the 
lion was parading in the very front of the den, it necessarily happened that the perpendicularly 
held tail, with its nodding tuft, passed immediately under the little bracket whereon the 
Leopard had poised himself in a compact and oat-like manner. 

Every time the lion passed beneath, the Leopard protruded a ready paw, and hit the black 
tip of the lion's tail a rather hard pat. The owner of the aggrieved tail took no notice of this 



THE OUNCE. 



143 



insult, so the Leopard improved his amusement by lying on the bracket in such a manner, that 
both its fore paws were at liberty. As the lion passed and repassed below, the Leopard struck 
the tail-tuft first to one side, and then to the other, so that it enjoyed two blows at the lion's 
tail instead of one. The lion, however, disdained to take the least notice, and the Leopasd 
continued its amusement until the keeper put an end to the game by entering the cage, and 
commencing the performances afresh. 

There are two titles for this animal ; namely, the Leopard, and Panther, both of which 
creatures are now acknowledged to be but slight varieties of the same species. The OUNCE, 
however, which was once thought to be but a longer haired variety of the Leopard, is now 
known to be truly a separate species. 

In general appearance it bears a very close resemblance to the leopard, but may be distin- 
guished from that animal by the greater fullness and roughness of its fur, as well as by some 
variations in the markingsjyith which it is decorated. From the thickness of its furry gar- 
ment, it is supposed to be an inhabitant of more mountainous and colder districts than the 




OUNCE. Leopardut undo. 



leopard, fhe rosette-like spots which appear on its body are not so sharply defined as those 
of the leo^rd ; there is a large black spot behind the ears. The spots exhibit a certain ten 
dency to form stripes, and the tail is exceedingly bushy when compared with that of a leopard 
of equal size. The general color of the body is rather paler than that of the leopard, being a 
grayish white, in which a slight yellow tinge is perceptible, and, as is usual with most animals, 
the upper parts of the body are darker than the lower. The Ounce is an inhabitant of some 
parts of Asia, and specimens of this fine animal have been brought from the shores of the 
Persian Gulf. In size, it equals the ordinary leopard of Asia or Africa. 

The feline animals which have hitherto been described belong to the African and Asiatic 
continents, with their neighboring islands. Passing to the New World, we find the feline 
races well represented by several most beautiful and graceful creatures, of which the JAGUAK 
is the largest and most magnificent example. 

Closely resembling the leopard in external appearance, and in its arboreal habits, it seems 
to play the same part in America as the leopard in the transatlantic continents. It is a larger 
animal than the leopard, and may be distinguished from that animal by several characteristic 
differences. 



144 THE JAGUAR. 

In the first place, the tail is rather short in proportion to the size of its owner, and, when 
the animal stands upright, only just sweeps the ground with its tip. Across the breast of the 
Jaguar are drawn two or three bold black streaks, which are never seen in the leopard, and 
which alone serve as an easy guide to the species. The spots, too, with which its fur is 
so liberally studded, are readily distinguishable from those of the leopard by their shape and 
arrangement. The leopard spots are rosette-shaped, and their outlines are rounded, whereas 
those of the Jaguar are more angular in their form. But the chief point of distinction is 
found in a small mark that exists in the centre of the dark spots which cover the body and 
sides. In many instances, this central mark is double, and, in order to give room for it, the 
rosettes are veiy large in proportion to those of the leopard. Along the spine runs a line, 
or chain, of black spots and dashes, extending from the back of the head to the first foot, 
or eighteen inches, of the tail. 

The color is not quite the same in all specimens. Many Jaguar skins have an exceedingly 
rich depth of tinting, and are very highly valued, being worth rather more than fifteen dollars. 
They are chiefly used for military purposes, such as the coverings of officers' saddles in certain 
cavalry regiments. Sometimes, a black variety of the Jaguar is fcnuid, its color being precisely 
similar to that of the Black Leopard, mentioned before. 

The whole fur seems to take the tint of the dark spots, while the spots themselves are just 
marked by a still deeper hue. Probably, the cause of this curious difference in tint may be, 
that in the blood of the individual Jaguar there exists a larger quantity than usual of iron, 
which metal, as is well known, is found to form one of the constituents of blood. It can be 
extracted in the metallic form, and resembles very fine sand. In the human blood, late 
researches have discovered that the blood of the negro is peculiarly rich in iron, and it seems 
but reasonable that a similar cause will account for the very great variation in the leopard's 
and Jaguar's fur. 

This beautiful animal is familiar to us through the medium of many illustrated works on 
natural history, and also on account of the numerous species which have been transmitted to 
this country. One of these creatures, which was taken to England by Captain Inglefield, 
and placed in the collection of the Zoological Gardens, was so gentle and docile, that it directly 
controverted the once popular notion that the Jaguar is an irreclaimable and untamable animal. 
It was a general pet on the voyage, and, from an account of its proceedings while on board 
ship, I am indebted to Captain Inglefield himself. 

The Jaguar was named "Doctor," and was as well acquainted with its name as any dog. 
It was at times rather lazy, and loved to lie at full length on deck, and stretch its limbs 
to their full extent. It was so perfectly tame that Captain Inglefield was accustomed to lie 
down by the side of the spotted favorite, using its body as his pillow. When the vessel 
arrived in harbor, and people were anxious to view the Jaguar, the creature walked to the 
stable where it was to be exhibited, merely being led by its chain. It was a remarkable 
circumstance, that, although the animal was so entirely tame and gentle towards men, and 
would let them pull it about in their rough play, it could never be trusted in the presence 
of a little child, nor of a dog. In either case, the animal became excited, and used to stretch 
its chain to its utmost limit. 

Uncooked meat was never permitted in its diet, and, except in one or two instances, when 
the animal contrived to obtain raw flesh, it was fed exclusively on meat that had been boiled. 
One of these exceptional cases was rather amusing. 

At Monte Video, the admiral had signalled for the captains of H. M. ships to come on 
board and dine with him. His cook was, of course, very busy on the occasion, and more 
especially so, as there was at the time rather a scarcity of fresh provisions. The steward had 
been making the necessary arrangements for the entertainment, and came on board carrying a 
leg of mutton and some fowls. Just as he stepped on deck, the Jaguar bounced out of his 
hiding-place, and, clutching the meat and fowls out of the steward's hands, ran off with them. 
The fowls were rescued by the captain, who got them away from the robber undamaged, with 
the exception of their heads, which had been bitten off and eaten, but the mutton was past 
reclaiming, and so, to the great disgust of the cook and steward, the bill of fare had to be altered. 



THE JAGUAR. 145 

When "Doctor" received his daily food, he used to clutch and growl over it like a cat 
over a mouse, but was sufficiently gentle to permit the meat to be abstracted. .In order to 
take away the animal's food, two men were employed, armed with large sticks, one of whom 
took his place in front of the Jaguar, and the other in the rear. When all was arranged, the 
man in the rear poked " Doctor" behind, and, as he turned round to see what was the matter, 
the man in front hooked away the meat with his stick. However the animal might growl over 
its food, and snarl at any one who approached, it would become perfectly quiet and gentle as 
soon as the cause of anger was removed. 

It was a very playful animal, and was as mischievous in its sport as any kitten, delighting 
to find any one who would join in a game of romps, and acting just as a kitten would under 
similar circumstances. As the animal increased in size and strength, its play began to be 
rather too rough to be agreeable, and was, moreover, productive of rather unpleasant conse- 
quences to its fellow voyagers. For, as is the custom with all the cat tribe, the Jaguar 
delighted in sticking its talons into the clothes of its human playfellows and tearing them in a 
disastrous manner. The creature was so amusing that no one could resist the temptation 
of playing with it, and so the evil was remedied by docking the "Doctor's" claws of their 
sharp points. 

This animal was about two years old when it was brought to England. Two years after 
its arrival, Captain Inglefield went to see his old favorite, the "Doctor," and found that the 
Jaguar recognized him in spite of the long interval of time, and permitted him to pat its head 
and to open its mouth. 

In its native land, the Jaguar ranges the dense and perfumed forests in search of the 
various creatures which fall victims to its powerful claws. The list of animals that compose 
its bill of fare is a large and comprehensive one, including horses, deer, monkeys, capybaras, 
tapirs, birds of various kinds, turtles, lizards, and fish ; thus comprising examples of all the 
four orders of vertebrated animals. Nor does the Jaguar confine itself to the vertebrates. 
Various shell -fish, insects, and other creatures fall victims to the insatiate appetite of this 
ravenous animal. 

It seems strange that such powerful creatures as horses should be reckoned among the 
prey of the Jaguar, for it would seem unlikely that the muscular force of the animal could be 
equal to the task of destroying and carrying away so large a quadruped as a horse. Yet such 
is truly the case ; and the Jaguars commit infinite havoc among the horses that band together 
in large herds on the plains of Paraguay. A Jaguar has been known to swim across a wide 
river, to kill a horse, to drag it for some sixty yards to the water side, to plunge it into the 
stream, to swim across the river with its prey, to drag it out of the water after reaching the 
opposite bank, and, finally, to carry it off into a neighboring wood. The natives of the country 
where the Jaguar lives assert that even when two horses have been fastened to each other, the 
Jaguar has been known to kill one of them, and to drag off the living and the dead horse in 
spite of the strength of the survivor. 

These seem to be marvellous exploits, when the ordinary size of the Jaguar is taken into 
consideration. But Humboldt, than whom is no better or more trustworthy authority, says 
that he saw a Jaguar, "which in length surpassed that of all the tigers of India which I 
had seen in the collections of Europe." 

The favorite food of the Jaguar when he can get it is the flesh of the various monkeys. 
But to catch a monkey is not the easiest task in the world, and in general can only be achieved 
by leaping upon the prey from a place of concealment, or by surprising the monkeys while 
sleeping. Sometimes it is fortunate enough to get among a little band of monkeys before they 
are aware of the presence of the dreaded foe, and then seizes the opportunity of dealing a few 
fierce strokes of its terrible paw among the parti y awakened sleepers, thus dashing them to 
the ground, whither it descends to feast at leisure on the ample repast. The fierce hoarse roar 
of the Jaguar and the yells of terror that come from the frightened monkeys resound far 
and wide, and proclaim in unmistakable language the deadly work that is going on among 
the trees. 

Peccaries are also a favorite article of diet with the Jaguar, but he finds scarcely less 



146 THE JAGUAR. 

difficulty in picking up a peccary than in knocking down a monkey. For the little, active, 
sharp-tuske.d peccary is even more swinishly dull than is usual with its swinish relatives, and, 
being too thick-headed to understand danger, is a very terrible antagonist to man or beast. It 
seems to care nothing for size, weapons, or strength, but launches itself as fearlessly on a 
Jaguar or an armed man as on a rabbit or a child. So, unless the Jaguar can manage quietly 
to snap up a straggler, he has small chance with a herd of these war-like little pigs, which, if 
they caught a Jaguar among them, would cut him so severely with their lancet-like teeth, 
that he would ever repent his temerity, even if he escaped with his life. 

One of the easiest animals to obtain is that huge and timid rodent, the capybara, which is 
not sufficiently swift of foot to escape by flight, nor agile of limb to bound out of reach of its 
enemy, nor furnished with natural arms with which to defend itself against Ms assaults. 
Should it take to the water, and so endeavor to elude pursuit, the Jaguar is in nowise discon- 
certed, for he is nearly as familiar with that element as the capybara itself, and thus seldom 
fails in securing his prey. When the Jaguar strikes down a large animal, such as a horse or 
a deer, it performs its deadly task in a very curious manner. Leaping from some elevated 
spot upon the shoulders of the doomed animal, it places one paw on the back of the head and 
another on the muzzle, and then, with a single tremendous wrench, dislocates the neck. With 
smaller creatures, the Jaguar uses no such ceremony, but with a blow of the paw lays its prey 
dead at its feet. 

With the exception of such animals as the long-tailed lizards, the food of the Jaguar is of 
a nature that human hunters would not disdain, and in many instances would meet the appro- 
bation of a professed epicure. Of turtles and their eggs the Jaguar is particularly fond, and 
displays great ingenuity and strength in the securing, killing, and eating such impracticable 
animals as turtles. Any one who has handled a common land tortoise would be wofully 
puzzled if he were ordered to kill that strong mailed creature without the aid of tools, and still 
more bewildered, were his only meal that day to consist of the flesh that was locked in so hard 
and impenetrable a covering. As to a huge turtle in the vigor of active health, scuttling over 
the sandy shores, throwing up showers of blinding dust with its flippers, and ready to snap at 
an intruder with its sharp-edged jaws, he must be a powerful man who would arrest the 
unwieldy creature in its onward progress, and a very clever one who would make a dinner 
upon the flesh of the reptile. 

Yet the Jaguar contrives to catch, kill, and eat the turtle, displaying in this feat equal 
strength and ingenuity. 

Watching a turtle as she for it is generally the female turtles that are made the Jaguar's 
prey walks riverwards, or seawards, as the case may be, after depositing her eggs under a 
slight covering of earth, there to be warmed into being by the genial rays of the sun, the 
Jaguar springs upon the creature as it is slowly making its way to its familiar element, and 
with a quick and adroit movement of the paw r s, turns the turtle on its back. There the poor 
reptile lies, helpless, and waiting until its captor is pleased to consummate his work by killing 
and eating the animal which he has thus ingeniously intercepted. The Jaguar needs no saw 
to cut through the bony shell, nor lever to separate the upper from the lower portion, nor 
knife to sever the flesh from the bones, for his paw stands him in the stead of these artificial 
instruments, and serves his purpose right well. Tearing away as much as possible of the 
softer parts that lie by the tail, the Jaguar inserts his supple paw, armed with its sharp talons, 
and scoops out, as neatly as if cut by knives, the flesh, together with the vital organs of the 
devoted chelonian. The difficulty of this task can only be rightly appreciated by those who 
have undertaken a similar task, and have achieved the feat of removing the interior of a 
tortoise or turtle withoiit separating the upper and under shells. 

The eggs of the turtle are nearly as important to the Jaguar as is the flesh of the mother 
turtle herself. After inverting the maternal turtle, the Jaguar will leave her in her impotent 
position, and going to the shore, coolly scoop out and devour the soft leather-covered eggs 
which she had deposited in the sandy beach in vain hopes of their seasonable development by 
the warm sunbeams. 

Birds are simply struck down by a single blow of the Jaguar's ready paw ; and so quick 



THE SERVAL. 147 

are his movements, that, even if a bird has risen upon the wing, he can often make one of his 
wonderful bounds, and with a light, quick stroke, arrest the winged prey before it has had 
time to soar beyond his reach. As to the tish, the Jaguar watches for them at the water side, 
and as soon as an unfortunate fish happens to swim within reach of the spotted foe, a nimble 
paw, with outstretched talons, is suddenly thrust forth, and the fish swept out of the water 
upon dry land. 

The Jaguar is quite as suspicious and cautious an animal as any of the Old World felidae, 
and never will make an open attack upon man or beast. Should a solitary animal pass within 
reach, the Jaguar hesitates not in pouncing upon it ; but if a herd of animals, or a party of 
men, should be travelling together, the Jaguar becomes very cautious, and will dog their steps 
for many miles, in hopes of securing one of the party in the act of straggling. If the Jaguar 
should be very hungry indeed, and unable to wait patiently, it will yet temper audacity with 
caution, and though it will, under that urgent necessity, seize one out of the number, it will 
always choose that individual which is hindermost, hoping to escape with its prey before the 
companions can come to the rescue. A Jaguar has been known to follow the track of travel- 
lers for days together, only daring to show itself at rare intervals. 

In the countries where the Jaguar most abounds, many tales are rife respecting the 
strength, agility, and audacity of this fierce animal. When the earlier settlers fixed their 
rough wooden huts in the recesses of the American forests, the Jaguar was one of their most 
persistent and relentless foes. Did they set up a poultry-yard, the Jaguar tore open the hen 
roosts, and ate the fowls. Did they fill their stables with horses, the Jaguar broke their necks, 
and did his best to carry the heavy carcasses to his forest home. Did they establish a piggery, 
the Jaguar snapped up sow and litter ; and in fine, it was hardly possible to secure their live 
stock so effectually that it could not be reached by this ravenous beast. The only resource 
was to kill the Jaguar himself, and so to put an effectual stop to his depredations. But there 
are many Jaguars in a district ; and for a term of years, the toil of ridding the country of these 
fierce marauders was a most arduous one. However, perseverance and indomitable courage 
gained the day at last, and the Jaguars were forced to retire from the habitations of men, and 
hide themselves in the thick uncultivated forest land. 

Its beauty is remarkable ; indeed, this characteristic has gained for it the appellation of 
the American Tiger. It is. found as far north as Eastern Texas, extending to Red River, and 
south through Brazil, where it is the terror of all the smaller mammals. Its western limit is 
near the Gaiideloupe Canon (Sierra Madre). 

The Jaguar is the representative of the Leopard on this continent, and though larger, is 
very closely allied to it. 

The Zoological collection at Central Park has two fine examples of this great cat, in the 
best condition of adult pelt. 

The large Jaguar lately at the Central Park collection, which belongs to Van Amburg's 
Menagerie, has been in confinement many years. At one time, while on the road, the cage of 
the large boa constrictor required repairing. Its glass door was newly set in putty. During 
the following night the huge folds of the snake chanced to push the glass from its frame. The 
cage of the Jaguar was near, and the snake having found itself at liberty, paid a neighborly 
visit to the cat. The night watchman, on arriving, in the course of his rounds, at the scene, 
found the Jaguar, whose prowess is not wont to be arraigned for trifles, was crouched in one 
corner of his cage, utterly impotent with fear, and even expressing in his face the torture he 
was subjected to, while the stolid, unconcerned serpent lay, all innocent of harmful motive, 
coiled aiound the bars of the cage, his head peering in and out of the perilous presence of the 
great beast. 

The Jaguar exhibits his great physical strength in killing and tearing open the great sea 
turtles. Humboldt saw one exceeding the size of the Indian Tiger. 

The superb cut of this cat is a most perfect representation of his characteristics. 

THE SERVAL, or "Bosch-katte," i.e. "Bush-cat," as it is appropriately termed by the 
Dutch colonists of the Cape, is an inhabitant of Southern Africa. It is a very pretty animal. 



148 



THE PUMA. 



both with regard to the color of its fur and the elegant contour of its body. The short, puffy 
tail, however, rather detracts from the general effect of the living animal. On account of the 
bold variegations of the ServaFs fur, its skin is in great request, and finds a ready sale among 
furriers, who know it by the name of the Tiger-cat. 

The ground color of the Serval's fur is of a bright golden tint, sobered with a wash of gray. 
The under portions of the body and the inside of the limbs are nearly white. Upon this ground 
are placed numerous dark spots, which occasionally coalesce and form stripes. In number 




SERVAL. Leapardue serval. 

and size they are very variable. The ears are black, with a broad white band across them, and 
from their width at the base, they give the animal a very quaint aspect when it stands with 
its head erect. 

In disposition, the Serval appears to be singularly docile, and even more playful than the 
generality of the sportive tribe of cats. It is not a very large animal, measuring about eighteen 
inches in height, and two feet in length, exclusive of the tail, which is ten inches long, and 
covered with thick, bushy fur. 

FEW animals have been known by such a variety of name as the PUMA of America. 

Travellers have indifferently entitled it the American Lion, the Panther, the Cougar, the 
Carcajou (which is an entirely different animal), the Gouazouara, the Cuguacurana, and many 
other names besides. For the name of Lion, the Puma is indebted to its uniform tawny color, 
so different from the conspicuous streaks and spots which decorate the fur of its congeners. 
It was entitled a Panther, on account of its pardine habits, which are almost identical with 
those of the spotted leopards of both continents. The word Cougar is a GalKcan abbreviation 
of the Paraguay word Gouazouara ; and then the names Carcajou and Quinquajou are simply 
instances of mistaken 'identity. The Anglo-Americans compromise the matter by calling the 
creature a "painter." 

It is rather a large animal, but, on account of its small head, appears to be a less powerful 
creature than really is the ca*se. The total length of the Puma is about six feet and a half, of 



THE PUMA. 



149 



which the tail occupies rather more than two feet. The tip of the tail is black, but is destitute 
of the black tuft of long hair which is so characteristic of the true lion. Its limbs are extremely 
thick and muscular, as needs be for an animal whose life is spent almost entirely in climbing 
trees, and whose subsistence is gained only by the exercise of mingled activity and force. 

The color of the Puma is an uniform light tawny tint, deeper in some individuals than in 
others, and fading into a beautiful grayish-white on the under parts. It is remarkable that 
the young Puma displays a gradual change in its fur, nearly in the same way as has been 
narrated of the lion cub. While the Puma cubs are yet in their first infancy, their coat is 
marked with several rows of dark streaks extending along the back and sides, and also bears 
upon the neck, sides, and shoulders many dark spots, resembling those of the ordinary 
leopard. But, as the animal increases in size, the spots fade away, and, when it has attained 
its perfect development, are altogether lost in the uniform tawny hue of the fur. 




PUMA. Leo/tai-ilua 



Until it has learned from painful experience a wholesome fear of man, the Puma is apt to 
be a dangerous neighbor. It is known to track human beings through long distances, awaiting 
an opportunity of springing unobservedly upon a heedless passer-by. A well-known traveller 
in American forest lands told "me candidly, that he always ran away from " Grizzlys," i.e. 
grizzly bears, but that " Painters were of no account." He said that as long as a traveller 
could keep a Puma in sight, he need fear no danger from the animal, for that it would not leap 
upon him as long as its movements were watched. 

Even in those rare instances where the Puma, urged by fierce hunger, issued boldly from 
the dark le:il';ig<' of the woods, and ventured to track the very pathway that was trodden 
by the travellers, there was yet no real danger. The Puma would creep rapidly towards the 
party, and would, in a short time, approach sufficiently near to make its fatal spring. But if 
one of the travellers faced sharply on the crawling animal, and looked it full in the face, 
the beast was discomfited at once, and slowly retreated, moving its head from side to side, as 
if trying to shake off the influence of that calm steady gaze to which it had never been 



150 THE PUMA. 

accustomed, and which was a positive terror to the rapacious animal. A caged leopard has 
displayed a similar uneasiness at a fixed gaze of a spectator, and has finally been so quelled 
that in its restless walk it dared not turn its face towards its persecutor. 

Although it is not an object of personal dread to the civilized inhabitants of the forest 
lands, the Puma is a pestilent neighbor to the farmer, committing sad havoc among his flocks 
and herds, and acting with such consummate craft, that it can seldom be arrested in the act of 
destruction, or precluded from achieving it. No less than fifty sheep have fallen victims 
to the Puma in a singlD night. It is not, however, the lot of every Puma to reside in the 
neighborhood of such easy prey as pigs, sheep, and poultry, and the greater number of these 
animals are forced to depend for their subsistence on their own success in chasing or surprising 
the various animals on which they feed. As is the case with the jaguar, the Puma is specially 
fond of the capybara and the peccary, and makes a meal on many smaller deer than even the 
latter animal. 

Such creatures as are unfortunate enough to please the taste of the Puma, are nearly always 
taken by surprise, and struck down before they are even aware of the vicinity of their tawny 
foe. The Puma loves to hide upon the branches of trees, and from that eminence to launch 
itself upon the doomed animal that may pass within reach of its active laap and its death- 
dealing paw. 

While thus lying upon the branches, the creature is almost invisible from below, as its fur 
harmonizes so well with the brown bark which covers the boughs, that the one can scarcely be 
distinguished from the other. Even when imprisoned within the limits of a cage, where the 
eye has no great range of objects for inspection, the Puma will often lie so closely pressed 
against a shelf, or flattened upon the thick boughs which are placed in its cell, that the cage 
appears at first sight to be empty, even though the spectator may have come to it with the 
express object of inspecting the inhabitants. It may therefore be easily imagined how 
treacherous a foe the Puma may be when ranging at will among the countless trees of an 
American forest. 

The flesh of this animal is said, by those who have made trial of it, .to be a pleasant 
addition to the diet scale, being white, tender, and of good flavor. When taken young, 
the Puma is peculiarly susceptible of domestication, and has been known to follow its master 
just like a dog. The hunters of the Pampas are expert Puma slayers, and achieve their end 
either by catching the bewildered animal with a lasso, and then galloping off with the poor 
creature hanging at the end of the leather cord, or by flinging the celebrated bolas metal balls 
or stones fastened to a rope at the Puma, and laying it senseless on the ground with a blow 
from the heavy weapon. 

The Puma is the largest and most powerful of the North American cats, if we except the 
jaguar, which is more properly a southern species, being found mostly in South America, and 
as far north, occasionally, as Eastern Texas. Its entire range is from the extreme south of 
the continent, at the Straits of Magellan, to the northern portion of the State of New 
York. It has been quite common along the great range of the Blue Ridge, and northward 
to the Catskills and Adirondacks, but is rarely found north of this region. Before the 
settlement of the country, it ranged over all the New England States. It reaches in size 
the dimensions of the largest dog, and weighs about 150 pounds, the heaviest recorded being 
200 pounds. It is cowardly, though possessing great strength and ferocity, approaching its 
prey stealthily. 

Some interesting facts are recorded by Dr. Merriam in his work on the Mammals of the 
Adirondacks. He says : " The distance that a panther can pass over in a single leap is almost 
incredible. On level ground, a single spring of twenty feet is by no means uncommon, and 
on one occasion Mr. Sheppard measured a leap, over snow, of nearly forty feet. In this 
instance, there were three preliminary springs, and the panther struck his deer on the fourth. 
The longest leap measured by Mr. Sheppard was one of sixty feet, but here the panther 
jumped from a ledge of rocks about twenty feet above the level \ipon which the deer was 
standing. He struck it with such force as to knock it nearly a rod further off." 

In the winter, when snow is so deep as to obstruct the travelling of deer, the great feet of 



THE YAaOUARONDI. 151 

the panther spread to such width that his locomotion is much the same as that of a man on 
snow-shoes. 

It is observed that most mammals are larger in the north than in the southern parts of the 
country. The reverse is true of the Panther. 

Fine specimens of the Puma are kept at the Zoological collection in Central Park. Several 
litters of young have been raised there. Usually, however, the kittens die before they 
are many weeks old. 

Mr. Conklin, Director of the Central Park Menagerie, informed us that one of the Pumas 
in his collection has produced young seven times in confinement, having from two to four 
kittens at a birth. Her present age is sixteen years. The period of gestation is thirteen 
weeks. Though this is the largest of our northern carnivores, it is seldom seen, excepting by 
hunters who penetrate the wilderness ; yet nearly an hundred examples have been killed since 
1860 in the Adirondacks. 

Audubon says of him, as seen in the semi-tropical regions of Florida and Texas : "He is 
sometimes found on the open prairies, and his tracks may be seen on almost every cattle- 
crossing place on the sluggish bayous and creeks with their treacherous quicksands. At such 
places the Cougar sometimes finds an unfortunate calf, or, perhaps, a cow or bullock, that has 
become fast in the miry earth, and, from exhaustion, has given up its strugglings and been 
drowned, or suffocated. Such a case happened, when the specimen he figures was shot in the 
act of dragging the heifer from the mud. For the size, the Puma has extraordinary strength. 
The Cougar is ordinarily, however, compelled to hunt up smaller animals, as the prey is not 
always at hand." 

Audubon adds his personal testimony to others in favor of the alleged cowardice, or, 
rather, want of prowess. He says : "On our way to school, as a boy, a Cougar crossed our 
path, not ten yards in front of us. When the animal saw us, it commenced a hurried retreat. 
A small terrier that accompanied us gave chase to the animal, which, after running about 
an hundred yards, mounted an oak and rested upon one of its limbs, about twenty feet from 
the ground. We approached and gave a loud whoop, when it dropped upon the ground and 
soon made its escape. 

" Among the mountains of the head waters of the Juniata, the Puma is hunted system- 
atically with a kind of half-breed dogs, the full bloods lacking the courage to attack such 
a large animal. The tales related of the cry of this animal resembling the human voice are not 
true ; their cry is like that of the common cat much louder, naturally." 

In 1865, we saw the tracks of a Puma on the sands of the Florida Reef. On Plantation 
Key we traced these tracks to a cabin where a wrecker or fisherman lived. During the previous 
night the man had lost a valuable brace of puppies, and not being familiar with this cat, 
he was in great doubt and terror. The tracks were four inches by four and a half in extent, 
and impressed our lonely wrecker with wonderful sentiments of the powers of such a beast. 
On crossing to Metacombe Key, a half-mile eastward, separated by a deep channel, we found 
the same kind of tracks, beginning at the high-water mark and continuing along the beach 
until they reached another cabin. Here the fisherman's hog had lost an ear ; the Puma, 
which proved to be the invader, had not been able to get at the hog, and was obliged to be 
satisfied with what was in reach. Our party planned a still hunt for that night, judging 
wisely, that the Puma would not forget to come back for the remainder of the hog. The 
Puma came, and met the usual greeting from extended arms. 

The Puma is not the only example of a pardine animal which is destitute of the usual 
pardine spots and stripes. 

The YAGOUARONDI possesses a fur of a nearly uniform color, without either spots or streaks. 
Its color is rather a variable brown, sometimes charged with a deep black tinge, and sometimes 
dashed with a slight freckling of white. When the animal is angry, the white grizzly tinge 
becomes more conspicuous than when its temper is undisturbed. The reason for this curious 
change of hue is, that each hair is alternately dark and white, the tips being all black 
If, therefore, the Yagouarondi is in a placid humor, its fur lies closely to the body, and only 



152 



THE MARBLED CAT. 



presents its black surface to the eye. But if it is excited, and sets up its fur after the 
manner of an angry cat, the white markings of the hair immediately become visible. It is said 
to be a very savage animal when wild. 




TAQOUAKONDI. Leopardus yagmiaroiiM. 

The Yagouarondi, like the puma, of one uniform color, forms with the latter a group 
quite unique, nearly all other cats having very distinctive markings. It is found as far north 
as Matamoras. Its size is that of a domestic cat, but the length of body and tail reminds one 
of the civet forms. 

It is a native of Guiana, and several specimens have been brought to this country. 




MARBLED CA.T.Leopirdus marmoratui. 

THE MARBLED CAT partakes more of the proverbial pardine spotted character than either 
of the two preceding animals, and although not so finely marked as the beautiful Ocelots, or 
Tiger Cats, possesses a fur prettily diversified with dark spots upon a light ground. The ground 
of the fur is generally of a grayish tawny, on which are scattered many spots, not so sharply 
denned as those of the leopard, or the Tiger Cats. It is an inhabitant of Malacca. 



THE OCELOT. 



153 



MANY of the members of the large genus Leopardus, are classed together under the title 
of Ocelots, or, more popularly, of Tiger Cats. They are all most beautiful animals, their 
fur being diversified with the brilliant contrasts of a dark spot, streak, or dash upon a lighter 
ground, and their actions filled with easy grace and elegance. 

The common OCELOT is a native of the tropical regions of America, where it is found in 
some profusion. In length it rather exceeds four feet, of which the tail occupies a consider- 
able portion. Its height averages eighteen inches. The ground color of the fur is a very light 
grayish-fawn, on which are drawn partially broken bands of a very deep fawn-color, edged 
with black, running along the line of the body. The band that extends along the spine is 
unbroken. On the head, neck, and the inside of the limbs, the bands are broken up into spots 
and dashes, which are entirely black, the fawn tint in their centre being totally merged in the 
deeper hue ; the ears are black, with the exception of a conspicuous white spot upon the back 




OCELOT. Leopardus pardalit. 



and near the base of each ear. Owing to the beauty of the fur, the Ocelot skin is in great 
request for home use and exportation, and is extensively employed in the manufacture of 
various fancy articles of dress or luxury. 

In its habits the Ocelot is quick, active, and powerful, proving itself at all points a true 
leopard, although but in miniature. 

It is sufficiently fierce in its wild state to be a dangerous opponent if wounded or other- 
wise irritated. When in captivity, its temper seems rather capricious, depending, in all 
probability, on the individuality of the animal, or the treatment of its keepers. Some of these 
creatures are always fierce and surly, setting up a savage growl when any one approaches their 
cage, spitting at the visitor like an angry cat, and striking sharp, quick blows with the paws. 
Others, again, are as quiet and well-behaved as the generality of domestic cats, like to be 
noticed, and, if they think that the visitor is about to pass by their cage without recognizing 
them, call his attention by a gracious purr, and rubbing themselves against the bars. They 
will even offer themselves to be stroked and patted, and will bow their heads, just as a eat 
does on feeling the touch of a friendly hand. 



154 THE OCELOT. 

THE GRAY OCELOT is so called on account of the comparatively light hue of the fur. 
The spots are not quite so numerous nor so bold as in the preceding animal, and the throat is 
remarkable for its whitish-gray tint, unbroken by spots or streaks. All these creatures are 
found in tropical America. 

The Ocelot soon learns to distinguish friends from foes, and can easily be brought to a 
state of partial tameness. 

Several of these animals, when I first made their acquaintance, were rather crabbed in 
disposition, snarled at the sound of a strange step, growled angrily at my approach, and 
behaved altogether in a very unsocial manner, in spite of many amicable overtures. After 
awhile, I saw that these creatures were continully and vainly attempting the capture of certain 
flies which buzzed about the cage. So I captured a few large blue-bottle flies, and poked them 
through a small aperture in the cage, so that the Ocelot's paw might not be able to reach my 
hand. At first, the Ocelots declined to make any advances in return for the gift, but they 
soon became bolder, and at last freely took the flies as fast as they were caught. The ice 
was now broken, and in a very short time we were excellent friends, the angry snarl being 
exchanged for a complacent purr, and the suspicious shrinking movements for a <juiet and 
composed demeanor. 

The climax to their change of character was reached by giving them a few leaves of grass, 
for which they were, as I thought they would be, more anxious than for the flies. They tore 
the green blades out of my hand, and retired to their sleeping-house for the purpose of eating 
the unaccustomed dainty undisturbed. After this they were quite at their ease, and came to 
the front of the cage whenever I passed. 

Every one who has watched the habits of the domestic cat must have noticed how thankful 
she seems for a few leaves of grass. It is curious that a carnivorous animal should be so 
impelled by instinct as to turn for a time to vegetable food, and to become, for the nonce, a 
herbivorous creature. Dogs, it is well known, will resort to the same plant, and appear to 
use it in a medicinal point of view. 

The eye of the Ocelot is a pale yellowish brown, and tolerably full, with the linear pupil 
that is found in the smaller felidse. 

There are several species of these pretty and agile animals, among which the most con- 
spicuous are the Common, the Gray, and Painted Ocelots, and the Margay, or Marjay, as it is 
sometimes called. The habits of these animals are very similar. 

In its native woods, the Ocelot seeks its food, chiefly among the smaller mammalia and 
birds, although it is sufficiently powerful to attack and destroy a moderately sized monkey. 
The monkeys it can chase into the tree branches, being nearly as expert a climber as them- 
selves, but, as it cannot follow the birds into their airy region, it is forced to match its cunning 
against their wings. As is often done by the domestic cat, the Ocelot can spring among a 
flock of birds as they rise from the ground, and, leaping into the air, strike down one of them 
with its rapid paw. But its chief method of obtaining birds is by concealing itself among the 
branches of a tree, and suddenly knocking them over as they come and settle unsuspiciously 
within reach of the hidden foe. 

THE PAINTED OCELOT resembles the preceding animal in the general aspect of its fur, 
but is marked in a richer manner. 

The spots are more numerous, closer together, and more uniform than those of the common 
Ocelot. The black markings of the tail are of a very deep hue indeed, and occupy a large 
portion of that member. The throat is grayish white, with one or two very bold black streaks 
drawn upon it, extending towards the shoulders. These streaks are branch-like in form, and 
are very clearly defined. The spots that run along the spine are solid, and of a deep velvety 
black. 

When in captivity, the Ocelot seems to prefer birds and rabbits, or similar creatures, to 
any other food, and is able to strip the feathers from the bird before it begins its meal. The 
head appears to be its favorite morsel, and, with the head, the Ocelot generally commences its 
meal. The reader may remember that the Jaguar, mentioned on page 144, had decapitated 



THE RIAfAU-DAHAN. 



155 



the fowls which it had snatched from the steward, and had eaten their heads before they could 
be reclaimed. 

Ocelots have been kept in the Zoological Gardens at Central Park, and always attract by 
their exceeding beauty of markings. They resisted all attempts at familiarity, and seemed 
not amenable to domestication ; though perhaps a longer term of confinement might prove 
them otherwise. 

The EYKA CAT (Felis eyra) is enumerated as a North American animal, being common 
in the region near the Rio Grande of Texas. 

THE MARGAY is a very handsome example of the Tiger Cats. The tail is rather more 
bushy towards the tip than those of the preceding animals, and the spottings are hardly so 



/-v VT>I: 
'k\l .\ 



ft 



vX 

^V: 




MARGIAY. Leopardui tiyrintu. 

apt to run into hollow streaks or links. It will be observed that the spots are small and 
numerous towards the hind quarters. 

It is, when caught young and properly treated, a very docile and affectionate animal, 
although it has been slanderously described as a wholly untamable and ferocious beast. Mr. 
Waterton mentions, in one of his essays on natural history, that when he was in Guiana he 
possessed a Margay which had been captured by a negro while still a kitten. It was nurtured 
with great care, and became so fond of its master that it would follow him about like a dog. 
Against the rats which inhabited the house, this Margay waged incessant war, creeping about 
the staircase in search of the destructive rodents, and pouncing with unerring aim on any rat 
that was unfortunate enough to make its appearance from out of its hiding-place behind the 
casements. 

With an instinctive knowledge of rats and their habits, the Margay was accustomed to 
choose the closing hours of day as its best hunting time. The creature's assistance in rat- 
killing was most useful, for, during the owner's absence, the rats had gained entrance to his 
house, and, finding no one there to oppose their devices, took possession, and roamed about 
the rooms at their own will. Thirty-two doors had been gnawed through by the chisel -edged 
teeth of the rats, and many of the valuable window-frames had suffered irreparable damage 
from these long-tailed pests. 

THE very handsome animal which is known by the name of Rimau-dahan, or more 
popularly as the Clouded or Tortoise-shell Tiger, was, until comparatively late years, * 



156 



THE CHATI. 



stranger to this country. One of the tirst specimens was exhibited for some time in a travel- 
ling menagerie, where it died. So indifferent or so ignorant were its proprietors, that after 
its death no trace was found of this unique animal, excepting a tradition that its hide had 
been cut up for the purpose of making caps for the keepers. 

The spots and marks which cover the fur of the Rimau-dahan are so very irregular in 
shape and arrangement that a detailed description is almost impossible. Some of the patches 
are nearly oval, some are angular, some are particularly open, while others are enclosed within 
a well-defined dark edging. There are stripes like those of the tiger, solid spots like those of 
the leopard, hollow spots resembling those of the jaguar, and large black-edged spots like 
those of the ocelots. The black has a peculiarly rich and velvety appearance. 




KIMAU-DAHAN. Leopardtm macrocflat. 

The ground color of the fur is gray, tinged with brown, and however the other markings 
may vary, there are always two bold uninterrupted bands of velvety -black running along the 
entire length of the animal, beginning at the back of the head, and only ending at the root of 
the tail. The tail itself is covered with dark rings, which contrast well with the very light 
ground of the fur. The hair is rather long, and beautifully fine in its texture. Altogether, 
the Rimau-dahan, although so large an animal, bears a close resemblance to the Marbled Cat, 
which has already been mentioned. 

An allied species, named popularly the TORTOISE-SHELL or SMALLER CLOUDED TIGER, and 
scientifically termed Leopardus macroceloides, is found in the same locality as the Rimau- 
dahan. It possesses many of the properties which belong to its larger relative, and is equally 
fond of climbing up, or resting on, the branches of trees. 

ALTHOUGH so gentle in its demeanor when domesticated as to have earned for itself the 
name of "mitis" or "placid," the Chati is, when wild, a sufficiently destructive animal It 
is not quite so large as the ocelots, with which creatures it is a compatriot. 



THE PAMPAS CAT. 



157 



The color of the Chati resembles that of the Leopard, only is paler in general hue. The 
dark patches that diversify the body are very irregular those which run along the back are 
solid, and of a deep black, while those which are 
placed along the sides have generally a deep fawn- 
colored centre. Towards the extremity of the 
tail, the spots change into partial rings, which 
nearly, but not quite, surround the tail. All speci 
mens, however, are not precisely alike, either in 
the color or the arrangement of the markings, but 
those leading characteristics which have just been 
mentioned may be found in almost every indi- 
vidual. 

\Y lien at large in its native woods, it wages 
incessant and destructive warfare against small 
quadrupeds and birds, the latter creatures being 
its favorite prey. The Chati is a vexatious and 
expensive neighbor to any one who may keep 

fowls, for it seems to like nothing so well as a CHATI. -Leu^idwi muu. 

plump fowl, and is unceasing in its visits to the 

hen-roost. It is so active and lithe an animal that it can climb over any palisade, and insinuate 
itself through a surprisingly small aperture ; and it is so wary and cautious in its nocturnal 
raids, that it generally gives no indication of its movements except that which is left next 
morning by the vacant perches, and a few scattered feathers necked with blood-spots. 





PAMPAS CA.T.Lopardus pajerot. 



FROM the shorter heads, and other characteristics of the last few animals, it will be seen 
that we are rapidly approaching that type of the feline nature with which we are so familiar 
in the domestic cat. The PAMPAS CAT might easily be mistaken for a rather large domestic 
cat which had run at large for some time, and assumed the fierce, suspicious demeanor of th^ 
wild animal. 



158 



THE EGYPTIAN CAT. 



Its general color is a yellowish gray, something like the tint which we call "sandy," when 
it belongs to the fur of a domestic cat or the scalp of a human being. The body is covered 
with numerous brown stripes, admixed with yellow, which run at a very small angle with the 
line of the body. -On each side of the face two bold streaks are drawn from the eye over the 
cheeks, the lower stripe running round the neck, and uniting with the corresponding stripe of 
the opposite side. Two or three dark streaks appear across the upper portion of the legs. 
The depth of tint appears to be variable in different individuals, and the markings present 
slight discrepancies. 

t The fur of the Pampas Cat is extremely long, some of the hairs reaching a, length 01 five 
inches. The tail is not very long, is well covered with bushy hair, and is devoid of the ring- 
like markings which are found in the same member in the Ocelots. 




EGYPTIAN CAT.-.FH manimlata. 

The natives of Buenos Ayres and its vicinity name the Pampas Cat "Gato Pajero," the 
former word signifying a cat, and the latter being formed from the Spanish term "paja," or 
straw. It is so called because it frequents the jungles or reeds, and by the English residents 
is of tened termed the Jungle Cat. It is spread over a very large space of country, being found 
on the whole of the Pampas which are spread on the eastern side of South America, a range 
of some fourteen hundred miles. The food of the Pampas Cat consists chiefly of the moder- 
ately sized rodents w r hich inhabit the same country in great profusion, and it is by no means 
so dangerous a foe to poultry as the Ocelots or the Chati. 

The length of the animal, inclusive of the tail, is rather more than three feet, the tail 
occupying about eleven inches. Its height, w r hen adult, is rather more than a foot. 

It is about the size of a large house cat, having a tail very short, and bush-like at the 
extremity. In this latter feature the next group of cats, embracing the Lynx, is suggested. 

EXCEPTING for a certain upright and watchful carriage of the ears, the EGYPTIAN CAT has 
a very domestic look about it. 

This animal is supposed to be the species which was so honored by the ancient Egyptians, 
that they refused to attack an invading army which bore a number of Cats in their front rank ; 



THE WILD CAT. 159 

and even when their land was in possession of the hostile force, the people rose like one man, 
and demanded the life of a soldier who had killed one of these sacred animals. So deeply 
were these ideas implanted in their minds, and so determinately did they persist in their 
demand, that the invading general yielded to their religious enthusiasm, and actually delivered 
the unwitting offender into their hands. 

The Egyptian Cat was not only honored and protected during its lifetime, but even 
after death it received funeral honors such as only fall to the lot of distinguished or wealthy 
personages. 

There were several methods of embalming in use among the Egyptians, by which the 
bodies of the dead were, for a time, withheld from the natural and beneficial process of decay, 
only to yield to its power a few hundred years later. Of these modes, only the most elaborate 
has left its records on the still existing bodies of the mighty dead. The carcass of the plebeian 
might be drenched and soaked in the antiseptic mixture, and so be preserved for a time. But 
it was the privilege for kings and rulers alone to have their bodies imbued with costly drugs 
and sweet spices, and to lie unchanged in their tombs for thousands of years, until their mum- 
mied remains were removed from their long repose, and exhibited to the public gaze of a 
people who, in their own royal time, were but a race of naked savages. The privilege which 
was denied to the workman was granted to his Cat, and we have in this country many speci- 
mens of mummied Cats, their bodies swathed, bandaged, and spiced in the most careful man- 
ner, partaking of this temporary immortality with a Rameses or a Pharaoh. 

The species of Cat which was thus glorified by these ghastly honors of the charnel-house, 
is the animal wliich is represented in the engraving. It is supposed to be the original stock 
from which descended the race of domestic Cats which found their home by the Egyptian's 
hearth, and were so piously cherished by that strange, intellectual, inexplicable people. It 
is indigenous to Nubia, and has been found on the western side of the Nile, inhabiting a dis- 
trict which w T as well furnished with brushwood, and broken up into rocky ground. 

The general color of this animal is something like that of the Pampas Cat, but not so clear 
or bright, as a brownish-gray tint is washed over the white portions. On the back, the color 
is deeper than on the remainder of the body. The under portions of the body and inside of 
the limbs are a grayish-white, the gray disappearing under the throat and about the cheeks, 
leaving those parts of a pure white. Many streaks and dashes of black, or ochry-yellow, are 
spread over the body and limbs, two of the lighter stripes encircling the neck. Its eye is 
bright golden yellow. 

The Egyptian Cat is about the size of an ordinary domestic cat, being nine or ten inches 
in height, and two feet five inches in length ; the tail is about nine inches long. 

FEW of the Felidse are so widely spread, or so generally known as the WILD CAT. It is 
found not only in this country, but over nearly the whole of Europe, and has been seen in 
Northern Asia, and Nepaul. 

It is true that many so-called Wild Cats are found in the snares set by the gamekeeper 
to protect the pheasants, hares, and partridges under his charge, but in ninety-nine cases out 
of every hundred, these captured robbers are nothing more than domesticated cats which have 
shaken off the trammels of their civilization, and have taken to a savage life in the bush. Even 
tame and petted Cats have been known to take to poaching, and to bring to their owner a daily 
pheasant or partridge. There are few more dangerous foes to game than the domestic Cat, 
and the Wild Cat gets the credit of its misdeeds. 

Whether the Wild Cat be the original progenitor of our domestic Cat; is still a mooted 
point, and likely to remain so, for there is no small difficulty in bringing proofs to bear on 
such a subject. It is certain that if such be the case, the change from savage to domestic life 
must be of very long standing, for it is proved that certain distinctions between the Wild and 
domestic Cat are found in full force, even though the domestic Cat may have taken to a 
wild life for many a year. There are several points of distinction between the Wild and the 
domestic Cat ; one of the most decided differences being found in the shape and comparative 
length of their tails. 



160 



THE WILD CAT. 



The tails of the two animals are easily distinguished from each other. The tail of the 
domestic Cat 'is long, slender, and tapering, while the tail of the Wild Cat is much shorter 
and more bushy. Now it is proved that, even if several domestic Cats have escaped into the 
woods and there led a sylvan life, their long tapering tails have been transmitted to their 
posterity through many successive generations, in spite of their wild and marauding habits. 

The color, of the Wild Cat is more uniform than that of the domestic animal, and is briefly 
as follows. 

The ground tint of the fur is a yellowish, or sandy gray, diversified with dark streaks 
drawn over the body and limbs in a very tigrine manner. These stripes run, as do those of 
the tiger, nearly at right angles with the line of the body and limbs. A very dark chain of 
streaks and spots runs along the spine, and the tail is thick, short, and bushy, with a black 
tip, and many rings of a very dark hue. The stripes along the ribs and on the legs are not so 




WILD CAT. Fdie catu$. 

dark nor so clearly denned as those of the spine. The tail is barely half the length of the 
head and body. The fur is tolerably long and thick, and when the animal is found in colder 
regions, such as some parts of Germany and Russia, the fur is peculiarly long and thick. 

In the wilder and less cultivated parts of Scotland, the Wild Cat is still found, and is as 
dangerous an enemy to the game of Scotland as is the Oceletjto that of tropical America. 

The amount of havoc which is occasioned by these creatures is surprising. Mr. Thompson 
mentions that a gamekeeper had frequently noticed certain grouse feathers and other debris 
lying about a "water-break" which lay in his beat, and had more than once come upon some 
of the birds lying without their heads, but otherwise in such excellent condition that they 
were taken home and served at table. Suspecting the Wild Cat to be the culprit, he set a 
trap, and captured two of these animals, an old and a young one. 

Here, again, is exhibited the strange predilection which the Cat tribe seem to feel for the 
heads of the creatures on which they feed. No less than five grouse were discovered at the 
same time lying headless on the ground, and it is probable that their destroyers would have 
contented themselves with the heads only ; and, like the blood-sucking Tiger, would have 
killed victim after victim for the sole purpose of feasting upon their heads. The keeper 
expected to secure one or two more of these feline marauders, for the young Wild Cats remain 



THE WILD CAT. 161 

with their parents until they are full grown and able to take upon themselves the cares of 
wedded life. 

In Maxwell's "Wild Sports of the West" are several anecdotes of a fierce savage breed 
of Cats running wild, and depopulating the rabbit-warrens sadly. One of these animals, 
which was killed after a severe battle, was of a dirty -gray color, double the size of the common 
house Cat, and its teeth and claws more than proportionately larger. This specimen was a 
female, which had been traced to a burrow under a rock, and caught in a rabbit-net. With 
( her powerful teeth and claws she tore her way through the net, but was gallantly seized by 
the lad who set the toils. Upon him she turned her energies, and bit and scratched in a most 
savage style until she was despatched by a blow from a spade. The wounds which she 
inflicted were of so severe a character that lock-jaw was threatened, and the sufferer was sent 
to an hospital. 

Besides these huge Wild Cats, which may, in all probability, be the true Fells catus, 
there are many house Cats which run away from their rightful home, and, taking up their 
residence in the rabbit-warren, are as formidable enemies to rabbits and poultry as those of the 
larger kind. No less than five males were caught at one time in an outhouse, penned up until 
the morning, and then shot ; after which execution the neighboring warren largely increased 
its population. 

The Wild Cat takes up its residence in rocky and wooded country, making its home in 
the cleft of a rock or the hollow of some aged tree, and issuing from thence upon its marauding 
excursions. It has even been known to make its domicile in the nest of some large bird. It 
is rather a prolific animal, and, were it not kept within due bounds by such potent enemies as 
the gun and the snare, would rapidly increase in numbers. As it is, however, the AVild Cat 
yields to these foes, and slowly, but surely, vanishes from the land. The number of its fainily 
is from three to five, or even six. The female is smaller than the male. 

In total length, an adult male Wild Cat is about three feet, of which the tail occupies 
nearly a foot. This does not seem to be a very considerable length, as there are domestic Cats 
which equal or even exceed these dimensions ; but it must be remembered that the tail of the 
Wild Cat is much .shorter than that of the domestic animal. 

Of the fiery energy which actuates this animal when attacked and roused to fury, the 
following extract -from St. John's " Highland Sports" will give an excellent idea: 

"The true Wild Cat is gradually becoming extirpated, owing to the increasing preserva- 
tion of game ; and, though difficult to hold in a trap, in consequence of its great strength and 
agility, he is by no means difficult to deceive, taking any bait readily, and not seeming to be 
as cautious in avoiding danger as many other kinds of vermin. Inhabiting the most lonely 
and inaccessible ranges of rock and mountain, the Wild Cat is seldom seen during the day- 
time ; at night, like its domestic relative, he prowls far and wide, walking with the same 
deliberate step, making the same regular and even track, and hunting its game in the same 
tiger-like manner ; and yet the difference between the two animals is perfectly clear and visible 
to the commonest observer. The Wild Cat has a shorter and more bushy tail, stands higher 
on her legs in proportion to her ize, and has a rounder and coarser look about the head." 

Although so scarce in these days of allotments and railways, the Wild Cat was once so 
common in England as to be an absolute pest, and was formerly numbered among the beasts 
of chase that contributed to the amusement of the dull unlearned leisure which fell to the lot 
of those olden aristocrats of our land whose only excitement was found in the act of destruc- 
tion, either of men or beasts. As were almost all destructive beasts, it was protected by the 
great few who suffered no scath by its depredations, to the loss of the many small, whose little 
stock of poultry paid heavy toll to the licensed marauders. Even its fur was made a subject 
of legal enactment, being permitted to some orders of the people and forbidden to others. 

WHEN ENGAGED in the study of an illustrated work on ethnology, with its portraits of 
the various forms which are assumed by the human race, a certain feeling of relief and repose 



162 



THE DOMESTIC CAT. 



takes possession of the mind when the reader turns from the savage races of mankind, with 
their selfish, restless, eager, bestialized expression, to the mild and intellectual countenances 
of the civilized nations. A similar sensation of repose is felt when we turn from the savage, 
hungry -looking Wild Cat to the placid face and tranquil expression of our favorite, the 
DOMESTIC CAT. 

Although England possesses an indigenous Cat, which would naturally be considered 
as the original progenitor of the Domestic Cat, which attaches herself so strongly to mankind, 
it is now generally admitted that for this useful and graceful animal we are indebted to 
another continent. In the description of the Wild Cat, it has been mentioned that the distin- 
guishing marks which characterize the two species are so permanent as to defy eradication, 
and to mark decisively the "Felis catus" from the "Felis domestica." The comparative 




DOMESTIC CAT. Feiu manicuia domestica. 

length of their tails is of itself a distinction, and one which seems never to be lost by either 
the wild or the domestic animal. Whether those two creatures have ever produced a mixed 
breed is a matter of much uncertainty, for although a wood or a warren may be infested with 
Cats living in a wild state, yet, in almost every case, they are only Domestic Cats in which 
the savage part of their nature has predominated, and conquered the assumed habits of 
domestication. They have acted as men sometimes act under similar temptation, and have 
voluntarily taken to a savage life. As far as is at present known, the Egyptian Cat is the origin 
of our Domestic Cat. 

In the long past times, when the Egyptian nation was at the head of the civilized world, the 
"Felis maniculata" was universally domesticated in their homes, while at the comparatively 
later days of English history the Domestic Cat was so scarce in England that royal edicts were 
issued for its preservation. Yet in those days, A. r>. 948, the wild Cat was rife throughout 
Europe, and was reckoned as a noxious animal, which must be destroyed, and not a useful 
one which must be protected. It is conjectured that the Domestic Cat was imported from 
Egypt into Greece and Rome, and from thence to England. 

In the eyes of any one who has really examined, and can support the character of the 
Domestic Cat, she must appear to be a sadly calumniated creature. 



THE MANX AND ANGOLA CATS. 



163 






She is generally contrasted with the dog, much to her disfavor. His docility, affectionate 
disposition, and forgiveness of injuries ; his reliability of character, and his wonderful 
intellectual powers are spoken of, as truly they deserve, with great enthusiasm and respect. 
But these amiable traits of character are brought into violent contrast with sundry ill- 
conditioned qualities which are attributed to the Cat, and wrongly so. The Cat is held up to 
reprobation as a selfish animal, seeking her own comfort and disregardful of others ; attached 
only to localities, and bearing no real affection for her owners. She is said to be sly and 
treacherous, hiding her talons in her velvety paws as long as she is in a good temper, but ready 
to use them upon her best friends 
; f she is crossed in her humors. 

Whatever may have been the 
experience of those who gave so 
slanderous a character to the Cat, 
oiy own rather wide acquaintance 
with this animal has led me to 
pery different conclusions. The 
Cats with which I have been most 
familiar have been as docile, tract- 
able, and good-tempered as any 
dog could be, and displayed an 
amount of intellectual power which 
would be equalled by very few 
dogs, and surpassed by none. 

With regard to the compara- 
tively good and bad temper of the 
Cat and dog, there is as much to 
be said in favor of the former as 
of the latter animal, while, as to 
their mental capacities, the scale 
certainly does not preponderate so 
decidedly on the side of the dog 
as is generally imagined. Nor is 
my own experience a solitary one, 
for in almost every instance where 
my friends have possessed favorite 
Cats the result has been the same. 

THERE are many varieties of M^X CAT. ANGOLA OAT. 

the Domestic Cat, of which the 

most conspicuous are the MANX CAT and the ANGOLA. In the accompanying engraving, 
.the upper figure represents the former animal, and the lower the latter. These two Cats 
present the strongest contrast to each other that can be imagined, the Angola Cat being 
gorgeous in its superb clothing of long silky hair and bushy tail, and the Manx Cat being 
covered with close-set fur, and possessing hardly a vestige of a tail. 

A fine Angola Cat is as handsome an animal as can be imagined, and seems quite con- 
scious of its own magnificence. It is a very dignified animal, and moves about with a grave 
solemnity that bears a great resemblance to the stately march of a full-plumed peacock 
conscious of admiring spectators. It is one of the largest of domestic Cats, and in its own 
superb manner will consume a considerable amount of food. One of these animals, nearly the 
finest that I ever saw, made friends with me in a cafe at Paris, and used to sit on the table and 
eat my biscuits. In order to test the creature's appetite, I once ordered two successive plates 
of almond biscuits, every crumb of which "Minette" consumed with a deliberate and refined 
air, and would probably have eaten as much more if it had been offered to her. It must 
be considered, that she had plenty of friends who visited the same cafe, and that she was 




1(54 PRESCIENCE OF THE CAT. 

quietly levying contributions during the whole day and a considerable portion of the night, so 
that these two plates of biscuits were only taken in the usual course of events. 

The Manx Cat is a curious variety, on account of the entire absence of tail, the place 
of which member is only indicated by a rather wide protuberance. This want of the usual 
caudal appendage is most conspicuous when the animal, after the manner of domestic Cats, 
clambers on the tops of houses, and walks along the parapets. How this singular variation of 
form came to be perpetuated is extremely doubtful, and at present is an enigma to which 
a correct answer has yet to be given. It is by no means a pretty animal, for it has an 
unpleasant weird-like aspect about it, and by reason of its tailless condition is wanting in that 
undulating grace of movement which is so fascinating in the feline race. A black Manx Cat 
with its glaring eyes and its stump of a tail, is a most unearthly looking beast, which might 
fitly be the quadrupedal form in which the ancient sorcerers were wont to clothe themselves on 
their nocturnal excursions. 

The prescience with which all animals seem to be in some measure gifted, has often excited the 
admiration of those who have witnessed its effects. The Cat appears to possess an extremely large 
share of this gift, as has been frequently shown. An instance of this provisional capacity occurred 
in England, in 1853. A long account of this occurrence has been kindly sent to me, authenti- 
cated by the names of the various persons concerned in the matter, as well as by that of the writer. 

A family resided for some time on the southern side of the Cuddie Bridge, and had in 
their house a favorite Cat. The family changed their residence, and took a house on the 
opposite side of Eddlestone Water, leaving behind them the Cat, which refused to stir from her 
accustomed haunts. Pussy, however, took a dislike to the new inhabitants of the house, and 
finding her way across the bowling-green, entered into possession of the mill, where she doubtless 
found plenty of game. Here she remained for some eighteen months in spite of several attempts 
made by her former owner to recover his lost favorite. Several times she had been captured and 
brought to his house, and on one occasion a kitten was retained as a hostage. Bnt every endeavor 
was vain, and leaving her offspring in the hand of her detainers, and resisting all temptations, 
she set off again for her quarters at the mill ; in her eagerness to get back to the mill even 
fording the river, " taking Cuddie at the broadside," as that action is popularly termed. 

On the 18th of October, 1853, at ten o'clock in the evening, as the former owner of the 
Cat was standing by the church porch, his attention was caught by the fugitive Cat, which 
was purring and rubbing herself against his legs as affectionately as in the olden times. He 
took the Cat in his arms, and when he attempted to put her down, she clung tightly to his 
breast, and gave him to understand in her own feline language that she was going home with 
him. Six hours after this return of the wanderer the mill was discovered to be on fire, and in 
a short time was reduced to a heap of blackened and smouldering ruins. 

Since that time the Cat has remained complacently with her former companions at 
Biggiesknowe, in spite of the ancient adage, which says that, "in Biggiesknowe, there is 
neither a bannock (i.e. oatmeal cake) to borrow nor lend." Reference will be made to this 
mill in a future portion of this work. 

An objection may be made to the term "prescience 5 ' in this case, on the grounds that the 
fire might possibly have been smouldering when the Cat left the mill, and that the creature 
might have taken the alarm from seeing the fire in existence, and not from a prospective 
intimation of the future conflagration. But even supposing that this conjecture were true, it 
must be remembered that Cats are remarkable for their strong attachment to a fire, and that 
this animal would rather be attracted than alarmed by the grateful warmth of the burning 
wood. Moreover, from the time when the Cat found her former master to that when the fire 
was discovered, six hours had passed, and we may reasonably conclude that the animal had 
left the mill for some little time before renewing her broken acquaintance. It would be hardly 
probable that if the fire had been sufficiently powerful to make the Cat decamp from her 
residence, so many hours would have elapsed before the flames manifested themselves. 

Among other differences between the habits of wild and domesticated animals, the effect 
which fire has upon them is very remarkable. We all know how the domestic Cat is always 
found near the fire, perched on the hearth-rug, or sometimes sitting inside the fender, to the 



THE OH A US. 



165 



imminent danger of her fur and wliiskers. Yet there is nothing which so utterly terrifies the 
wild felidse as the blaze of a glowing fire. Surrounded by a fiery circle the traveller sleeps 
secure, the waving flames being a stronger barrier between himself and the fierce hungry beasts 
than would be afforded by stone or wood of ten times the height. 

RETURNING once more to the savage tribe of animals, we come to a small, but clearly- 
marked group of Cats, which are distinguishable from their feline relations by the sharply 
pointed erect ears, decorated with a tuft of hair of varying dimensions. These animals are 
popularly known by the title of Lynxes. In all the species the tail is rather short, and in t 
some, such as the Peeshoo, or Canada Lynx, it is extremely abbreviated. 

The CHAXTS, our first example of the Lyncine group, is not unlike the lion in the general 
tawny hue of its fur, but is extremely variable both in the depth of tint and in certain indis- 
tinct markings which prevail upon the body, limbs, and tail. The fur, however, is always 
more grizzled than that of the lion, and there seem to be in almost every individual certain 
faint stripes upon the legs and tail, 
together with a few obscure stripes 
or dashes of a darker color upon the 
body. 

Along the back, the hue is deeper 
than on the sides, and on the under 
parts of the body the fur is of a very 
pale tint. The extremity of the tail 
is black. The markings which are 
found on this animal are caused 
by the black extremities of some of 
the hairs. When these black-tipped 
hairs are scattered, they produce the 
grizzly aspect which has been men- 
tioned as belonging to this animal, 
but when they occur in close prox- 
imity to each other, they produce 
either spots, streaks, or dashes, ac- 
cording to their number and arrange- 
ment. On the tail, however, they always seem to gather into rings, and on the legs into stripes. 
The cheeks are white, and below each eye is generally a white spot. There is an under coating 
of soft woolly hair, which is set next to the skin, and through this woolly coating the larger hairs 
protrude. It is this double set of hair which gives to the fur of the Chaus its rough fullness. 

The Chaus, although it has been distinguished by the specific title Lybicus, is an Asiatic 
as well as an African animal, inhabiting the south of Africa, the shores of the Caspian Sea, 
Persia, and many parts of India. The localities where this creature is known to frequent are 
generally those spots where it finds marshy, boggy ground, and plenty of thick brushwood. 
It does not appear to care for wooded districts, where trees grow, for it is but a poor climber, 
and seeks its prey only on the ground. Its food consists chiefly of the smaller quadrupeds 
and birds, and it is also fond of fish, which it captures in the shallow waters by watching 
quietly for their approach, and then adroitly scooping them from their native element by a 
quick sweep of its paw. River banks, especially those where the vegetation grows dense and 
low, are favorite resorts of the Chaus, w y hich can in those favored localities find its two chief 
requisites : a place of concealment, from whence to pounce upon any devoted bird or quad- 
ruped that may chance to come within reach of the deadly spring, and a convenient fishing 
place wherein to indulge its piscatorial propensities. 

ANOTHER species of the genus Chaus, is the animal which is generally known by the name 
of the Caffre Cat, but which properly belongs to the Lyncine group. In color it is rather 
variable, some individuals being mucli paler than others, the general tint of the fur being a 




THE CHAUS. CtMus lybicui. 



166 THE CARACAL. 

gray, here and there grizzled with black, and diversified with dark brindlings. On the legs 
the stripes become bolder and better denned. When young, the fur is paler than when the 
animal has attained its full growth. In size it rather surpasses a large domestic cat. As may 
be inferred from its name, it is an inhabitant of Southern Africa, being found at the Cape, and 
in those lands which are inhabited by the various native tribes which are popularly termed 
Caffres or Kaffirs. 

AMONG the Lynxes, few species are better known, at all events by name, than the com- 
mon CARACAL. 

This animal is easily distinguishable from the other members of the Lyncine group by its 
very black ears. The name Caracal is given to the animal on account of this peculiarity, the 
word being a Turkish one, and literally signifying Black-eared. The Greek word melanotis 
bears a similar signification. The Persians have seized upon the same characteristic mark, and 
have termed the creature "Siagosh," which word bears an exactly similar import to the term 
Caracal. The color of this creature is a pale brown, warmed with a tinge of red, varying 
slightly in different individuals. The under parts of the body are paler than the upper, and 
slightly besprinkled with spots. The color of these spots is very variable, for in some individuals, 
they are nearly black, while in others they are a reddish-chestnut. The lower lip, the tip of 
the upper lip, and the chin are quite white. The tail is very short. It is not a very large 
animal, being about equal to a rather large bull-terrier dog in size, and very much more active. 

It is a peculiarly ferocious and surl"- animal, wearing a perpetual expression of malevo- 
lence, and always appearing to be, as it truly is, ready for a snarl and a bite. 

In captivity it appears to be less pervious to the gentle power of kindness than almost 
any other feline animal, and very rarely can be induced to lay aside a suspicious and distrust- 
ful demeanor, which characterizes its every movement. Even to its keeper it displays a sullen 
distrust, and when a stranger approaches its cage it resents the undesired visit as if an inten- 
tional insult had been offered, laying back its ears and uttering a malignant hiss and snarl, its 
eyes glaring with impotent rage. Although this repulsive demeanor has generally charac- 
terized the captive Caracal, there may be individuals of a very different disposition, ready to 
meet the advances of their keepers, if the keepers be endowed with a nature which is capable 
of drawing out the better feelings of the animals under their charge. More rests with the 
attendants upon captive animals than is supposed, and there is many a wild beast, such as 
the hyena, the wolf, or the jaguar, which has been stigmatized as untamable, simply because 
its keeper did not know how to tame it. Therefore it may be that the Caracal, among other 
animals, is only waiting for the right man to appear, and that then it will become as docile as 
a dog iinder his firm, but gentle treatment. 

There is one most valuable rule, learned by long experience among wild beasts, which 
ought to be engraven on the heart of any one who has to deal with these animals. Never 
cross the creature's disposition if there be any mode of avoiding it, but if it be necessary to do 
so, never yield on any pretext whatever. The animal ought to think that the will of its master 
is absolute, and that opposition is impossible. If the man should once yield to the beast he 
will have forfeited the entire prestige of his position, and will have lost an amount of influence 
which it will be almost impossible to recover. 

The Caracal is essentially predaceous, feeding upon the various animals which fall victims 
to its active and muscular limbs. It is said to be able to destroy the smaller deer, and to 
display very great craft in the chase of the swifter quadrupeds and of birds. It is not par- 
ticularly fleet of foot, nor, as far as is known, delicate of scent, so that it cannot fairly run 
down its prey by open chase like the long-winded wolf, nor follow it up by scent like the slow 
but sure stoat or weasel. But it is capable of making the most surprising springs, and of 
leaping on its prey with a marvellous accuracy of aim. It can also climb trees, and can chase 
its prey among the branches on which the doomed creatures had taken up their abode. 

Like the hyena, wolf, jackal, and many other flesh-eating animals, it does not content 
itself with the creatures which fall by the stroke of its own talons, or the grip of its own teeth, 
but will follow the lion or leopard in its nocturnal quest after prey, and thankfully partake 



THE CARACAL. 



167 



of the feast which remains after the monarch of the woods has eaten as much as he can possibly 
contain. In truth, the lion seems oftentimes to carry out the ludicrously arrogant pretension 
of certain human rulers, and to proclaim, "I, the King of the Forest, have dined. Let the 
monarclis of earth take their dinner ! " As is usual among quadrupedal and bipedal royalties, 
the lion-king has but little chance of making a second repast of any prey which his lordly paw 
may have immolated, for a band of hungry courtiers assemble round the victim, and after the 
royal appetite has been satiated, leave nothing but a few dry bones to tell of the animal that 
ranged freely through the forest but an hour or two ago. 

No blame attaches to the black-eared Caracal for this dependent line of conduct, for, as 
has already been mentioned, the lion himself disdains not to avail himself of a ready killed 




THE CARACAL.- Caracal nulanotit. 



prey, and to gorge himself thereon with as much satisfaction as if his own paw had dealt the 
lethal blow. 

It is said that the Caracal will sometimes call in the aid of its fellows, and with their 
assistance will secure even a large animal. Some authors assert that they will unite, like 
hounds, in the chase of their prey, and will hunt it as regularly as a pack of wolves or wild 
dogs. But the general opinion seems to be that the Caracal, even when assisted by its com- 
panions, gives no open chase, but achieves its end by a few powerful bounds, a stroke with 
the paw, and a iierce grip with the fangs on the throat of its victim. Some authors assert that 
the Caracal is often tamed, and rendered useful in hunting ; being trained to creep upon its 
prey and to spring from its place of concealment upon its unsuspecting quarry. When the 
trained Caracal seizes its prey it crouches to the earth, and lies motionless until its owner 
comes up and removes the slaughtered victim. 

The strength of this animal is very great in comparison with its size. A captive Caracal 
has been known to leap upon a large dog and to tear it in pieces, although the dog defended 
itself to the best of its ability. 

The Caracal is spread over a very wide range of country, being known to inhabit large 



168 



THE EUROPEAN LYNX. 



portions of the Asiatic and African continents. Arabia, the Cape and its vicinity, Egypt, 
Nubia, and Barbary, are tn% habitations of this animal, which is also found spread over the 
greater part of India and Persia. The Arabs call this animal Anak-el-ard. 

BY name, if not by sight, the common LYNX of Europe is familiar to us, and is known as 
the type of a quick-sighted animal. The eyes of the Lynx, and the ears of the " Blind Mole," 
are generally placed on a par with each other, as examples of especial acuteness of either 
sense. 

The European Lynx is spread over a great portion of the Continent of Europe, being 
found in a range of country which extends from the Pyrenees to Scandinavia. It is also found 
in the more northern forests of Asia. 

The color of this animal is as variable as that of the caracal, or even more so, for the same 
individual will change the hue of its fur according to the season of the year. During the 




EUROPEAN LYNX. Ln/nx uirgatus. 

colder months the fur becomes larger, fuller and more grizzled, the latter effect being produced 
by a change in the tips of the hairs, which assume a grayish-white. The usual color of the 
Lynx is a rather dark gray, washed with red, on which are placed sundry dark patches, large 
and few upon the body, and many and small on the limbs. On the body the spots assume an 
oblong or oval shape, but upon the limbs they are nearly circular. The tail of the Lynx is 
short, being at the most only seven or eight inches in length, and sometimes extending only 
six inches. The length of the body and head is about three feet. 

This animal resembles the caracal in its habits and mode of obtaining prey. Sheep often 
fall victims to the Lynx, but it finds its chief nourishment among hares, rabbits, and other 
small animals. Like the caracal it is an excellent climber of trees, and chases its prey among 
the branches with ease and success. 

The fur of the Lynx is valuable for the purposes to which the feline skin is usually 
destined, and commands a fair price in the market. Those who hunt the Lynx for the pur- 
pose of obtaining its fur, choose the winter months for the time of their operations, as during 



THE CANADIAN LYNX. 



169 



the cold season the Lynx possesses a richer and a wanner fur than is found upon it during the 
warm summer months. 

THE SOUTHERN, or PAKDINE, LYNX is a peculiarly beautiful example of this group of 
Felidse. It inhabits more southern districts than the last-mentioned animals, being found in 
Spain, Sardinia, Portugal, and other southern countries. From the leopard-like spots with 
which its ruddy chestnut fur is covered, it derives the name of Pardine Lynx. Its Spanish 
title is Gato-clavo. 

THE New World possesses its examples of the Lyncine group as well as the Old World, 
and even in the cold regions of Northern America a representative of these animals may be 




SOUTHERN LYNX. Lynx pardimvi. 



found. This is the CANADA LYNX, commonly termed the "Peeshoo" by the French colonists, 
or even dignified with the title of " Le Chat." 

The hair of this animal is longer than that of its southern relatives, and is generally of a 
dark gray, flecked or besprinkled with black. Large and indistinct patches of the fur are of a 
sensibly darker tint than the generality of its coat. Most of the hairs are white at their 
extremities, which will account for the apparent changes in color which will be seen even in 
the same species at different times. Along the back and upon the elbow joint these dark 
mottlings become more apparent. In some specimens the fur takes a slight tinge of ruddy 
chestnut, the limbs are darker than the rest of the body, and the ears are slightly edged with 
white. It is probable that the same individual undergoes considerable changes, both in the 
color and the length of its fur, according to the time of year. 

The limbs of this Lynx are very powerful, and the thick heavily made feet are furnished 
with strong white claws that are not seen unless the fur be put aside. It is not a dangerous 
animal, and, as far as is known, feeds on the smaller quadrupeds, the American hare being 
its favorite article of diet. 

While running at speed it presents a singular appearance, owing to its peculiar mode 



170 



THE BOOTED LYNX. 



of leaping in successive bounds, with its back slightly arched, and all the feet coming to the 
ground nearly at the same time. It is a good swimmer, being able to cross the water for 
a distance of two miles or more. Powerful though it be, it is easily killed by a blow on the 
back, a slight stick being sufficient weapon wherewith to destroy the animal. The flesh of the 
Peeshoo is eaten by the natives, and is said, though devoid of flavor, to be agreeably tender. 
It is not so prolific as the generality of the feline tribe, as the number of its young seldom 
exceeds two, and it only breeds once in the year. The range of this animal is rather extensive, 
and in the wide district where it takes up its residence is found in sufficient plenty to render 
its fur an important article of commerce. 

The length of this animal slightly exceeds three feet. 




CANADA LYNX. Lynx canadensii. 



THE BOOTED LYNX derives its somewhat peculiar name from the deep black coloring with 
which its legs are partially stained. The side and the hinder portions of the legs are partially 
covered with black hair, which gives the animal, when seen from behind, a quaint aspect, as if 
it had been endued with a pair of short tight-fitting black buskins. 

The fur of this animal is rather variable in its coloring, and it is found that the coat of the 
female is rather more yellow than that of the male. The tail is marked with several dark 
rings upon a whitish ground, the tip of the tail being black. 

The general tint of the fur is a deep gray, sometimes varied by a reddish tawny hue, 
and sometimes plentifully besprinkled with black hairs. On the upper part of the legs there 
are some very faint stripes of a ruddy brown, and two similar bands may be observed on 
the sides of the face. When young, the fur is marked with dark stripes and blotches, 
which are found sparingly on almost every portion of the body, but are most conspicuous 
on the sides. It is spread over the two vast continents of Asia and Africa, being found 
in the southern parts of India and the greater part of Africa, from Egypt and Barbary to the 
Cape. 

Its food consists of the smaller quadrupeds, and such birds as it can capfcure. It is by no 



THE CHETAH. 



171 



means a large animal, being barely two feet in length exclusive of the tail, which measures 
rather more than a foot. 

The Lynx genus is characterized by the absence of the small premolar tooth, and the brief 
and abruptly truncate tail. Some differences are also seen in the cranium as contrasted with 
that of the genus Fells. There are four species or varieties of Lynx in the United States. 

The American Wild Cat (Lynx rufus) has a wide distribution, varying greatly in 
coloration in certain portions of the country. 

A Texas variety, called maculatus, is found in California and Texas. Some slight mark- 
ings or dark lines along the sides of the neck, and rather longer ears, distinguish it. 

The Eed Cat (Lynx fasciatus) is the one discovered by Lewis and Clark in their journey 
in the Western Territories in the early part of this century. It has a very full and soft fur, 
and pencilled ears. The back is of a rich chestnut brown, which is the principal distinguishing 
feature. 




BOOTED LYNX. Lyra caliyatvt. 



The Canada Lynx is the largest of all the North American species. It is quite easily 
distinguished by its general aspect of bulkiness. Its feet are larger, and the longer hair gives 
a stouter look to the limbs and body. The neck has a pointed ruff on each side. The tail 
is very short, but densely covered with hair. The general color is variable, sometimes being 
quite whitish. There are pencils of black on the ear tips. The European species (Lynx mr- 
gatus) is so closely like this, it has at one time been regarded as the same. It is common in 
the northern portions of New York State. It preys on the hare and other small quadrupeds. 

No species of Lynx is found in South America. 

A beautiful and accurate example of the Canada species is shown in the engraving, p. 170. 

THE beautifully marked and elegantly formed creature which is represented in the 
following engraving, is worthy the attention of all who are interested in the wondrous 
influence which can be exerted by the human mind upon the very being of the lower animals. 
The CHETAH, Youze, or Hunting Cat, as it is indifferently named, is, like the Booted Lynx, 
an inhabitant of Asia and Africa. It is rather a large animal, exceeding an ordinary 
leopard in stature. The superiority in size appears to be greater than it is, on account of the 
very long limbs of the Chetah, which give it the aspect of a very large animal. The head, 
however, is very small in proportion to its height, and the limbs, although very long, are 
slender, and devoid of that marvellous strength that lies latent in the true leopard's limb. 

The title " jubata," or crested, is given to the Chetah on account of a short, mane-like crest 
of stiff long hairs which passes from the back of the head to the shoulders. Although the 



172 



THE CHETAH. 



Chetah is popularly termed the "Hunting Leopard," it can lay but little claim to the 
pardine title, and has probably been placed among the true leopards more on account of its 
spotted hide than for its shape and structure. The claws of this animal are but partially 
retractile, nor are they so sharply curved, nor so beautifully pointed, as those of the leopard. 
The Chetah is unable to climb trees like the leopard, and in the general contour of its body 
evidently forms one of the connecting links between the feline and the canine races. 

The Chetah is one of those animals which gain their living by mingled craft and agility. 
Its chief food is obtained from the various deer and antelopes which inhabit the same country, 
and in seizing and slaying its prey no little art is required. The speed of this animal is 




CHETAH. Guepardajubata. 

not very great, and it has but little endurance ; so that an antelope or a stag could set the 
spotted foe at defiance, and in a short half-hour place themselves beyond his reach. But 
it is the business of the Chetah to hinder the active and swift-footed deer from obtaining that 
invaluable half -hour, and to strike them down before they are aware of his presence. 

In order to obtain this end, the Chetah watches for a herd of deer or antelopes, or is con- 
tent to address himself to the pursuit of a solitary individual, or a little band of two or three, 
should they be placed in a position favorable for his purpose. Crouching upon the ground so 
as to conceal himself as much as possible from the watchful eyes of the intended prey, the Chetah 
steals rapidly and silently upon them, never venturing to show himself until he is within reach 
of a single spring. Having singled out one individual from the herd, the Chetah leaps upon 
the devoted animal and dashes it to the ground. Fastening his strong grip in the throat of the 
dying animal, the Chetah laps the hot blood, and for the time seems forgetful of time or place. 

Of these curious habits, the restless and all-adapting mind of man has taken advantage, 
and has diverted to his own service the wild destructive properties of the Chetah. In fact, man 
has established a kind of quadrupedal falconry, the Chetah taking the place of the hawk, and the 



HYENAS. 173 

chase being one of earth and not of air. The Asiatics have brought this curious chase to great 
perfection, and are able to train Chetahs for this purpose in a wonderfully perfect manner. 

When a Chetah is taken out for the purpose of hunting game, he is hooded and placed in 
a light native car, in company with Ms keepers. When they perceive a herd of deer, or other 
desirable game, the keepers turn the Chetah' s head in the proper direction, and remove the 
hood from his eyes. The sharp-sighted animal generally perceives the prey at once, but if he 
fails so to do the keepers assist him by quiet gestures. 

No sooner does the Chetah fairly perceive the deer than his bands are loosened, and 
he gently slips from the car. Employing all his innate artifices, the quadrupedal hunter 
approaches the game, and with one powerful leap flings himself upon the animal which he has 
selected. The keepers now hurry up, and take his attention from the slaughtered animal by 
offering him a ladleful of its blood, or by placing before him some food of which he is 
especially fond, such as the head and neck of a fowl. The hood is then slipped over his head, 
and the blinded animal is conducted, patient and unresisting, to the car, where he is secured 
until another victim may be discovered. 

It is a very curious fact, that although the Chetah is found in Africa as well as in Asia, 
it lias not been subjected to the dominion of man by the African races, but is suffered to roam 
at large, unfettered and unblinded. 

The natural disposition of this pretty creature seems to be gentle and placid, and it is 
peculiarly susceptible of domestication. It has been so completely trained as to be permitted 
to wander where it chooses like a domestic dog or cat, and is quite as familiar as that animal. 
Even in a state of semi-domestication it is sufficiently gentle. One sleek and well-conditioned 
specimen with which I made acquaintance behaved in a very friendly manner, permitting me 
to pat its soft sides, or stroke its face, and littering short self-sufficient sounds, like the 
magnified purr of a gratified cat. Unfortunately, the acquaintance was rudely broken up by 
an ill-conditioned Frenchman, who came to the front of the cage, and with his stick dealt the 
poor animal a severe thrust in the side. The Chetah instantly lost its confident expression, 
and was so irritated by this rough treatment that it would not permit a repetition of the 
former caresses. 

Certainly these caged animals have a wondrous perception of the intentions of those who 
visit them. I heard one curious instance of forbearance on the part of a caged tiger. 

A little girl, about five or six years of age, was taken to see the lions and tigers in a 
travelling menagerie. They presented to her mind the idea that they were simply very large 
cats, only differing in size from her favorite cat at home. So she crept close to the cage, and 
getting on a stone, in order to lift her small person to a proper elevation, fearlessly thrust her 
arm through the bars, and began to stroke the nose of the tiger. The spectators, seeing the 
child thus engaged, very unwisely set up a general scream, which had the effect of startling 
the tiger, and of making it so suspicious, that a second attempt to stroke it now would have 
probably resulted in the loss of the arm. 

The fur of the Chetah is rather rough, and is by no means so smooth as that of the African 
or Asiatic leopard. Its color is very similar to that of the leopard, but the ground color of the 
fur is of a deeper fawn. The spots which so profusely stud the body and limbs are nearly 
round in their form, and black in their tint. Excepting upon the face there seem to be no 
stripes like those of the tiger, but upon each side of the face there is a bold black streak 
which runs from the eye to the corner of the mouth. The hair about the throat, chest, and 
flanks is rather long, and gives a very determinate look to the animal. 

The Chetah is known as an inhabitant of many parts of Asia, including India, Sumatra, 
and Persia, while in Africa it is found in Senegal, and at the Cape of Good Hope. 

HYENAS. 

THE group of animals which are so well known by the title of HYEXAS, are, although most 
repulsive to the view, and most disgusting in their habits, the very saviors of life and health 
in the countries where they live, and where there is necessity for their existence. In this land, 



174 HYENAS. 

and at the present day, there is no need of such large animals as the Hyenas to perform their 
necessary and useful task of clearing the earth from the decaying cai'casses, which cumber its 
surface and poison its air, for in our utilitarian age even the very hairs from a cow's hide are 
turned to account, and the driest bones are made to subserve many uses. We need not the 
Hyenas, with their strong teeth, their powerful jaws, their rapid digestion, and their insatiable 
appetite. For the animal substances which are cast out unburied on our land are generally 
either eaten or buried by certain of the insect tribes, who are of a verity visible providences 
to us, assimilating into their own being, or that of their progeny, the putrefying matter that, 
but for their providential interference, would pour out clouds of poisoned gases, rife with 
pestilence and disease. 

In those countries, as well as in our own, there are carnivorous and flesh-burying insects, 
which consume the smaller animal substances ; but the rough work is left to those industrious 
scavengers the Hyenas, which content themselves with the remains of large animals. 

In the semi-civilized countries of Africa and Asia, the Hyena is a public benefactor, swal- 
lowing with his accommodating appetite almost every species of animal substance that can be 
found, and even crashing to splinters between his iron jaws the bones which would resist the 
attacks of all other carnivorous animals. 

There are several species of Hyenas, which are found in Asia and Africa, such as the 
Striped Hyena, sometimes called the Crested Hyena, or Strand Wolf, the Brown Hyena, and 
the Tiger Wolf, or Spotted Hyena. The habits of all these animals are very similar. The 
animals comprising this group are remarkable for their sloiiching, shambling gait, which is 
caused by the disproportion that exists between their legs. The fore-legs, which are used for 
digging, are powerful and well developed, but the hinder pair are so short that the line of the 
back slopes suddenly dowTiwards from the hips, and gives to the creature a most sneaking and 
cowardly look. There are only four toes on each foot. 

Useful as is the Hyena when it remains within its proper boundaries, and restricts itself to 
its proper food, it becomes a terrible pest when too numerous to find sufficient nourishment 
in dead carrion. Incited by hunger, it hangs on the skirts of villages and encampments, and 
loses few opportunities of making a meal at the expense of the inhabitants. It does not openly 
oppose even a domestic ox, but endeavors to startle its intended prey, and cause it to take to 
flight before it will venture upon an attack. In order to alarm the cattle it has a curious 
habit of creeping as closely as possible to them, and then springing up suddenly just under 
their eyes. Should the startled animals turn to flee, the Hyena will attack and destroy them : 
but if they should turn to bay, will stand still and venture no farther. It will not even attack 
a knee-haltered horse. So it often happens that the Hyena destroys the healthy cattle which 
can run away, and is afraid to touch the sickly and maimed beasts which cannot flee, and are 
forced to stand at bay. 

Among the warlike tribes that inhabit the greater part of Africa this cowardly disposition 
throws a sad discredit on the animal, and they lavish upon the Hyena their copious vocabu- 
lary of abusive terms. Even a weapon which has been used for the purpose of killing a Hyena 
is held by them as entirely defiled, and rendered unfit for the use of a warrior. Jules Gerard 
relates an incident of Hyena hunting, which, although it reflects a little upon himself, he 
narrates with much humor. 

He had left the encampment, and was proceeding hurriedly along the path, when he 
suddenly came upon a rough, hairy animal, which had been surprised by daybreak, and was 
shambling along towards its home with a limping, hobbling gait, and an air of blank astonish- 
ment. The animal, a Hyena, made off as fast as it could, and the hunter, having left his gun 
with an attendant who was lingering behind, was fain to draw his sabre, and charge the 
retreating beast as he best could. The Hyena was too quick for him, and plunging among the 
bushes disappeared into a cavity at the foot of a rock. 

The hunter was determined to secure the animal if he could, so he tied his horse to a bush, 
and crawled into the little cavern. When fairly inside he found that he was within a deserted 
stone quarry, where he could stand erect and freely use his arms. The cavern was so dark, 
however, that he could not see the Hyena, and the only indication of its presence was afforded 



THE STRIPED HYENA. 175 

by its teeth grinding upon the sword -blade, and endeavoring to drag the weapon from his 
hand. In a i'ew moments his eyes became accustomed to the obscurity, and he could perceive 
the Hyena still holding on to the point of the sword. A sudden effort sufficed to free the 
weapon, and with a quick thrust, the blade was buried to the hilt in the creature's breast, 
laying the Hyena dead on the floor of the cave. 

Just as M. Gerard had withdrawal the dripping sword, and was about to drag the slain 
animal from the cave, his attendant arrived, accompanied by some negroes whom he had 
pressed into the service. 

The hunter thought that he had deserved some credit for his hand-to-hand combat with so 
powerful an animal, and was unpleasantly disappointed when the Arab recommended him to 
return thanks that he had not used his gun, and advised him to discard the ensanguined sabre, 
as it would betray him. Indeed he found that he had committed a woeful blunder, and that 
it behoved him to achieve some specially daring deed in order to stop the slanderous tongues 
of the Arab tribes. 

He afterwards found that the Arabs scorned to use a weapon against the Hyena, which 
they killed in a most uniqiie manner. 

Taking a handful of wet mud, or similar substance, and presenting themselves at the 
mouth of the Hyena's den, they extend their hand to the animal, and say mockingly, "See, 
how pretty I will make you with this henna!'' They then dash the wet compost into the 
creature's eyes, drag him out by a paw, and gag him before he recovers from the sudden 
bewilderment. The poor beast is now handed over to the women and children, who stone 
it to death. 

These Hyenas are very fond of dog-flesh, and employ a very ingenious mode of catching 
their favorite prey. The female Hyena creeps quietly, and ensconces herself behind some bush 
or other concealment not far from a village or a temporary encampment. Her mate then plays 
his part by running boldly forwards, and making himself as conspicuous as possible, so as to 
draw the attention of some of the multitudinous dogs which prowl about human habitations. 
Out rush the dogs at the sight of the intruder, and the Hyena nins off as fast as he can, taking 
care to pass near the spot where his mate is lying concealed. The result may be imagined. 

It is not often the case that the Hyena will commit itself to so bold an action, for it is 
never known to be venturesome unless compelled by dire hunger. 

THE STRIPED HYENA is easily to be distinguished from its relations by the peculiar 
streaks from which it derives its name. The general color of the fur is a grayish-brown, 
diversified with blackish stripes, which run along the ribs, and upon the limbs. A large 
singular black patch extends over the front of the throat, and single black hairs are profusely 
scattered among the fur. When young, the stripes are more apparent than in adult age, and 
the little animal has something of a tigrine aspect about its face. The reason for this circum- 
stance is twofold ; firstly, because the groundwork of the fur is lighter than in the adult 
Hyena ; and secondly, because the stripes are proportionately much broader than in the full- 
grown animal, and therefore occupy more space. 

Although the Hyena is so cowardly an animal, yet, like all cowards, it becomes very bold 
when it finds that it can make its attack with impunity. Emboldened by numbers, and incited 
by fierce hunger, the Hyenas become the very pests of the native African towns ; roaming with 
impunity through the streets in search of the garbage that is plentifully flung from the houses, 
and conducting themselves with the greatest impudence. At nightfall the inhabitants are fain 
to close their doors firmly, for these dangerous brutes have been known to seize a sleeping 
man, and to kill him with the terrible grip of their powerful jaws. 

In proportion to its size, the Hyena possesses teeth and jaws of extraordinary strength, 
and between their tremendous fangs the thigh-bones of an ox fly in splinters with a savage 
crash that makes the spectator shudder. The skull of this animal is formed in a manner that 
at once points it out as belonging to a creature of enormous power. The "zygomatic" arches 
of bone that extend from the eyes to the ears are of exceeding strength and thickness ; and 
along the top of the head there runs a deep bony crest that projects beyond the brain cavity, 



i70 TtiE SPOTTED HYEXA. 

and serves for the attachment of the powerful muscles to which the animal owes its singular 
strength. So forcibly are these muscles exerted that the vertebrae of the neck are sometimes 
found to have united together "anchylosed" according to the professional term, on account 
of the violent tension to which they were continually subjected. 

The muzzle is but short, and the rough thorn-studded tongue is used, like that of the 
feline groups, for rasping every vestige of flesh from the bones of the prey. 

THE BROWN HYENA is so named on account of the color of its fur, which is of a blackish- 
brown tint, diversified with a lighter hue upon the neck and throat, and a few indistinctly 




STRIPED OR CRESTED HYEXA..-3j,eena striata. 

marked bands of a blackish-brown across the legs. The hair of this species is extremely long, 
and has a decided "set" backwards. 

Sometimes the brown hue of the fur is washed with a warmer tint of chesttmt, from which 
circumstance the animal has been termed "Crocuta rufa," the latter word signifying a ruddy 
hue, and being applied especially to hair. 

THE last of the three acknowledged species of Hyena is a larger and heavier built animal 
than either of the preceding species, from which it is easily distinguishable by the numerous 
and well-defined spots that are scattered over its body and limbs. The SPOTTED HYENA, or 
Tiger Wolf, as it is generally called, is, for a Hyena, a fierce nnd dangerous animal, invading 
the sheep-folds and cattle-pens under the cover of darkness, and doing in one night more mis- 
chief than can be remedied in the course of years. 



THE SPOTTED HYENA. 



177 



The spots, or rather the blotches, with which its fur is marked, are rather scanty upon the 
back and sides, but upon the legs are much more clearly marked, and are set closer together. 
The paws are nearly black. In the collection of the British Museum is a very young speci- 
men, which, curiously enough, is devoid of the spots that mark its adult fur, thereby present- 
ing a remarkable contrast to the animals which we have already mentioned. For example, the 
lion, which in mature age is of a uniform tawny hue, is covered when young with spots and 
stripes, which seem to partake equally of the tigrine and pardine character. The young puma, 
again, exhibits strongly marked spots of a deeper hue upon its pale tawny fur, and retains 
them for a considerable time. Indeed, even in the fur of an adult puma may be discerned the 




BKOrt'N HYENA.-^yio brunnea,. 

remnants of these maculations when the animal is placed in certain lights. The Striped Hyena, 
again, exhibits more decisive markings while young than after it has attained its full growth, 
and there are many other similar instances. These examples would seem to justify the idea, 
that the young of these and similar animals were deeper in their coloring than their parents. 
Yet, in direct opposition to this seeming rule, we find the young of the Spotted Hyena to 
possess a simple, ruddy, brown fur, similar in color to that of the Brown Hyena. It is worthy 
of notice, that whatever dark spots, stripes, or blotches exist upon an animal, whether in its 
young or its adult state, they may always be found either upon the back, following the line of 
the vertebra, or upon the legs. And even in those numerous cases where, as in the leopard, 
tiger, ocelot, and other striped and spotted animals, the dark markings are persistent through 
the entire life of the creature, these dark spots and stripes are always found to be more power- 
fully developed upon the spine and on the legs. I would here offer a suggestion : that we 
may find a key to this curious enigma in the fact, that the darker fur seems, in these animals. 



178 



THE SPOTTED HYENA. 



to accompany the chief voluntary nerves, and therefore to become more conspicuous upon the 
line of the all-important nervous column that runs along the back, and of the great branch 
nerves which supply power and energy to the limbs. It will be borne in mind that the com- 
plicated ganglionic system of nerves that intertwines itself among the vital organs, and is 
woven into such manifold reticulations on the "epigastrium," is of a different character from 
the round cord -like nerves of motion, and is found mostly in those parts of the body where the 
fur is palest. 

The Tiger Wolf is celebrated for the strange unearthly sounds which it utters when under 
the influence of strong excitement. The animal is often called the " Laughing Hyena " on 
account of the maniacal, mirthless, hysterical laugh which it pours forth, accompanying these 




=;--.- r 

SPOTTED HYENA, OR TIGER WOLF. Crania maeulata. 



- 



horrid sounds with the most absurd gestures of body and limbs. During the time that the 
creature is engaged in uttering these wild fearful peals of laughter it dances about in a state 
of ludicrously frantic excitement, running backward^ and forwards, rising on its hind legs, 
and rapidly gyrating on those members, nodding its head repeatedly to the ground ; and, in 
fine, performing the most singular antics with wonderful rapidity. 

The ancients, who had the vaguest possible ideas of the Hyena, and considered it to be as 
fearful a foe to humanity as the lion, thought that the animal was accustomed to decoy stray 
travellers to its den by imitating the laughter of human revellers, and then to kill and devour 
those who had been deceived by the simulated revelry. Besides the ordinary teeth and claws 
with which a Hyena was furnished, these ancient authors supplied the Hyena with two addi- 
tional rows of teeth in each jaw, and a supply of sharp darts at the extremity of the tail. The 
triple row of teeth was evidently borrowed from the shark, which is indeed a kind of marine 
Hyena, and the caudal darts were clearly adopted from the skin of the porcupine. 

' The Hyena is too vexatious a neighbor not to be persecuted, and frequently falls a victim 
to the treacherous spring-gun, in spite of the benefits which he confers on mankind by his 
unfailing energy in devouring every scrap of eatable food. 



THE CAPE HYENA. 179 

To set a gun for the purpose of Hyena shooting is an easy matter, and is managed as 
follows. The loaded musket is fixed horizontally to a couple of posts, about the height of a 
Hyena's head. A string is then fastened to the trigger, one end of which is passed behind the 
trigger guard, or through a ring placed for the purpose, and the other is firmly tied to a piece 
of meat, which is hung on the muzzle of the gun. When a passing Hyena, prowling about in 
search of prey, is attracted by the meat, he seizes it between his teeth, and thus draws the 
trigger of the gun, lodging the bullet in his head. Tenacious of life as is the Hyena, he falls 
dead on the spot. 

In order to attract the notice of the Hyenas, a piece of putrid flesh is dragged along the 
ground so as to leave an odoriferous trail leading to the treacherous weapon. 

Taught by experience, the Hyenas have become so suspicious of an object which they do 
not understand, and to which they are not accustomed, that the very sight of a piece of string 
alarms them, and guards them from self-immolation in many a trap. So the farmers, who 
chiefly set these explosive traps, match the creature's cunning by their own superior intellect, 
and substitute the stems of creeping plants for the hempen cord or leathern strings. These 
objects are regarded without suspicion, and by their assistance the outwitted Hyena is 
laid low. 

In chasing living animals the Hyena employs the same caution that characterizes his 
ordinary proceedings. When they seize their prey the Hyenas carefully avoid those spots 
where the affrighted animal might reach them with its hoofs, teeth, or horns. They never 
seem to spring on the animals' s neck, but hang on to its flanks, dragging it to the ground by 
the mingled weight of their body and the pain of the wound. Many veteran oxen and horses 
are deeply scarred in the flanks by the teeth of the Hyena, which has made its attack, but has 
been scared away or shaken off. 

The eyes of the Hyenas are singularly repulsive in their expression, being round, dull, 
and almost meaningless. 

There are man-eaters among the Hyenas, and these hominivorous animals are greatly 
dreaded, on account of the exceeding stealthiness and craft with which they achieve their 
object. 

They very seldom endeavor to destroy the adult men and women, but limit their attacks 
to the young and defenceless children. On dark nights the Hyena is greatly to be feared, for 
he can be guided to his prey by the light of the nocturnal fires which do not daunt an animal 
that is possessed by this fearful spirit of destructiveness, and at the same time can make his 
cautious approaches unseen. As the family are lying at night, buried in sleep, the Hyena 
prowls round the inclosure, and on finding a weak spot the animal pushes aside the wattle 
bands of which the fence is made, and quietly creeps through the breach. 

Between the human inhabitants and the fence, the cattle are picketed by night, and would 
fall an easy prey to the Hyena if he chose to attack them. But he slips cautiously amid the 
sleeping beasts, and makes his way to the spot where lies a young child, wrapped in deep 
slumber. Employing the same silent caution, the Hyena quietly withdraws the sleeping child 
from the protecting cloak of its mother, and makes its escape with its prey before it can be 
intercepted. 

With such marvellous caution does this animal act, that it has often been known to 
remove an infant from the house without even giving the alarm. 

It has already been mentioned that the Hyena is in no wise fastidious in its diet, and that 
it will habitually consume the most indigestible of substances. Yet there seems to be some- 
thing capricious about the function of assimilating food, which, even in the Hyena, is subject 
to remarkable fluctuations. To one of these animals, after a fast of thirty-six hours, a dead 
rat was given, which, as might be expected, it immediately swallowed. In fifteen minutes, 
the creature rejected the skin and bones -of the rat, though the same animal would have eaten 
with impunity the heavy bones or tough hide of a veteran ox, or even would have made a 
satisfactory meal on a few yards of leathern strap. 

The following anecdotes of the Cape Hyena and its habits are taken from the MS. of 
Captain Drayson, R.A., to which reference has already been made. 



180 THE CAPE HYENA. 

"THIS animal is very common in South Africa, and being cunning, and rarely venturing 
out by day, is likely to be longer a denizen of the inhabited districts than many other less 
formidable creatures. The height at the shoulder is about two feet six inches, and falls 
towards the rump ; extreme length, about five feet ten inches. The head is short and very 
broad ; muzzle and nose black ; general color, brown, irregularly blotched with circular black 
spots. The tail sixteen inches ; hairs on the back of the neck and withers long, forming a 
reversed mane. 

"The proper duty of this creature appears to be that of scavenger, and is, with regard to 
the beasts, what the vulture is to the birds ; but owing to its great appetite, and naturally 
voracious disposition, it does not appear contented with merely the carrion which it might 
procure, but employs its strength and speed in destroying the flocks and herds of the colonists, 
or in killing such antelopes as it is enabled to capture. 

"If this animal possessed courage in proportion to its strength it would be a very formi- 
dable opponent to man, and, as it hunts frequently in packs, might test the skill and boldness 
of the hunter ; but, fortunately, its principal characteristic is cowardice. 

"Owing to the custom prevalent amongst many of the South African tribes of exposing 
their dead to be devoured by beasts of prey, the Hyena has acquired the taste for human flesh, 
and therefore cases are on record of the huts of Kaffirs having been entered by it, and the 
children carried off and devoured. Most ably does the Hyena perform his functions in the 
economy of nature. Whilst the lion selects the choice parts of a slain animal, and the vulture 
those which he cannot eat, the Hyena comes and finishes hide, bones, and other remnants 
which have been too tough for the digestion of the others. 

"It appears to be a law of nature that those animals which take the shortest time to fill 
their stomachs can go the longest time without eating. For example, the horse and the ox 
will take from half an hour to one hour and a half to feed, and they will both suffer if they 
are kept more than a day without food. The wolf and the dog can make a very satisfactory 
meal in about two minutes, and either can remain two or three days without suffering much 
for want of a meal. We may even remark that this instinctive mode of eating food is 
prevalent among human beings. 

"The rough ploughboy, whose meals are limited in number to one or two daily, and are 
composed of coarse bread and fat bacon, swallows in a few minutes these articles of food in 
great morsels which he can hardly force into his mouth, and which he scarcely takes the 
trouble to masticate. The food which is thus taken into the system will repel the feeling of 
faintness consequent on an empty stomach much more than if it were leisurely eaten and 
properly subjected to the action of the teeth. This result is only natural, for the better food 
is masticated, the sooner is it digested. 

"The Hyena in the Zoological Gardens appears well acquainted with this fact, for on one 
occasion, being anxious to see how easily he crushed a huge bone of beef, I took my station in 
front of his cage, just before feeding time. After the usual laugh had been extracted from crowd 
and Hyena, a leg of beef was forced under the bars, and was seized by the hysterical scavenger. 
A few strips of flesh were torn off and swallowed, and then there remained about nine inches 
of bone and sinew ; instead of crashing these into little pieces, and then swallowing it, as I 
expected, the wise animal just turned the bone 'head on,' took it in his jaws, made a face, con- 
torted his body, and that solid mass was deposited in the yawning sarcophagus. The crowd 
laughed and dispersed, but did not remark what experience had probably taught this prisoner, 
viz., that when he swallowed the bone whole he was not so famished by the next day's dinner- 
hour as when he ground it up into small pieces. This Hyena, having but little variety of 
occupation for its mind, had probably devoted much patient thought to the adjustment of 
this fact. 

The Hyena usually lives in holes, or amongst rocks, in retired localities, and when the sun 
has set he comes forth and searches for food. He then utters a long melancholy howl, which 
finishes with a sort of bark, and occasionally that fiend-like laugh which, when heard in the 
desert, amid scenes of the wildest description, calls up in the imagination of the solitary 
traveller the forms of some spectral ghouls searching for their unnatural feast. 



THE CAPE HYENA. 181 

"The smell of the Hyena is so rank and offensive that no animal, other than of its own 
species, will come near the carcass. Dogs, when they come across the scent of the Hyena, at 
once show signs of fear ; they will scarcely leave their master, and, with bristling manes and 
wild looks, examine every inch of ground over which they pass. 

" The spoor of the Hyena is somewhat similar to, biat larger than that of the dog ; the nails 
not being retractile, usually leave an impression upon soft ground, which is not the case with 
the leopard. The inside toe of each foot is smaller than the outside, and the footmarks can be 
easily recognized and distinguished from those of dogs. 

"During one warm afternoon, whilst riding over the grassy slopes on the banks of the 
Umganie River, near Pietermaritzberg, and attended by a cunning old pointer, I saw the 
dog stand on the brink of an old water-ccurse, and bark fiercely at some object which appeared 
to be stationed below. I knew that the bark and the expression which accompanied it was 
the dog-language for 'there's something here,' so I dismounted, and walked towards the dyke. 
As I approached, the dog, with an aspect of alarm, sprang back, and then rushed forward 
again. From having had several impleasant rencontres with poisonous snakes I had become 
very cautious, and advanced so slowly that I was only enabled to catch a glimpse of a Hyena, 
which, upon seeing me, immediately retreated into an opening. 

' ' I descended the steep bank and found a large hole, which appeared to be the entrance to 
a subterraneous passage, by which the water obtained an exit. I collected a few sticks and 
some long grass, which I placed over the entrance, and then endeavored to trace the course of 
this passage, to see if there were another opening. 

"About fifty yards from the first I found a second hole, which evidently led to the first ; 
neither of these was large enough to admit me, and the dog could not have done much good 
even had lie entered ; but he appeared to have a great objection to approach too near to the den. 

"After some consideration, I determined to cut a quantity of the dry grass, to fill one 
opening with it, set it on fire, and then to watch near the other hole. This plan failed to 
unearth the creature, so I reversed the arrangement, but with no better success. 

" At length I fired several bullets into the opening, trusting that a stray shot might strike 
near the Hyena, and that it would drive him into open ground. The sinuosities of the passage 
prevented the possibility of a fair shot. 

" Whilst thus engaged, the dog suddenly barked and dashed off. Upon reaching the top 
of the bank, I saw the Hyena scrambling over the hills, closely followed by my dog. I 
mounted my pony, but the pace was too good for him. I, however, held the Hyena in view for 
a considerable time as it passed over the successive ridges, but the pointer soon gave up his 
pursuit. 

"I think that when the ordinary game is driven away by sporting men, or killed by 
sportsmen, Hyena-hunting with a pack of hounds would be found very good sport, and 
perhaps we should have Hyena-hunters sneering at fox-hunters as much as some fox-hunters 
now do at ' thistle- whippers.' 

"The Hyena is frequently caught in a trap of simple construction. Stakes are driven 
into the ground so as to form an inclosure, and a hanging door of stone, sustained by a cord, 
closes the aperture when it falls. A bait is placed at the farther end of the trap, and the 
whole contrivance is like a large mouse-trap. When caught, the Hyena is despatched with 
spears and clubs, or is shot. 

"The traveller is frequently disturbed during the night by the daring Hyenas, who will 
sneak about his wagons in search of leather straps, trektows, and other savory provender ; 
and if a pair of shoes or some leather breeches happened to be left in an exposed situation 
during the dark hours, they may be considered lost without redemption, for such a supper 
would be an unlooked-for luxury by the gaunt brute." 

One of these animals was discovered in a state of sad laceration. The two fore-paws were 
gone, and the legs themselves had been frightfully torn, evidently by some powerful beast 
of prey. The natives said that the Hyena had been thus punished by the lion for interfering 
with his arrangements, and stated, moreover, that the lion frequently corrected the forward 



182 



AARD WOLF. 



conduct of the Hyena, by biting off every one of its paws. This statement, curious as it may 
seem, was corroborated by several experienced Ininters. 

Although in former days the Hyena was supposed to be a wholly untamable animal, later 
experiments have shown that it is nearly as tractable and affectionate as a dog when it has 
the benefit of similar treatment. It has been known to accompany its master as familiarly as 
any dog, and to recognize him with airs of joy after a lengthened absence. The potency which 
some persons exert over animal natures is most remarkable. It may be that such persons pour 
much love upon all things, and therefore upon the animals with which they come in contact. 
So love, creating love, which is the highest gift of God, and the sum of His divine attributes, 
calls forth in animals the highest attributes of their nature, and through this higher quality, 
develops their intellectual capacities. 



CIVETS. 

IT is generally the case with the greater divisions of animals that there exists certain 
intermediate forms of animal life, which seem to be rather higher than the one division, and 

lower than the other, being, in fact, transi- 
tional forms between the higher and the 
lower groups. Thus the Colugo, or Flying 
Lemur, is an intermediate form between 
the monkey and bats, and the AAKD WOLF 
is intermediate between the hyenas and 
the Civets, belonging, however, more to 
the latter than the fonner group of ani- 
mals. It is much smaller than the hyenas, 
but larger than the Civets and genetts, 
and, indeed, has indifferently been called 
a hyena, a jackal, or a Civet. 

The form of the Aard Wolf much 
resembles that of the hyena, the fore- 
quarters being powerful and well devel- 
oped, and the hinder quarters low and 
sloping. The general aspect of the creati n v 
is very similar to that of the hyena, for, in 
addition to the hyenine sloping back and 
weak hind legs, the fur is. rough, coarse, 
and colored in a manner not unlike that 
of the striped hyena. The tail is very large 
in proportion to the size of the animal, and 
is thickly covered with long bushy hair, 
black at the extremity, and blackish-gray 
AABD woLF.-pmteia erittatue. on the other portions of that member. The 

back of the neck and the shoulders are 

furnished with a thick bristling mane, which it can erect when excited, and it then resembles a 
minature striped hyena. 

The claws of the fore-feet are sturdy, and firmly attached to the paws, so as to serve their 
proper use of digging. The Aard Wolf is an admirable excavator, and digs for itself a deep 
burrow, where it lies concealed during the day, buried in sleep at the bottom of its mine. 
From this habit of burrowing in the earth, the creature has derived its title of "Aard or 
Earth Wolf." 

A curious mode of domestic arrangement is carried out by these animals. Several indi- 
viduals seem to unite in forming a common habitation. Several deep burrows are dug, having 
their common termination in a small chamber, where three or four Aard Wolves take up their 
residence. Whether each animal digs and uses its own burrow, or whether the tunnels, as 




THE CIVET. 



183 



well as the central chamber, are common to the inhabitants, is not known. It seems, however, 
to be probable that such a mode of procedure would be adopted, and that each member of the 
little community appropriated to itself the tunnel which its own paws had dug. 

The color of the Aard Wolf is gray, with a decided tinge of yellow. Several broad bands 
of darker fur are seen on the sides, and the paws are quite black. The hair of this animal 
is of two kinds, a thick, short, woolly coating, which lies next to the skin, and a longer and 
coarser set of hairs, which protrude through the woolly coating, and hang downwards to some 
length. The adult Aard Wolf is about three feet six inches in total length, the tail being 
about a foot long. 

The food of this animal is similar to that of the hyena, and consists chiefly of carrion and 
small animals. It does not disdain to make an occasional meal on insects, for a number of 
ants were discovered in the stomach of an Aard Wolf that had been killed. 




CIVET. Viverra civetta. 



THE CIVET, sometimes, but wrongly, called the Civet Cat, is a native of Northern Africa, 
and is found plentifully in Abyssinia, where it is eagerly sought on account of the peculiarly 
scented substance which is secreted in certain glandular pouches. This Civet perfume was 
formerly considered as a most valuable medicine, and could only be obtained at a very high 
price ; but in the present day it has nearly gone out of fashion as a drug, and holds its place in 
commerce more as a simple perfume than as a costly panacea. 

In this animal we may trace a decided resemblance to the Aard Wolf, both in the shape 
of the body and in the markings. 

But the Civet bears itself in a very different manner, having more of the weasel than of 
the hyenine nature, and the coloring of the fur is of a much richer character than that of 
the previously mentioned animal. 

It is nearly as large as the Aard Wolf, its total length being about three feet six inches, 
of which the tail occupies nearly one-third. Along the back, and even on part of the tail, runs 
a boldly marked crest or mane, which can be erected by the animal at pleasure, or can lie 
nearly, but not quite, evenly with the fur. 

The substance which is so prized on account of its odoriferous qualities is secreted in 
a double pouch, which exists under the abdomen, close to the insertion of the tail. As this 



184 THE ZIBET H. 

curious production is of some value in commerce, the animal which furnishes the precious 
secretion is too valuable to be killed for the sake of its scent-pouch, and is kept in a state 
of captivity, so as to afford a continual supply of the odoriferous material. 

The mode by which the Civet perfume is removed from the animal is very ingenious. 
The animals which belong to this group are very quick and active in their movements, and, 
being furnished with sharp teeth and strong jaws, are dangerous beasts to handle. As may be 
imagined, the Civet resents the rough treatment that must be used in order to effect the desired 
purpose, and snaps and twists about with such lithe and elastic vigor that no one could 
venture to lay a hand on it without sufficient precaution. So, when the time arrives for the 
removal of the perfume, the Civet is put into a long and very narrow cage, so that it cannot 
turn itself ixrand. A bone or horn spoon is then introduced through an opening, and the 
odoriferous secretion is scraped from its pouch with perfect impunity. This end achieved, 
the plundered animal is released from its strait durance, and is permitted a respite until the 
supply of perfume shall be re-formed. 

As the Civet might be inconvenienced by the continual secretion of this substance, Nature 
supplies a simple remedy, and the perfume falls from the pouch in pieces about the size of an 
ordinary nut. The interior of each half of the pouch is sufficiently capacious to hold a large 
almond. As the civet is formed, it is pressed through very small orifices into the pouch, so 
that if it is examined before it has merged itself into a uniform mass, it is something like fine 
vermicelli in appearance. The interior of the pouch is thickly coated with fine hairs, and 
entirely covered with the minute orifices or pores through which the perfume exudes. The 
creature is able to compress the pouch at will. 

The Civet seems to be a very sleepy animal, especially during the daytime, and to be with 
difficulty aroused from its somnolence. 

While it remains in the pouch, the "civet" is rather thick and unctuous, something like 
butter in texture. 

The use which this curious secretion subserves in the economy of the creature is very 
dubious. It is not sufficiently liquid to be ejected against its pursuers, and so to repel them 
by its odor, as we know to be the case with the celebrated skunk of America, and other 
animals. It may be, that this substance can be re-absorbed into the system, and thus serve an 
important purpose ; but whatever its use may be, it is clear that it serves some worthy object, 
and that therefore the production of this secretion is deserving the attention of those who have 
the opportunity of making practical experiments. 

The claws of the Civet are only partially retractile. The eyes are of a dull brown, very 
protuberant, and with a curiously changeable pupil, which by day exhibits a rather broad 
linear pupil, and glows at night with a brilliant emerald refulgence. The body is curiously 
shaped, being considerably flattened on the sides, as if the animal had been pressed between 
two boards. 

Altogether, the Civet is a very handsome animal, the bold dashing of black and white 
upon its fur having a very rich effect. The face has a curious appearance, owing to the white 
fur which fringes the lips, and the long pure white whisker hairs of the lips, and eyes. When 
young, it is almost wholly black, with the exception of the white whisker hairs and the white 
fur of the lips. It seems to be an irritable animal, and, when angered, vents its indignation 
by fierce growls. 

UPON the Asiatic continent, and its islands, the place of the civet is taken by several of the 
Viverrine tribe, one of which, the ZIBETH, bears a close resemblance to its African relative. 

The Zibeth is a native of many parts of Asia, being found in China, India, the Philippines, 
Nepal, and other localities. It may be distinguished from the civet by the greater amount of 
white which is found in the fur, especially about the neck and throat, by the shorter hair, 
and by the greater number of dark rings upon the tail. The tail of the Zibeth is not so largely 
marked with black at its extremity as that of the civet. The mane or crest which runs along 
the back is comparatively small. The spots which mark the body are rather indistinctly out- 
lined, and the general tint of the fur seems to be paler than that of the civet. 



THE RASSE. 



185 



It is furnished with a musk-secreting pouch like that of the African civet. It is a lethargic 
animal in captivity, and even in a wild state passes the day in sleep, and only seeks its food 
after dark. Its usual diet is composed of birds and the smaller mammalia, but it will also 
eat various fruits, especially those of a sweet nature. In size it nearly equals the civet. In 
captivity it is a gentle creature, and is so completely tamed by the natives of the countries 
where it is found that it inhabits the house like a domestic cat and employs itself in similar 
useful pursuits. 

THE animal which is kno\vn by 
the native name of TANGALTJNG, bears 
some resemblance to the preceding- 
animals. The black markings, how- 
ever, are more distinct, and along the 
direction of the spine the fur is most 
deeply black. On the lower part of 
the throat and neck are three cu- 
riously shaped blark bands, very 
wide in the middle and very narrow 
at each end, the central band being 
several times wider than the others. 

The length of this animal is two 
feet six inches, the head measuring 
nearly seven inches in length, and the 
tail about eleven inches. The head 
is rather wide and rounded, and is 
suddenly contracted towards the nose, 
so as to form a rather short muzzle. 
The tail is nearly cylindrical, and 
does not taper so much as tliat of 
the zibeth, and the body is furnished 
with a close downy covering of soft 
hairs next the skin. It is partly to 
this woolly hair that the cylindrical 
outline of the tail is owing. The 
Tangalung is a native of Sumatra. 

THE RASSE is spread over a large 
extent of country, being found in 
Java, various parts of India, Singa- 
pore, Nepal, and other localities. The color of its fur is a warm grayish-brown, upon which 
are placed eight parallel lines of elongated dark spots. The dark rings which mark the 
tail pass entirely round that member, while those which are found on the tail of the zibeth 
reach little more than half the circumference of the tail. The texture of the fur is rather 
coarse and stiff, and it is not very thickly set. The ears of this animal approach each other 
very closely at their base, being only separated by the space of an inch, whereas there is an 
interval of two inches between the ears of the zibeth. 

In the Javanese language, the word "Rasa," from which the name Rasse is taken, signi- 
fies a sensation of the palate or the nostrils, so that it may be applied to the senses of smelling 
or tasting. It generally refers to odoriferous substances. 

The perfume which is furnished by the Rasse is secreted in a double pouch, like that of 
the civet, and is removed from the animal in precisely the same manner. It is highly valued 
by the Javanese, who imbue their persons, their rooms, and their garments so strongly with 
this substance that a European nostril is grievously affected at the all-pervading odor. The 
substance itself is termed Dedes. 




ZIBETH. Vivtrra zitetha. 



186 



THE DELUNDUNG. 



As far as is known of the disposition of this animal, it appears to be savage and irritable, 
bearing captivity very impatiently, and never losing its wild ferocious nature. It is a very 




RASSE. 



imliea. 



destructive creature among the animals on which it feeds, and on account of its long sharp 
teeth can inflict a severe bite when it is angry. In captivity it generally feeds on eggs, various 

birds, and meat and fish, and a little rice. The 
natives say that salt is a poison to it. 

THE pretty animal which is represented 
in the accompanying engraving is remarkably 
rich in coloring, as well as graceful in form. 
The DELUNDTTXG is a native of Java and 
Malacca, and is destitute of the scent-pouches 
which are so curious a characteristic of the 
preceding Viverrine aniiuals. It is not at all 
a common animal, and its habits are not very 
clearly known. 

The general color of the fur is a moderately 
deep gray, and upon the back are drawn four 
very large, saddle-shaped stripes of an exceed- 
ingly dark and rich brown, extremely broad 
on the spine, and becoming veiy narrow on 
the ribs. .Along the sides run two rows or 
chains of similarly colored markings, the up- 
per band being occasionally merged in the 
broad stripes that cross the back. The lower 
band extends from the cheeks to the flanks. 
The legs are finely spotted, and the tail is 
covered with alternate rings of gray and dark 
brown, the rings becoming more distinct 
towards the point of the tail. 

The creature has been termed Prionodon, 
or "Saw-tooth," on account of the curiously 
shaped teeth, which present a jagged, or saw-like appearance. Its limbs are very slender 
and delicately formed. Although a scarce animal in every part of Java, it is especially so 
in any part of the island except the eastern end, where it is found among the thick forests 
with which that locality is densely clothed. 




DELUNDUNG. Prionodon graettls. 



THE GENETTS. 



187 



GENETTS. 

A SMALL, but rather important, group of the Viverrine animals, is that the members of 
which are known by the name of the GENETTS. These creatures are all nocturnal in their 
habits, as are the civets, and, like those animals, can live on a mixture of animal and vegetable 
food, or even on vegetable food alone. The Genetts possess the musk -secreting apparatus, 
which much resembles the pouch of the civet, although in size it is not so large, nor does it 
secrete so powerfully smelling a substance as that of the civets. The secreting organ, although 
ir resembles a pouch, is not so in reality, being simply composed of two glands, united to each 
other by a strip of skin. 

The best known of these animals is the COMMON, or BLOTCHED GENETT, an inhabitant of 
Southern Africa and of various other parts of the world, being found even in the south of 







BLOTCHED GENETT. Genetta vulgaria. 

France. It is a very beautiful and graceful animal, and never fails to attract attention from 
an observer. The general color of the fur is gray, with a slight admixture of yellow. Upon 
this groundwork dark patches are lavishly scattered, and the full furry tail is covered 
with alternate bands of black and white. The muzzle would be entirely black but for a 
bold patch of white fur on the upper lip, and a less decidedly white mark by the nose. The 
feet are supplied with retractile claws, so that the animal can deal a severe blow with 
its outstretched talons, or climb trees with the same ease and rapidity which is found in the 
cat tribe. 

Another pretty species of this genus is the PALE, or SENEGAL GEXETT. 

The fur of this animal is whiter than that of the Blotched Genett, and the markings 
are rather differently aiTanged. Along the spine a nearly unbroken dark stripe is drawn, 
and upon the neck and shoulders the spots have a tendency to merge into each other 
and to fonn stripes, extending from the head along the neck and over the shoulders. On 



188 



THE CACOMIXLE. 



each side of the face is a bold black patch. The hinder legs are quite black at the ankle 
joint. 

These animals are very susceptible of domestication, and in various Eastern districts are 
as familiar inhabitants of the house as the domestic cat. Like the house cat, the Genett 
signalizes itself in the destructive wars which it wages against rats and mice, being especially 
fitted for such a pursuit by its active limbs and lithe form. The Genetts seem, when wild, 
to prefer the low grounds in the vicinity of rivers to the higher forest lands, and are there 
captured. 

They are not nearly so large as the civet, being only five inches in height at the shoulder, 
and about twenty inches in total length. The eye is of a light brown color, and rather pro- 
tuberant. The young of the Pale Genett has 
the spots of a light chestnut instead of the 
deep blackish-brown of the adult animal. 

THE AMEK GENETT, an inhabitant of Abys- 
sinia, is a boldly and handsomely marked crea- 
ture. The general color of its fur is a darkish 
yellow gray, on which are placed a number of 
well-defined dark spots. These markings run 
in fine regular lines, being larger nearing the 
spine, and becoming smaller as they recede 
therefrom. The tail is boldly and equally 
covered with rings of the same dark fur as 
that of the spots on the body. 

VERY different from the Genetts in its 
appearance is the CACOMIXLE,* although it is 
closely allied to them. 

It is remarkable as being a Mexican rep- 
resentative of the Genett group of animals, 
although it can hardly be considered as a true 
Genett or a true Mungous. The color of this 
animal is a light uniform dun, a dark bar being 
placed like a collar over the back of the neck. 
In some specimens this bar is double, and in 
all it is so narrow that when the animal throws 
its head backwards the dark line is lost in the 
lighter fur. Along the back runs a broad, sin- 
gular, darkish stripe. The tail is ringed something like that of the Ringed Lemur, and is 
very full. The term Cacomixle is a Mexican word, and the animal is sometimes called by a 
still stranger name, "Tepemaxthalon." The scientific title "Bassaris" is from the Greek, 
and signifies a fox. 

* Note 'by the Editor. The Cacomixle during several years after its discovery was erroneously placed in the system 
of nature. Its resemblance to individuals of the group of Civets led to its being regarded as allied to them. As there 
are no other animals of this family in America, it was regarded as singularly unique. Late examination of its anatomy 
has led to its recognition as a member of the Raccoon family, an American race. Its general appearance is quite like 
that of the common Raccoon ; indeed, the Mexican non-scientific people have been wiser than our naturalists, for they call 
it the Ring-tailed Raccoon. In California and, Mexico it is tamed by the miners and ranchmen, and it in most respects 
becomes as domesticated as a house cat. It is by them called the Mountain Cat. It is an efficient mouser ; is very playful, 
and seems to have a choice for the abode of man. It is nocturnal in habit, and produces three young at a birth. The food of 
the Bassaris is much the same as that of the Raccoons : small animals, insects, nuts, etc. It finds a home in holes of trees, 
especially in the Pecan tree, where it finds abundance of food in its nuts, and has an especial fondness in remaining on or 
about one tree. Like some other bright creatures, it selects a rotten knot on the under side of a limb for its nest, thereby 
finding security from rain. 




CACOMIXLE. assaris aetuta. 



THE ICHNEUMONS. 



189 



ICHNEUMONS. 

THE two animals which are seen in this engraving are closely allied to each other, but are 
placed in different genera. The left-hand figure represents the creature which is known by the 
name of the BANDED MUNGOUS, and which is an inhabitant of Africa. It is a small animal, 
being about the size of a very large water-rat, and is peculiarly quick and energetic in its 
movements. 

The color of the Banded Mungous is a blackish grizzle, with a chestnut tinge pervading 
the hind quarters and the tail. Under the chin the fur is of a very light fawn color. Across 
the back are drawn a row of darker lines, boldly marked towards the spine, but fading imper- 
ceptibly into the lighter tinted fur of the sides. 

In habits it is singularly brisk and lively, ever restlessly in motion, and accompanying its 
movements with a curious and most unique sound, something like the croak of a raven. 




13ANUEU MUNGOl'f. MUMJUS ju,--f 



{., AKANCi AN. -Btrpettt - javtiiticus. 



When excited it pours out a succession of quick chattering sounds, and when its feelings are 
extremely touched it utters sharp screams of rage. If its companions should cross its path in 
its temper it snaps and spits at them like an angry cat, and makes such very good use of its 
teeth that it leaves the marks of its passion for the remainder of the victim's life. Some of 
these animals, which have lived for a considerable time in the same cage, have lost a large 
portion of their tails by the teeth of their comrades.. Still it is very playful, and sports with 
its companions in a curiously kitten -like manner. 

It is extremely active with its fore-paws, armed as they are with their long claws, and 
scratches in a very absurd and amusing manner at anything that may take its attention. It is 
a very agile climber, running over the bars of its cage and up the tree-branches with great ease 
and rapidity, and can spring upon an object from some distance, and with admirable accuracy 
of aim. The eye of this animal is of a light brown, and very brilliant. 

THE EIGHT-HAND figure upon the same engraving represents the GAKAXGAX, or Javanese 
Ichneumon. As is evident by the name, it is an inhabitant of Java. In size it equals the last 
mentioned animal. Its color is nearly uniform, and consists of a bright rich chestnut on the 
body, and a lighter fawn color on the head, throat, and under parts of the body. 

This little animal is found in great numbers inhabiting the teak forests, where it finds 
ample subsistence in the snakes, birds, and small quadrupeds. The natives assert whether 



190 



THE URVA, OK CRAB-EATING ICHNEUMON. 



truly or not that when it attacks a snake it employs a ruse similar to that which is often 
used by a horse when it objects to being saddled. It is said to puff up its body, and to induce 
the snake to twine itself round its inflated person. It then suddenly contracts itself, slips 
from the reptile's coils, and darts upon its neck. There is some foundation for this assertion 
in the fact that the G-aranguii, in common with others of the same genus, does possess the 
power of inflating and contracting its body with great rapidity ; so much so, indeed, that 
during life it is not easy to measure the creature. 

Although it is tolerably susceptible of education, it is rarely kept tame by the natives, 
because it is liable to occasional fits of rage, and when thus excited can inflict very painful 
wounds with its sharp teeth. Moreover, it is too fond of poultry to be trusted near the hen- 
roosts. 

THE URVA is easily distinguished from the preceding and the following animals by the 
narrow stripe of long white hairs that runs from the angle of the mouth to the shoulders, con- 
trasting very decidedly with the grayish-brown tint of the rest of the fur. Some very faintly 




URVA, OK CRAB-EATING ICHNEUMON. HerpestcJs eananrorw. 

marked darker bars are drawn on the body, and the tail is marked with three or four faint 
transverse bars. This member is more bushy at the base than towards the extremity. The 
feet and legs are of a uniform dark tint. 

THE ICHNEUMONS appear to be the very reptiles of the mammalian animals, in form, 
habits, and action, irresistibly reminding the spectator of the serpent. Their sharp and 
pointed snout, narrow body, short legs, and flexible form, permit them to insinuate themselves 
into marvellously small crevices, and to seek and destroy their prey in localities where it 
might well deem itself secure. There are many species of the genus Herpestes, or "creeper," 
one of which, the Garangan, has already been mentioned. 

The common Ichneumon, or Pharaoh's Rat, as it is popularly but most improperly termed, 
is plentifully found in Egypt, where it plays a most useful part in keeping down the numbers 
of the destructive quadrupeds and the dangerous reptiles. Small and insignificant as this 
animal appears, it is a most dangerous foe to the huge crocodile, feeding largely upon its eggs, 
and thus preventing the too rapid increase of these fierce and fertile reptiles. Snakes, rats, 
lizards, mice, and various birds, fall a prey to this Ichneumon, which will painfully track its 
prey to its hiding-place, and wait patiently for hours until it makes its appearance, or will 
quietly creep up to the unsuspecting animal, and flinging itself boldly upon it destroy it by 
rapid bites with its long sharp teeth. 



THE MOON a US. 



191 



Taking advantage of these admirable qualities, the ancient Egyptians were wont tt. tame 
the Ichneumon, and permit it the free range of their houses, and on account of its habits paid 
it divine honors as an outward emblem of the Deity considered with regard to His sin-destroy- 
ing mercy. There is much more in the symbol ization of those old Egyptians than we deem, 
and they looked deeper into the character and the causes of outward forms than we generally 
suppose. Although the diminutive size of this creature renders it an impotent enemy to so 
large and well mailed a reptile as the crocodile, yet it causes the destruction of innumerable 
crocodiles annually by breaking and devouring their eggs. The egg of the crocodile is 
extremely small, when the size of the adult reptile is taken into consideration, so that the 
Ichneumon can devour several of them at a meal. 

The color of this animal is a brown, plentifully grizzled with gray, each hair being ringed 
alternately with gray and brown. The total length of the animal is about three feet three 




inches, the tail measuring about eighteen inches. The scent-gland of the Ichneumon is very 
large in proportion to the size of its bearer, but the substance which it secretes has not as yet 
been held of any commercial value. The claws are partially retractile. 

THE MOONGUS, sometimes called the INDIAN ICIINKTMOX, is, in its Asiatic home, as use- 
ful an animal as the Egyptian Ichneumon in Africa. In that country it is an indefatigable 
destroyer of rats, mice, and the various reptiles, and is on that account highly valued and 
protected. Being, as are Ichneumons in general, extremely cleanly in manners, and very 
susceptible of domestication, it is kept tame in many families, and does good service in keeping 
the houses clear of the various animated pests that render an Indian town a disagreeable and 
sometimes a dangerous residence. 

In its customs it very much resembles the cat, and is gifted with all the inquisitive nature 
of that animal. When first introduced into a new locality it runs about the place, insinuating 
itself into every hole and corner, and sniffing curiously at every object with which it comes in 
contact. Even in its wild state it exhibits the same qualities, and by a careful observer may 
be seen questing about in search of its food, exploring every little tuft of vegetation that comes 
in its way, running over every rocky projection, and thrusting its sharp snout into every 
hollow. Sometimes it buries itself entirely in some little hole, and when it returns to light 
drags with it a mole, a rat, or some such creature, which had vainly sought security in its 
narrow domicile. 

\Vlule eating, the Ichneumon is very tetchy in it.s temper, and will very seldom endure 
an interruption of any kind. In order to secure perfect quiet while taking its meals, it 



192 



Till; MEERKAT. 



generally carries the food into the most secluded hiding-place that it can find, and then com- 
mences its meal in solitude and darkness. The color of the Moongus is a gray liberally frecked 
with darker hairs, so as to produce a very pleasing mixture of tints. It is not so large an 
animal as its Egyptian relative. 




THJi MOONOnS. Herpe4ts giiteu*. 

THE grizzled markings upon the fur of the NYULA are of a singularly beautiful character, 
and form a closely set zigzag pattern over the entire surface of the head, body, and limbs. 

The pattern is very like that which is seen in some woven fabrics, or fine basket-work. 
Upon the back and body this pattern is tolerably large, but upon the head it becomes grad- 
ually smaller, and upon the upper portion of the nose is almost microscopically small, though 
as perfect and uniform as that upon the body, so that it is among the most elegantly colored 
examples of the Ichneumons. The paws are dark, and devoid of that pretty variegation which 
extends over the upper surface of the animal. 

The word Ichneumon is Greek, and literally signifies a "tracker." 




.MEERKAT.-eVic/w 



VERY CLOSELY allied to the Ichneumon, but differing from it in several points, the 
MEERKAT has been placed in the same genus with that animal by Cuvier and others, but has 
been separated by later naturalists, because there are only four toes on the hinder feet, and the 



THE ZENICK. 



193 



number of the teeth is not the same. On account of the color of its fur, it has been termed the 
Kuddy Ichneumon ; and, from the brindlings in the tail, the -Pencilled Ichneumon. It is 
rather a pretty animal, the tint of its coat being a light tawny brown, and the paws dark. 
The tail is rather bushy, and brindled with black hairs. It is a native of Southern Africa, 
and has received its specific title in compliment to the well-known African traveller, Le 
^aillant. 

THE CUKIOITS animal which is known by the name of KUSIMANSE, or MANGUE, is a native 
of Sierra Leone and Western Africa. 

It is plantigrade in its walk, and has five toes on each feet. The teeth are of the same 



Its nose has something of the proboscis in 



description as those of the succeeding animal, 
its character, and its cars are small. The food 
of the Kusimanse consists of the smaller mam- 
malia, of various insects, and some kinds of 
fruits. The general color of the animal is a 
deep ruddy brown, but iu certain lights, and 
when its coat is at all ruffled, the chocolate 
brown of its fur becomes plentifully grizzled 
with yellowish white. The reason for tin's 
change of tint is, that each hair is marked 
alternately with white and brown. 

THE ZENICK, sometimes termed the SURI- 
OATE, is a native of Southern Africa, but not 
very commonly found. It is not so exclusively 
carnivorous as the preceding animals, being 
fond of sweet fruits as well as of an animal 
diet. It is 'rather a small animal, measuring 
ibout eighteen inches in total length, its tail 
being six inches long. The feet are armed witli 
long and stout claws, by means of which the 
creature can burrow with some rapidity. The 
color is grayish brown, with a tinge of yellow, 
and the upper surface of the body is covered 
by several obscurely marked bars of a deeper 
brown hue. A silvery tint is washed over the 
limbs. The tail is brown, tinged with red, and 
black at the extremity. A few indistinct spots 
are sparsely scattered over the breast. The height of the animal is rather .more than six 
inches. 

The brain is large in proportion to the size of the animal, and, as may be expected, the 
creature is remarkably docile and intelligent. It is very sensitive to kindness, and equally so 
to harsh treatment, showing great affection towards those who behave well towards it, and 
biting savagely at any one who treats it unkindly. When domesticated it ranges the house at 
will, and cannot be induced to leave its home for a life of freedom. Like the Ichneumon, 
it is an useful inmate of a house, extirpating Kits, mice, and other living nuisances. It is 
offended by a brilliant light, and is best pleased when it can abide in comparative darkness. 
This nocturnal habit of eye renders it especially useful as a vermin exterminator, as it remains 
quiet during the hour while the rats, mice, and snakes lie still in their holes, and only issues 
from its hiding-place when the shades of night give the signal for the mammalian and reptilian 
vermin to sally forth on their own food-seeking quest. As its eyes are fitted for nocturnal 
sight, it becomes a terrible enemy to these creatures, creeping quietly upon them, and seizing 
them before they are aware of its proximity. 

As far as is known, the sense of hearing is rather dull, and seems to assist the animal but 




ZEXICK.-R/iyzaena tetradactyla. 



194 



THE BINTURONG. 



little. The Zenick appears to bear some resemblance to our common polecat and ferret ; but it 
is altogether a curious animal, and stands nearly alone in the animal kingdom. Its walk is less 
gliding than that of the Ichneumons, and it is able to sit upon its hinder legs, and remain in 
the erect position for some time. 

IK BORNEO, an allied animal is found, which is known in its native country by the title of 
MAMPALON. 

The so-called " whisker hairs " which grow from the lips and behind the eyes are extremely 
long, and the feet are short, and furnished with five toes. When walking, the animal sets the 
entire sole of its foot on the ground, after the manner called "plantigrade." It is generally 
found in the neighborhood of rivers. In total length it is about eighteen inches, the tail 




MAMPALON. OyiwyiUe teitnettii. 



measuring nearly seven inches, 
blunt and slightly depressed. 



The snout of this animal is rather long, but at its extremity is 



PASSING by several curious animals, we arrive at the pretty little creature which is known 
by the name of NANDINE. 

On account of the double row of spots which run along the body, the Nandine has been 
dignified with the title of "binotata," or "double-spotted," by almost every naturalist who 
has woven it into his system, even though the animal itself has been placed by some authors 
among the Civets, by some among the Ichneumons, and by others among the Paradoxnres. 

The general color of the fur is a darkish and very rich brown, darker along the back, and 
lighter on the sides. The tail is covered with blackish rings which are but obscurely defined. 

ONE of the largest examples of this group is the dark, sullen, and sluggish BINTUKONG. 

This animal is a native of Malacca, from whence several living specimens and many skins 
have been brought to this country. The color of the Binturong is a dead black, the hairs 
being long, coarse, and devoid of that gloss which is so often found upon black animals. The 
head is gray, and each ear is furnished with a long tuft of black hair. Round the edge of the 
ears runs a band of whitish gray. 

The tail of the Binturong is thickly and heavily formed, longer than the body, and 
covered with exceedingly bushy hair. In some individuals, the black fur is mixed with white 
or gray hairs. 



THE MASKED PAGUMA. 



195 



It seems to be a very indolent animal, passing the day in sleep, and being with difficulty 
aroused from its slumbers. When irritated, it utters a sharp tierce growl, shows its teeth, and 
curls itself up again to sleep. While sleeping, it lies partly on its side, curled round with its 
head snugly sheltered under its bushy tail. The muzzle of the Binturong is short and sharp, 
rather turned up at its extremity, and covered with long brown hairs which radiate around 
the face, and impart a very curious expression to the animal. The eyes are of a dull chestnut, 
unless the creatui'e is excited, when they flash out with a momentary fire which dies away as 
soon as the cause is removed. 

It is a good climber of trees, being assisted in this task by its tail, which is prehensile at 
the tip, and capable of grasping an object with some force. When in captivity it seems to 
prefer a vegetable to an animal diet, and feeds on rice, fruit, and other vegetable productions. 
But it is fond of eggs, birds, the heads of fowls, and other animal substances, and perhaps is 




MASKED PAGUMA. Paguma lariata. 

best kept in health by a mixed diet. It enjoys a very excellent appetite, and whether its food 
be animal or vegetable, consumes an exceedingly large amount in comparison with the size of 
the consumer. 

The length of the Binturong is about two feet six inches, exclusive of the tail, which 
always equals, and generally exceeds, the body in length. Its height varies from a foot to 
fifteen inches. 

THE CURIOUS animal which is represented in the engraving, has, until lately, been placed 
among the weasels, under the title of Masked Glutton, and has only of late years been referred 
to its proper place in the scale of creation. The title of Larvatus, or Masked, is given to it on 
account of the white streak down the forehead and nose, and the white circle round the eyes, 
which gives the creature an aspect as if it was endued with an artificial mask. There is a pale 
olive-gray band extending from the back of each ear and meeting under the throat, and the 
general color of the fur is an olive-brown, besprinkled and washed with gray. It has been 
found in China, from which country several specimens have been imported. There are many 
other species belonging to the same genus, such as the Nepal Paguma, the White Whiskered 
Paguma of Sumatra and Singapore, the Woolly Paguma from Nepal, and the Three-streaked 
Paguma of Malacca. 

THE \NIMALS which compose the little group of Paradoxures are very closely allied to the 
Pagumas and the Ichneumons, and appear to be confined to the Asiatic continent and ita 



196 



THE LUWACK. 



islands. The little group of animals to which the Luwaek belongs was arranged by Omii-r 
under the generic title of Paradoxurus, literally, Puzzle-tail, because they have a curious habit 
of twisting their tails into a tight coil, and in their cat-like claws, and their civet-like teeth, 
present a strange mixture of characteristics. 

The LUWACK, or common Paradoxure, is found plentifully in India, from whence many 
specimens have been brought to this country. As it has something of the viverrine look about 
it, Buffon and other naturalists placed it with the Genetts. It is a curious little creature, 
rather quick in its movements, and very inquisitive iu its aspect, holding its head aside with 
an air of curiosity that is quite amusing. The eyes of this creature are very small and nearly 
black. 

As the Luwaek is tolerably widely spread, it is known by various names, according to the 
locality in which it lives. Its Malabar appellation is Pounougar-Poune, a term which signifies 
"Civet Cat." The general tint of the fur is a yellowish black, but it assumes various hues, 




LUWACK. Paradoxurus typui 

according to the light in which it is viewed. On each side of the spine run three rows of elon- 
gated spots, and upon the thighs and shoulders other spots are scattered. But if the animal 
is viewed in certain lights, the spots on the body seem to be merged into lines, while those on 
the breast disappear altogether. This change of appearance is caused by the mode in which 
the hairs are colored, each hair being tipped with a darker hue, and some hairs being totally 
black. These latter hairs are very silken in texture, and much longer than the yellowish hairs 
of which the fur is mostly composed. 

The Luwaek, as are all the Paradoxures, is entirely plantigrade. Its feet are furnished 
with sharp claws, which are sufficiently retractile to be kept from the ground when the animal 
walks, and are preserved so sharp, that they can be used for tree-climbing with the greatest 
ease. Its tail is very remarkable on account of the tight spiral into which it is frequently 
rolled, and seems to be unlike the tail of any other animals. Although it can be so firmly 
curled, it is not prehensile, as might be supposed from its aspect when half unrolled. 

One of these animals, which was kept in the Paris Museum, was accustomed to sleep 
during the day, coiled round upon its bed, and even by night appeared to feel a distaste 
for exertion. When evening came on, it would rouse itself from its slumbers, take food and 
drink, and again resign itself to sleep. 



THE HEM IG ALE. 



J97 



THE MUSANG of Java is, although a destroyer of rats and mice, rather a pest to the coffee- 
plantations, which it ravages in such a manner as to have earned the title of the Coffee Rat. It 
feeds largely upon the berries of the coffee shrub, choosing only the ripest fruit, stripping 
them of their membranous covering, and so eating them. It is a remarkable fact that the 
berries thus eaten appear to undergo no change by the process of digestion, so that the natives, 
who are free from over-scrupulous prejudices, collect the rejected berries, and are thus saved 
the trouble of picking and clearing them from the husk. 

However, the injury which this creature does to the coffee-berries is more than compensated 
by its very great usefulness as a coffee planter. For, as these berries are uninjured in their 
passage through the body of the animal, and are in their ripest state, they take root where 
they lie, and in due course of time spring up and form new coffee plantations, sometimes in 
localities where they are not expected. It may be that, although the coffee seeds undergo no 
visible change in the interior of the Musang, they imbibe the animal principle, and thus 




MUSANG. Paradoxurm fasdatus. 

become more fitted for the soil than if they had been planted without the intermediate agency 
of the creature. 

The Musang is not content with coffee-berries and other vegetable food, although it seems 
to prefer a vegetable to an animal diet. When pressed by hunger, it seeks eagerly after 
various small quadrupeds and birds, and is often a pertinacious robber of the hen-roosts. 

* 

THE ANIMAL which is known as the HEMIGALE, is remarkable for the singularity of its 
coloring, and the mode in which the fur is diversified with lighter and darker tints. 

The color of this animal' s fur is a grayish -brown, on which are placed six or seven large 
and bold stripes, arranged saddle- wise upon the back, being very broad above, and narrowing 
to a point towards the ribs. These bands are unconnected with each other. On the top of the 
head there is a narrow black line, and- on each side of the face, a black line runs from the ear 
to the nose, surrounding the eye in its progress. The nose itself is black. Down the sides of 
the neck there are some obscure streaks, which are more conspicuous in a side light. The tail 
is marked with dark patches upon its upper surface, and latter half is black. 

The name Hemigale is Greek, and signifies, " Semi-weasel " and the specific title is given 
in honor of General Hardwick, who has done such good service to zoology. 

THE last of the great Viverrine group of animals is the CRYPTOPROCTA, a creature whose 
rabbit-like mildness of aspect entirely belies its nature. 

It is a native of Madagascar, and has been brought from the southern portions of that 
wonderful island. It is much to be wished that the zoology of so prolific a country should be 



198 DOGS. 

thoroughly explored, and that competent naturalists should devote much time and severe 
labor to the collection of specimens, and the careful investigation of animals while in their 
wild state. 

Gentle and quiet as the animal appears, it is one of the fiercest little creatures known. Its 
limbs, though small, are very powerful, their muscles being extremely full and well knit 
together. Its appetite for blood seems to be insatiable as that of the tiger, and its activity 
is very great, so that it may well be imagined to be a terrible foe to any animals on whom it 
may choose to make an attack. For this savage nature it has received the name of "Ferox,"' 
or fierce. Its generic name of Cryptoprocta is given to it on account of the manner in which 
the hinder quarters suddenly taper down and merge themselves in the tail. The word itself is 
from the Greek, the former half of it signifying "hidden," and the latter half, "hind- 
quarters." 

The color of the Cryptoprocta is a light brown, tinged with red. The ears are very large 
and rounded, and the feet are furnished with strong claws. The toes are five in number on 
each foot. 

In the foregoing description of the Viverrine animals, examples and figures are given of 
every remarkable genus which forms a portion of this curious group. Whether or not the 
Hyena should be considered as belonging to the Viverrines is a question which is still mooted 
by many naturalists, who think that the Hyenines ought to be ranked as a divergent group of 
the Civet Cats. 

With the exception of one or two species, these creatures are so little known that their 
habits in a wild state have yet to be fully described: This is the more to be regretted, because 
the native customs of an animal are more illustrative of its character, and give deeper insight 
into the part which it plays in the economy of nature, than can be gained by inspecting the 
same creature when shut up in the contracted space which its cage affords, or when a change 
in its nature has been wrought by the companionship of human beings. The habits of these 
agile and graceful animals are so interesting, when watched even in the limited degree which 
is afforded by our present means of observation, that they give promise of much curioiis 
information when noted in the wild freedom of their normal condition. 

We lose much valuable knowledge of the habits of a new or scarce animal by the over- 
readiness of the discoverer to secure his prize. If one is "ortunate enough to hit upon an animal 
which is new to science, or to meet with one which is rarely seen, he would do better service to 
Zoology by waiting awhile, and quietly watching the manner in which the animal conducted 
itself, than by hastily levelling his gun, and so giving to science nothing but a lifeless mass of 
dead matter, instead of a spirited history of a breathing and living being. For my own part, 
I would rather read, in a library a good description of some strange animal, than see in a 
museum a stuffed skin about which nothing is known. 



THE DOG-FAMILY. 



DOGS. 

THE large and important group of animals which is known by the general name of the 
Dog-Tribe, embraces the wild and domesticated Dogs, the Wolves, Foxes, Jackals, and that 
curious South-African animal, the Hunting-Dog. Of these creatures, several have been 
brought under the authority of man, and by continual intermixtures have assumed that 
exceeding variety of form which is found in the different "breeds" of the domestic Dog. 

The original parent of the Dog is very doubtful, some authors considering that it owes its 
parentage to the Dhole, or the Buansuah ; others thinking it to be an offspring of the Wolf ; 
and others attributing to the Fox the honor of being the projenitor of our canine friend and 
ally. With the exception of a very few spots, the Dog is to be found spread over almost 
every portion of the habitable globe, and in all countries is the friend of man, aiding him 



THE BUANSUAH. 199 

either by the guardianship of his home, and property, by its skill and endurance in the 
chase, or by affording him a means of transit over localities which no other animal could 
successfully encounter. 

Before proceeding to the domesticated Dogs, we will examine the two species of Wild 
Dog which nearest approach them. 

THE DHOLE, or KHOLSUN, as it is sometimes called, inhabits the western frontiers of 
British India, its range extending from Midnapore to Chamar, but does not appear to take up 
its residence in other parts of the same great country. Even in the localities which are favored 
by its presence, the Dhole seldom makes its appearance, and by many residents in India has 
been counted but as a myth of the natives. It is a very shy animal, keeping aloof from man 
and his habitations, and abiding in the dense dark jungles, which extend for hundreds of 
miles, and afford little temptation for human beings to enter. 

Among the peculiarities of the Dhole's character, its fondness for the chase is perhaps the 
most remarkable. There is nothing peculiar in the fact that the Dhole unites in large packs 
and hunts down game, both large and small, because many of the canine race, such as the 
wolves and others, are known by many and tragical experiences to run down and destroy their 
prey in like manner. But the Dhole is apparently the only animal that, although individually 
so far the inferior of its fierce prey, in size, strength, and activity, has sufficient confidence in 
its united powers, to chase and kill the terrible tiger, maugre his fangs and cla'ws. 

Prom the observations which have been made, it seems that hardly any native Indian 
animal, with the exception of the elephant and the rhinoceros, can cope with the Dhole ; that 
the fierce boar falls a victim, in spite of his sharp tusks, and that the swift-footed deer fails to 
escape these persevering animals. The leopard is tolerably safe, because the dogs cannot 
follow their spotted quarry among the tree branches, in which he fortifies himself from their 
attacks ; but if he were deprived of his arboreal refuge, he would run but a poor chance of 
escaping with life from the foe. It is true that, in their attack upon so powerfully armed 
animals as the tiger and the boar, the pack is rapidly thinned by the swift blows of the tiger's 
paw, or the repeated stabs of the boar's tusks ; but the courage of the survivors is so great, 
and they leap on their prey with such audacity, that it surely yields at last from sheer weari- 
ness and loss of blood. 

It is probable that the sanguinary contests which often take place between the Dholes and 
their prey have a great effect in checking the increase of the former animals, and that, if such 
salutary influence w-ere not at work, these bold and persevering hunters might increase to 
such an extent as to become a serious pest to the country. 

In the chase, the Dhole is nearly silent, thus affording a strong contrast to the cheerful 
tongue of the foxhound in "full cry," or the appalling howl of the wolf when in pursuit of a 
flying prey. Only at intervals is the voice of the Dhole heard, and even then the animal only 
utters a low, anxious whimper, like that of a Dog which has lost its master, or feels uneasy 
about its task. It is a swift animal in the chase, and Captain Williamson, who has seen it 
engaged in pursuit of its prey, thinks that no animal could lead the Dhole a long chase. The 
average number of individuals in the pack is about fifty or sixty. 

The color of the Dhole is a rich bay, darkening upon the feet, ears, muzzle, and tip of the 
tail. In height it equals a rather small greyhound. It does not assault human beings unless 
it be attacked, neither does it seem to fly from them, but in case of a sudden meeting, pursues 
its avocations as if unconscious of the presence of an intruder. The countenance of this animal 
is very bright and intelligent, chiefly owing to the keen and brilliant eye with which it is 
favored. The Greek word "Cuon" signifies a hound. 

IN the Wild Dog, which ranges Nepal and the whole of Northern India, the primitive 
type of the Dog was thought to be found. This animal, the BUAXSUAH, presents many 
points of similarity to the Dhole, and is said to rival the latter creature in its tiger-killing 
propensities. 

Like the Dhole, it is a shy animal, and never willingly permits itself to be seen, preferring 



200 



THE BUANSUAH. 



to take up its residence in the thickest coverts which are afforded by the luxuriant vegetation 
of its native land. It hunts in packs, but, unlike the preceding animal, gives tongue con- 
tinually as it runs, uttering a curious kind of bark, which is quite distinct from the voice of 
the domestic Dog, and yet has nothing in common with the prolonged howl of the wolf, the 
jackal, or the foxes. 

The number of individuals in each pack is not very great, from eight to twelve being the 
usual average. They are possessed of exquisite powers of scent, and follow their game more 
by the nose than by the eye. 

When captured young, the Buansuah readily attaches itself to its keeper, and, under his 
tuition, becomes a valuable assistant in the chase. Unfortunately, the Dog will too often 




<. 

BUANSUAH. Canto primamu. 



refuse its confidence to any one except its keeper, and therefore is not so useful as it might 
otherwise be rendered. It is probable that the keeper himself has some hand in this conduct, 
and willfully teaches his charge to repel the advances of any person save himself. 

In the chase of the wild boar, the peculiar character of the Buansuah exhibits itself to 
great advantage, as its wolf -like attack of sudden snap is more destructive to its prey than 
the bite of an ordinary hound. For other game this creature is but an uncertain assistant, as 
it will often give up a chase just at the critical moment, and is too apt to turn aside from its 
legitimate quarry for the purpose of immolating a tame sheep or goat. 

ALL the various Dogs which have been brought under the subjection of man are evidently 
members of one single species, Cams familiaris, being capable of mixture to an almost 
unlimited extent. By means of crossing one variety with another, and taking advantage of 
collateral circumstances, such as locality, climate, or diet, those who have interested them- 
selves in the culture of this useful animal have obtained the varied forms which are so familiar 
to us. In general character, the groups into which domesticated Dogs naturally fall are 
tolerably similar, but the individual characters of Dogs are so varied, and so full of interest, 



THE GREAT DANISH DOG. 



201 



that they would meet with scanty justice in ten times the space that can be afforded to them 
in these pages. It has been thought better, therefore, to occupy the space by figures and 
descriptions of the chief varieties of the domesticated Dog, rather than to fill the pages with 
anecdotes of individuals. Upwards of forty varieties of the Dog will be described in the 
following pages, and illustrated with figures which, in almost every instance, are portraits of 
well-known animals. 

One of the most magnificent examples of the domesticated Dog is the THIBET DOG, an 
animal which, to his native owners, is as useful as he is handsome, but seems to entertain au 
invincible antipathy to strangers of all kinds, and especially towards the face of a white man. 
These enormous Dogs are employed by the inhabitants of Thibet for the purpose of guarding 




X 



THIBET DOQ. Canlt famUlarit ma/osmt Utetamu. 

their houses and their flocks, for which avocation their great size and strength render them 
peculiarly fit. It often happens that the male inhabitants of a Thibetian village leave their 
homes for a time, and journey as far as Calcutta, for the purpose of selling their merchandise 
of borax, musk, and other articles of commerce. While thus engaged, they leave their Dogs 
at home, as guardians to the women and children, trusting to the watchfulness of their four- 
footed allies for the safety of their wives and families. 

The courage of these huge Dogs is not so great as their size and strength would seem to 
indicate, for, excepting on their own special territories, they are little to be feared, and even 
then can be held at bay by a quiet, determined demeanor. Their color is generally a deep black, 
with a slight clouding on the sides, and a patch of tawny over each eye. The hanging lips of 
the Thibet Dog give it a very curioiTS aspect, which is heightened by the generally loose mode 
in which the skin seems to hang on the body. 

THE GREAT DANISH DOG is best known as the follower of horses and carriages upon 
roads ; and, probably on account of being restricted to this monotonous mode of existence, is 
supposed to be rather a stupid animal. As, however, in its own country the Danish Dog 



202 



THE GREYHOUND. 



is employed as a pointer, and does its work very creditably, we may suppose that the 
animal is possessed of abilities which might be developed by any one who would take pains 
to do so. 

On account of its carriage-following habits, it is popularly called the Coach Dog, and, on 
account of its spotted hide, receives the rather ignoble title of Plum-Pudding Dog. The 
height of the animal is rather more than two feet. 




GREAT DANISH SOG.-CanlsfamUiaris danieut. 



IT is hardly possible to conceive an animal which is more entirely formed for speed and 
endurance than a well-bred GREYHOUND. Its long slender legs, with their whipcord-like 
muscles, denote extreme length of stride and rapidity of movement ; its deep, broad chest, 
affording plenty of space for the play of large lungs, shows that it is capable of long-continued 
exertion ; while its sharply pointed nose, snake-like neck, and .slender, tapering tail, are so 
formed as to afford the least possible resistance to the air, through which the creature passes 
with such exceeding speed. 

The chief use if use it can be termed of the Greyhound, is in coursing the hare, and 
exhibiting in this chase its marvellous swiftness, and its endurance of fatigue. 

In actual speed, the Greyhound far suspasses the hare, so that if the frightened chase 
were to run in a straight line, she would be soon snapped up by the swifter hounds. But the 
hare is a much smaller and lighter animal than her pursuer, and, being furnished with very 
short forelegs, is enabled to turn at an angle to her course without a check, while the heavier 
and longer limbed Greyhounds are carried far beyond their prey by their own impetus, before 
they can alter their course, and again make after the hare. 

On this principle, the whole of coursing depends ; the hare making short quick turns, and 



THE GREYHOl'M>. 




GREYHOUND.-Canw/ff/rtiori. 



the Greyhounds making a large circuit every time that the hare changes her line. Two Grey- 
hounds are sent after each hare, and matched against each other, for the purpose of trying 




IRISH GREYHOUND. Cauls faniUinris. 



their comparative strength and speed. Some hares are so crafty and so agile, that they baffle 
the best hounds, and get away fairly into cover, from whence the Greyhound, working only 
by sight, is unable to drive them. 



204 THE GREYHOUND. 

Naturally, the Greyhound of pure blood is not possessed of a very determined character, 
and it is therefore found necessary to give these creatures the proper amount of endurance by 
crossing them with the bull-dog, one of the most determined and courageous animals in 
existence. As may be supposed, the immediate offspring of a bull -dog and a Greyhound is a 
most ungainly animal, but by continually crossing with the pure Greyhound, the outward 
shape of the thick and sturdy bull -dog is entirely merged in the more graceful animal, while 
his stubborn pertinacity remains implanted in its nature. 

The skeleton of the Greyhound is a curious one, and when viewed from behind, bears a 
marvellous resemblance to that of the ostrich. 

The narrow head and sharp nose of the Greyhound, useful as they are for aiding the prog- 
ress of the animal by removing every impediment to its passage through the atmosphere, yet 
deprive it of a most valuable faculty, that of chasing by scent. The muzzle is so narrow in 
proportion to its length, that the nasal nerves have no room for proper development, and hence 
the animal is very deficient in its powers of scent. The same circumstance may be noted in 
many other animals. 

THE IRISH GREYHOUND is a remarkably fine animal, being four feet in length, and very 
firmly built. Its hair is of a pale fawn color, and much rougher than that of the smooth 
English Greyhound. 

Unless excited by the sight of its game, or by anger, it is a very peaceable animal ; but 
when roused, exhibits a most determined spirit. In former days, when wolves and wild boars 
infested the Irish forests, this Dog was used for the purpose of extirpating those animals ; but 
in these days their numbers are comparatively few. When fighting, it takes its antagonist by 
the back, and shakes the life out of its foe by main strength. One of these dogs measured 
sixty -one inches in total length ; twenty-eight and a half inches from the toe to the top of the 
shoulder, and thirty-five inches in girth. 

THE SCOTCH GREYHOUND is still rougher in its coat than its Irish relative, but hardly so 
large in its make : a very fine example of these Dogs, of the pure Glengarry breed, measures 
twenty -eight inches in height, and thirty -four inches in girth, being a little smaller than the 
Irish Dog which was mentioned above. 

There seems to be but one breed of the Scotch Greyhound, although some families are 
termed Deerhounds, and others are only called Greyhounds. Each, however, from being con- 
stantly employed in the chase of either deer or hare, becomes gradually fitted for the pursuit of 
its special quarry, and contracts certain habits which render it comparatively useless when set 
to chase the wrong animal. The Scotch Deerhound is possessed of better powers of scent than 
the Greyhound, and in chasing its game depends as much on its nose as on its eyes. And it is 
curious too, that although it makes use of its olfactory powers when running, it holds its head 
higher from the ground than the Greyhound, which only uses its eyes. 

THE RUSSIAN GREYHOUND is also gifted with the power of running by scent, and is 
employed at the present day for the same purposes which Irish Greyhounds subserved in 
former times. 

Many Russian forests are infested with wild boars, wolves, and bears, and this powerful 
and swift Dog is found of great use in the destruction of these quadrupedal pests. In size it is 
about equal to the Scotch Greyhound. It is not exclusively used for the chase of the large 
and savage beasts, but is also employed in catching deer, hares, and other animals which come 
under the ordinary category of "game." 

The fur of this Dog is thick, but does not run to any length. 

THE NOBLE and graceful animal which is the representative of the Greyhound family in 
Persia, derives its origin from a source which is hidden in the mists of antiquity, and has been 
employed in the chase of swift-footed animals from time immemorial. Powerful of jaw, quick 
and supple of limb, the PERSIAN GREYHOUND is chosen to cope with that swift and daring 



THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. i>05 

animal, the wild ass, as well as with the no less rapid antelope, and the slower, but more 
dangerous, wild boar. 

Of all these creatures, the wild ass gives the most trouble, for it instinctively keeps to 
rocky and mountainous neighborhoods, which afford a refuge unassailable by the sure-footed 
Persian horse, and from which it can only be driven by such agile creatures as the native 
Greyhounds. So untiring is the wild ass, and so boldly does it traverse the rocky mountain 
spurs among which it loves to dwell, that a single ass will frequently escape, even though 
several relays of Greyhounds have been provided to take up the running at different parts of 
the course, as soon as their predecessors are fatigued. 

For the antelope the Greyhound would be no match, and is therefore assisted by the 
falcon, which is trained to settle on the head of the flying animal, and by flapping its wings in 







ITALIAN GREYHOUND. Canti fttmUiaii* grajut ituli. /-. 

the poor creature's eyes, to prevent it from following a direct course, and thus to make it an 
easier prey to the Greyhound which is following in the track. Of this curious mixture of 
falconry and hunting the Persian nobles are passionately fond, and peril their lives in ravines, 
and among rocks that would quail the spirit of our boldest fox-hunters. 

It is said that the Persian Greyhound is not the safest of allies, for if it should fail in its 
chase, it is reputed to turn its wasting energies upon its master, and to force him, Actseon-like, 
to seek his safety in flight ; or, more fortunate than his cornuted prototyi>e, to rid himself of 
his dependents by a blow from his ready scimitar. The Persian Greyhound is said to be 
especially addicted to this vice when it is imported into India. 

This animal is rather slender in make, and its ears are "feathered" after the fashion of 
the Blenheim spaniel's ears. Nevertheless, it is a powerful and bold civatuiv. and can hold its 
own among any assemblage of Dogs of its own weight. 

A MORE UTTER contrast to the above-mentioned animal can hardly be imagined than that 
which is afforded by the ITALIAN GREYHOUND, a little creature whose merit consists in its 
diminutive proportions and its slender limbs. Hotspur, leaning all breathless on his sword, 
and stiff with his wounds, was not more entirely the opposite of the carpet knight, with pouncet 
box to nose, and full of "parmaceti" babblings, than is the rough, fierce Greyhound of Persia, 
of the delicate, shivering, faint-hearted Italian Greyhound ; sad type of the people from 
which it takes its name. 



206 THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 

In truth, the Italian Greyhound is but a dwarfed example of the true smooth Greyhound, 
dwarfed after the same manner that delights our Celestial friends, when tried on vegetable 
instead of animal life. The weight of a really good Italian Greyhound ought not to exceed 
eight or ten pounds ; and there are animals of good shape which only weigh six or seven 
pounds. One of the most perfect Dogs of the present day weighs eight and three-quarter 
pounds, and is fourteen and a quarter inches in height. His color is uniformly black. 

Attempts have been made to employ the Italian Greyhound in the chase of rabbits, but its 
power of jaw and endurance of character are so disproportioned to its speed, that all such 
endeavors have failed. A mixed breed, between the Italian Greyhound and the terrier, is 
useful enough, combining endurance with speed, and perfectly capable of chasing and holding 
a rabbit. 

In this country, it is only used as a petted companion, and takes rank among the " toy- 
dogs," being subject to certain arbitrary rules of color and form, which may render a Dog 
worthless for one year through the very same qualities which would make it a paragon of 
perfection in another. The Dutch tulip-mania afforded no more capricious versatility of 
criterion than is found in the "points " of toy Dogs of the present day. If the creature be of 
a uniform color, it must be free from the least spot of white ; and even a white stain on the 
breast is held to deteriorate from its perfection. The color which is most in vogue is a golden 
fawn ; and the white and red Dog takes the last place in the valuation of color. 

It is a pretty little creature, active and graceful to a degree, and affectionate to those who 
know how to win its affections. Even in the breed of the British smooth Greyhounds, this 
little animal has been successfully employed, and by a careful admixture with the larger Dog, 
takes away the heavy, clumsy aspect of the head which is caused by the bull-dog allliance, 
and restores to the offspring the elastic grace of the original Greyhound. It is generally bred 
in Spain and Italy, and from thence imported into this country, where the change of climate 
is so apt to affect its lungs, that its owners are forced to keep it closely swathed in warm 
clothing during the changeable months of the year. 

THE large and handsome animal which is called from its native country the NEWFOUND- 
LAND DOG, belongs to the group of spaniels, all of which appear to be possessed of considera- 
ble mental powers, and to be capable of instruction to a degree that is rarely seen in animals. 

In its native land the Newfoundland Dog is shamefully treated, being converted into a 
beast of burden, and forced to suffer even greater hardsliips than those which generally fall to 
the lot of animals which are used for the carriage of goods or the traction of vehicles. The 
life of a hewer of wood is proverbially one of privation, but the existence of the native New- 
foundland Dog is still less to be envied, being that of a servant of the wood-hewer. In the 
winter, the chief employment of the inhabitants is to cut fuel, and the occupation of the Dogs 
is to draw it in carts. The poor animals are not only urged beyond their strength, but are 
meagrely fed with putrid salt fish, the produce of some preceding slimmer. Many of these 
noble Dogs sink under the joint effects of fatigue and starvation, and many of the survivors 
commit sad depredations on the neighboring flocks as soon as the summer commences, and 
they are freed from their daily toils. 

In this country, however, the Newfoundland Dog is raised to its proper position, and 
made the friend and companion of man. Many a time has it more than repaid its master for 
his friendship, by rescuing him from mortal peril. 

Astrologically speaking, the Newfoundland Dog must have been originated under the 
influence of Aquarius, for it is never so happy as when dabbling in water, whether salt or 
fresh, and is marvellously endurant of long immersion. There are innumerable instances on 
record of human beings rescued from drowning by the timely succor brought by a Newfound- 
land Dog, which seems fully to comprehend the dire necessity of the sufferer, and the best 
mode of affording help. A Dog has been known to support a drowning man in a manner so 
admirably perfect, that if it had thoroughly studied the subject, it could not have applied its 
aiding powers in a more correct manner. The Dog seemed to be perfectly aware that the head 
of the drowning man ought to be kept above the water, and possibly for that purpose shifted 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 

its grasp from the shoulder to the back of the neck. It must be remembered, however, that 
all Dogs and cats carry their young by the nape of the neck, and that the Dog might have 
followed the usual instinct of these animals. 

Not only have solitary lives been saved by this Dog, but a whole ship's crew have been 
delivered from certain destruction by the mingled sagacity and courage of a Newfoundland 
Dbg, that took in its mouth a rope, and carried it from the ship to the shore. 

Even for their own amusement, these Dogs may be seen disporting themselves in the sea, 
swimming boldly from the land in pursuit of some real or imaginary object, in spite of 
"rollers" and "breakers" that would baffle the attempts of any but an accomplished swim- 
mer. Should a Newfoundland Dog be blessed with a master as amphibious as itself, its 
happiness is very great, and it may be seen splashing and snapping in luxuriant sport, ever 




NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. Canis famUiarig terra nota. 

keeping close to its beloved master, and challenging him to fresh efforts. It is very seldom 
that a good Newfoundland Dog permits its master to outdo it in aquatic gambols. The Dog 
owes much of its watery prowess to its broad feet and strong legs, which enable the creature to 
propel itself with great rapidity through the water. 

As is the case with most of the large Dogs, the Newfoundland permits the lesser Dogs to 
take all kinds of liberties without showing the least resentment ; and if it is worried or pes- 
tered by some forward puppy, looks down with calm contempt, and passes on its way. Some- 
times the little conceited animal presumes upon the dignified composure of the Newfoundland 
Dog, and, in that case, is sure to receive some quaint punishment for its insolence. The story 
of the big Dog, that dropped the little Dog into the water and then rescued it from drowning, 
is so well known that it needs but a passing reference. But I know of a Dog, belonging to 
one of my friends, which behaved in a very similar manner. Being provoked beyond all 
endurance by the continued annoyance, it took the little tormentor in its mouth, swam well 
out to sea, dropped it in the water and swam back again. 

Another of these animals, belonging to a workman, was attacked by a small and pugna- 
cious bull-dog, which sprang upon the unoffending canine giant, and, after the manner of bull- 
dogs, "pinned" him by the nose, and there hung, in spite of all endeavors to shake it off. 



208 THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 

However, the big Dog happened to be a clever one, and spying a pailful of boiling tar, he 
bolted towards it, and deliberately lowered his foe into the hot and viscous material. The 
bnll-dog had never calculated on such a reception, and made its escape as fast as it could run, 
bearing with it a scalding memento of the occasion. 

The attachment which these magnificent Dogs feel towards mankind is almost unaccount- 
able, for they have been often known to undergo the greatest hardships in order to bring 
succor to a person whom they had never seen before. A Newfoundland Dog has been known 
to discover a poor man perishing in the snow from cold and inanition, to dash off, procure 
assistance, telling by certain doggish language of its own of the need for help, and then to 
gallop back again to the sufferer, lying upon him as if to afford vital heat from his own body, 
and there to "wait until the desired assistance arrived. 

I might multiply anecdote upon anecdote of the wondrous powers of this spirited animal, 
but must pass on to make room for others. 

There are two kinds of Newfoundland Dog ; one, a very large animal, standing some 
thirty -two inches in height ; and the other, a smaller Dog, measuring twenty-four or twenty- 
five inches high. The latter animal is sometimes called the Labrador Dog, and sometimes is 
termed the St. John's Dog. When crossed with the setter, the Labrador Dog gives birth to 
the Retriever. The large Newfoundland is generally crossed with the mastiff. 

There are few Dogs which are more adapted for fetching and carrying than the Newfound- 
land. This Dog always likes to have something in its mouth, and seems to derive a kind of 
dignity from the conveyance of its master' s property. It can be trained to seek for any object 
that has been left at a distance, and being gifted with a most persevering nature, will seldom 
yield the point until it has succeeded in its search. 

A rather amusing example of this faculty in the Newfoundland Dog has lately come 
before my notice. 

A gentleman was on a visit to one of his friends, taking with him a fine Newfoundland 
Dog. Being fond of reading, he was accustomed to take his book upon the downs, and to 
enjoy at the same time the pleasures of literature and the invigorating breezes that blew freshly 
over the hills. On one occasion, he was so deeply buried in his book, that he overstayed his 
time, and being recalled to a sense of his delinquency by a glance at his watch, hastily 
pocketed his book, and made for home with his best speed. 

Just as he arrived at the house, he found that he had inadvertently left his gold-headed 
cane on the spot where he had been sitting, and as it was a piece of property which he valued 
extremely, he was much annoyed at his mischance. 

He would have sent his Dog to look for it, had not the animal chosen to accompany a 
friend in a short walk. However, as soon as the Dog arrived, his master explained his loss to 
the animal, and begged him to find the lost cane. Jiist as he completed his explanations, 
dinner was announced, and he was obliged to take his seat at table. Soon after the second 
course was upon the table, a great uproar was heard in the hall ; sounds of pushing and 
scuffling were very audible, and angry voices forced themselves on the ear. Presently, the 
phalanx of servants gave way, and in rushed the Newfoundland Dog, bearing in his mouth 
the missing cane. He would not permit any hand but his master's to take the cane from his 
mouth, and it was his resistance to the attempts of the servants to dispossess him of his 
master's property that had led to the skirmish. 

IT HAS BEEN mentioned that the Newfoundland Dog is employed during the winter 
months in dragging carts of hewn wood to their destination, and that it is unkindly treated 
by the very men who derive the most benefit from its exertions. 

The ESQUIMAUX DOG, however, spends almost its entire life in drawing sledges, or in 
carrying heavy loads, being, in fact, the only beast of burden or traction in the northern parts 
of America and the neighboring islands. Some, indeed, are turned loose at the beginning of 
the summer, and many get their living a,s they can, until winter summons them back again to 
scanty meals and perpetual toil. But many of the Esquimaux Dogs are retained in servitude 
for the entire year, and during the summer months are called upon to give their aid in draught 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 



209 



and in carriage. Indeed, those Dogs which are thus kept to their work during the entire year 
are comparatively happy, for their work is not nearly so heavy as in the winter, and their food 
is much better. 

The Esquimaux Dog is rather smaller than the Labrador, being only twenty-two or 
twenty -three inches in height. There is something very wolfish about the Dog, owing to its 
oblique eyes, bushy tail, and elongated muzzle. In its full face the Esquimaux Dog presents 




ESQUIMAUX DOGS. 

a ludicrously exact likeness of its master's countenance. The color is almost invariably a 
deep dun, marked obscurely with dark bars and patches ; the muzzle is black. 

When harnessed to the sledge, the Dogs obey the movements of their leader, who is 
always a faithful and experienced old Dog. There are no means of guiding the animals in 
their way, for each Dog is simply tied to the sledge by a leathern strap, and directed by the 
voice and whip of the driver. The whip is of very great importance to the charioteer, for by 
the sounds which he elicits from the lash, and by the ably-directed strokes which he aims at 
refractory Dogs, he guides the canine team without the aid of bit or bridle. 



210 THE POMERANIAN FOX DOG. 

The old and experienced animal which leads the team knows the master's voice, and will 
dash forward, slacken speed, halt, or turn to right and left at command. 

The actual stroke of the whip is used as little as possible, for when a Dog feels the sting 
of the biting lash, he turns round and attacks the Dog nearest to him. The others immediately 
join in the fight, and the whole team is thrown into admirable confusion, the traces being 
entangled with each other, and the sledge in all likelihood upset. When such a rupture 
occurs, the driver is generally forced to dismount, and to harness the Dogs afresh. Usually, 
the leading Dog is permitted to run his own course, for he is able to follow the right path with 
marvellous accuracy, and to scent it out, even when the thickly-falling snowflakes have 
covered the surface of the ground with an uniform white carpet, on whose glittering surface 
no impress is left of the subjacent earth. 

These Dogs are able to travel for very great distances over the snow-clad regions of the 
north, and have been known to make daily journeys of sixty miles for several days in suc- 
cession. 

Captain Parry, in his well-known "Journal,'' remarks very happily, that "neither the 
Dog nor his master is half civilized or subdued," the former indeed being the necessary con- 
sequence of the latter. The Esquimaux bears no love towards his Dogs, and only looks upon 
them as animated machines, formed for the purpose of conveying him and his property from 
one place to another. He is a most exacting and cruel master, feeding scantily his Dogs on 
the merest offal, and then inflicting severest torture upon them if they break down in their 
work from want of nourishment, or if, incited by the pangs of hunger, they obey their natural 
instincts, and make a meal on the provisions which had been laid aside for his own use. The 
savage is ever ingenious in the art of torture, and the Esquimaux forms no exception to the 
rule. 

The poor beasts have been known, when suffering from long-continued hunger, to devour 
their tough leather harness, and, as if excited by the imperfect meal, to fly upon the weaker 
members of the team, and to tear them to pieces. During this paroxysm of unrestrained fury. 
they would have made their masters their first victims, had they not been driven back by the 
sword and the bludgeon. 

In consequence of the evil treatment to which they are subjected, the poor animals can 
have no affection for their cruel tormentors, and are afforded no opportunity for developing 
the mental qualities which they possess in very large degree. When placed under the care of 
a kind master, the Esquimaux Dog is a most affectionate animal, and displays considerable 
reasoning powers. 

The Esquimaux Dog is rather larger than an English pointer Dog, although its true size 
appears to be less than it really is, on account of the comparative shortness of limb. Its fur is 
composed of a long outer covering of coarse hair, three or four inches in length, and an inner 
coating of short, woolly hair, that seems to defend the animal from the colds of winter. When 
the weather begins to wax warm, the wool falls off, and grows again as the winter draws near. 

OF LATE years, a Dog which much resembles the last-mentioned animal has come into 
fashion as a house-dog, or as a companion. This is the POMERANIAN Fox DOG, commonly 
known as the "Loup-loup." 

It is a great favorite with those who like a Dog for a companion, and not for mere use, 
as it is very intelligent in its character, and very handsome in aspect. Its long white fur, and 
bushy tail, give it quite a distinguished appearance, of which the animal seems to be thoroughly 
aware. Sometimes the coat of this animal is a cream color, and very rarely is deep black. The 
pure white, however, seems, to be the favorite. It is a lively little creature, and makes an 
excellent companion in a country walk. 

OF THE Spaniel Dogs, there are several varieties, which may be classed under two general 
heads, namely, Sporting and Toy Spaniels : the former being used by the sportsman in finding 
game for him ; and the latter being simply employed as companions. 

The FIELD SPANIEL is remarkable for the intense love which it bears for hunting game, 



THE COOKER. 



211 



and the energetic manner in which it carries out the wishes of its master. There are two breeds 
of Field Spaniels, the one termed the " Springer," being used for heavy work among thick and 
thorny coverts, and the other being principally employed in woodcock shooting, and called in 
consequence the " Cocker." The Blenheim and King Charles Spaniels derive their origin from 
the Cocker. Some of these Dogs continually give tongue while engaged in the pursuit of game, 
and utter different sounds according to the description of game which they have reached ; 
while others are perfectly mute in their quest. Each of these qualities is useful in its way, and 
the Dog is valued accordingly ; only it is needful that if the Dog be one that gives tongue, 
it should not be too noisy in its quest, and should be musical in its note. 




POMERANIAN DOQ.Cani/amUiarif domtsticuf pomerantu. 

While hunting, the Spaniel sweeps its feathery tail rapidly from side to side, and is a very 
pretty object to any one who has an eye for beauty of movement. It is a rule that, however 
spirited a Spaniel may be, it must not raise its tail above the level of its back. For the pur- 
pose of sport, a Spaniel must be possessed of a thick coat, as it is subject to continual wetting 
from the dripping coverts through which it has to force its way. It should be also a tolerably 
large Dog, not weighing less than fourteen pounds, if possible, and may with advantage weigh 
some thirty or forty pounds, as do the breed known by the name of the " Clumber" Spaniels. 
These last-mentioned animals work silently. 

THE COCKER is altogether a smaller animal, seldom weighing above twenty pounds, and 
very often being only ten or twelve pounds in weight. It is an active and lively animal, 
dashing about its work with an air of gay enjoyment that assists materially in enlivening the 
spirits of its master. There are many breeds of this Dog, among which the English, Welsh, and 
Devonshire Cockers may be mentioned as well-known examples. 

It is a courageous little creature, retaining its dashing boldness even when imported into 
the enervating Indian climate, which destroys the spirit of most Dogs, and even reduces the 
stubborn bull -dog to a mere poltroon. Captain Williamson, in his book of "Oriental Field 
Sports," records an instance of rash courage on the part of one of these little Dogs. 

"I was shooting near some underwood, rather thinly scattered among reedy grass, growing 



212 THE WATER SPANIEL. 

on the edges of a large water-course, which took its rise near the foot of the large hill at 
Muckun Gunge, when suddenly one of a brace of tine cocking Spaniels I had with me ran 
round a large bush greatly agitated, and apparently on .some game which I expected to put up. 

" I followed as fast as I could ; but Paris, which was the Dog's name, was too quick for me, 
and before I could well get round the bush, which was about ten yards from the brink of the 
ravine, had come to a stand, his ears pricked, his tail wagging like lightning, and his whole 
frame in a seeming state of ecstasy. I expected that he had got a hare under the bank, and, 
as the situation was in favor of a shot, I ran towards him with more speed than I should have 
done had I known that instead of a hare I should lind, as I did, a tiger sitting on its rump, 
and staring Paris in the face. They were not above two yards asunder. 

"As soon as the Dog found me at his side, he barked, and giving a spring down, dashed 
at the tiger. What happened for some moments I really cannot say ; the surprise and danger 
which suddenly affected me banished at once that presence of mind which many boast to 
possess on all emergencies. I frankly confess that my senses were clouded, and that the tiger 
might have devoured me without my knowing a word of the matter. However, as soon as my 
fright had subsided, I began, like a person waking from a dream, to look about, and saw the 
tiger cantering away at about a hundred and fifty yards' distance, with his tail erect, and fol- 
lowed by Paris, who kept barking ; but when the tiger arrived at a thick cover, he disappeared. 

" I had begun in my mind to compose a requiem for my poor Dog, as I saw him chasing 
the tiger, which I expected every moment would turn about and let Paris know that he had 
caught a Tartar. Though Paris had certainly brought me to the gate of destruction, yet he as 
certainly saved me. I felt myself indebted to him for preservation, and consequently was not 
a little pleased to see him return safe." 

This is not a solitary example of the achievement of so daring a feat. Another officer, 
belonging to the Bengal Artillery, was shooting near a jungle, and was attended by five or 
six Spaniels, for the purpose of putting up the bustards, floricans, peafowl, and other birds, 
when a tiger suddenly showed itself from a spot where it had lain concealed. Instead of 
retreating from the terrible animal, the Spaniels dashed boldly at the brindled foe, and 
although several of them were laid prostrate by the tiger's paw, the survivors remained 
staunch, and attracted the creature's attention so completely that their master was enabled to 
kill it without difficulty. 

The report that the Dhole will attack the tiger is thus corroborated. 

FEOM its singular affection for the water, this Dog is termed the WATER SPANIEL, as a 
distinction from the Field Spaniel. In all weathers, and in all seasons, the Water Spaniel is 
ever ready to plunge into the loved element, and to luxuriate therein in sheer wantonness of 
enjoyment. It is an admirable diver, and a swift swimmer, in which arts it is assisted by the 
great comparative breadth of its paws. It is therefore largely used by sportsmen for the pur- 
pose of fetching out of the water the game which they have shot, or of swimming to the oppo- 
site bank of the river, or to an occasional island, and starting therefrom the various birds that 
love such moist localities. 

Much of its endurance in the water is owing to the abundance of natural oil with which its 
coat is supplied, and which prevents it from becoming really wet. A real Water Spaniel gives 
himself a good shake as soon as he leaves the river, and is dry in a very short time. This oil, 
although useful to the Dog, gives forth an odor very unpleasant to human nostrils, and there- 
fore debars the Water Spaniel from enjoying the fireside society of its human friends. 

Some people fancy that the Water Spaniel possesses webbed feet, and that its aquatic 
prowess is dne to this formation. Such, however, is not the case. All dogs have their toes 
connected with each other by a strong membrane, and when the foot is wide and the mem- 
brane rather loosely hung, as is the case with the Water Spaniel, a large surface is presented 
to the water. 

The Water Spaniel is of moderate size, measuring about twenty-two inches in height at 
the shoulders, and proportionately stout in make. The ears are long, measuring from point 
to point rather more than the animal's height. 



THE KING CHARLES SPANIEL. 



213 



THE KING C> :s SPANIEL derives its name from the "airy monarch," Charles II., 
who took great <1< in these little creatures, and petted them in a manner that verged on 

absurdity. 

It is a very SIIKI limal, as a really fine specimen ought not to exceed six or seven pounds 
in weight. Some of ost valuable King Charles Spaniels weigh as little as five pounds, 

or even less. These 1: features have been trained to search for and put up game after the 
manner of their larger relatives, the springers and cockers, but they cannot endure severe 
exercise, or long-continued exertion, and ought only to be employed on very limited territory. 

When rightly managed, it is a most amusing companion, and picks up accomplishments 
with great readiness. It can be trained to perform many pretty tricks, and sometimes is so 
appreciative of its human playfellows that it will join their games. 







WATER SPANIEL. Cani* familiatis Mrtutut ayualilu. 



I knew one of these animals which would play at that popular boys' game, called "touch," 
as correctly as any of the boys who used to join .in the game, and on account of its small size 
and great agility was a more formidable opponent than any of the human players. The same 
Dog carried on a perpetual playful feud with the cat, each seeking for an opportunity of deal- 
ing a blow and of getting away as fast as possible. It was most absurd to see the way in which 
the Dog would hide itself behind a door-step, a scraper, a large stone, or under a thick shrub, 
and panting with eager expectation, watch the cat walking unsuspiciously towards its ambush. 
As the cat passed, out shot the Dog, tumbled pussy over, and made off at the top of its speed, 
pursued by the cat in hot haste, all anxious to avenge herself of the defeat. In these chases 
the cat always used to run on three legs, holding one paw from the ground as if to preserve its 
strength in readiness for a severe application to the Dog's ears. 

"Prince," for that was the name of this clever little animal, was an accomplished bird's- 
nester, seldom permitting a too-confiding blackbird or thrush to build its hymeneal home in 
the neighborhood without robbing it of its variegated contents. When the Dog first discov- 
ered how palatable an article of diet was a blackbird's egg, he used to push his nose into the 
nest and crush the eggs with his teeth, or would try to scrape them out with his paw. In 
both these methods, he wasted a considerable portion of the liquid contents of the eggs, and 



214 THE MALTESE DOG. 

after a while invented a much better mode of action. Whenever he discovered the newly- 
built nest of a thrush or blackbird, he would wait until there were some four or five eggs in 
the nest, and then would bite out the bottom of the nest, so as to let the eggs roll unbroken 
into his mouth. 

One of these little animals, which belonged to a gentleman's family, was very clever and 
docile. 

Every morning, he would voluntarily fetch his towel and brush, and stand patiently to be 
washed, combed, and brushed by the hands of his mistress. Generally, he was accustomed to 
take his meals with the family, but if his mistress were going to dine from home she used to 
say to him, "Prince, you must go and dine at the rectory to-day." The Dog would therefore 
set off for the rectory, rather a long and complicated walk, and after passing several bridges, 
and taking several turnings, would reach the rectory in time for dinner. There he would wait 
until he had taken his supper, and if no one came to fetch him, would return as he came. 

THE BLENHEIM SPANIEL is even smaller than the King Charles, and resembles it closely 
in its general characteristics. Both these animals ought to have very short muzzles, long silky 
hair without any curl, extremely long and silky ears, falling close to the head, and sweeping 
the ground. The legs should be covered with long silky hair to the very toes, and the tail 
should be well "feathered." The eyes of these little Dogs are extremely moist, having always 
a slight lachrymal rivulet trickling from the corner of each eye. 

Although, from their diminutive size, these little Dogs are anything but formidable, they 
are terrible foes to the midnight thief, who cares little for the brute strength of a big yard dog. 
Safely fortified behind a door, or under a sofa, the King Charles sets up such a clamorous 
yelling at the advent of a strange step, that it will disconcert the carefully arranged plans ol 
professional burglars with much more effect than the deep bay and the fierce struggles of 
the mastiff or the bloodhound. It is easy enough to quiet a large Dog in the yard, but to 
silence a watchful and petulant King Charles Dog within doors, is quite a different matter. 
Many "toy" Dogs are equally useful in this respect, and the miniature terrier, which has 
lately become so fashionable, or the Skye terrier, are most admirable assistants in giving 
timely warning of a foe's approach, although they may not be able to repel him if he has once 
made good his entrance. 

A VERY celebrated, but extremely rare "toy" Dog, is the MALTESE DOG, the prettiest 
and most lovable of all the little pet Dogs. 

The hair of this tiny creature is very long, extremely silky, and almost unique in its 
glossy sheen, so beautifully fine as to resemble spun glass. In proportion to the size of the 
animal, the fur is so long that when it. is in rapid movement, the real shape is altogether lost 
in the streaming mass of flossy hair. One of these animals, which barely exceeds three pounds 
in weight, measures no less than fifteen inches in length of hair across the shoulders. The tail 
of the Maltese Dog curls strongly over the back, and adds its wealth of silken fur to the 
already superfluous torrent of glistening tresses. 

It is a lively and very good-tempered little creature, endearing itself by sundry curious 
little ways to those with whom it is brought in contact. The "toy" spaniels are subject to 
several unpleasant habits, such as snoring and offensive breath, but the Maltese Dog is free 
from these defects, and is therefore a more agreeable companion than the King Charles or the 
Blenheim Spaniels. 

As the name implies, it was originally brought from Malta. It is a very scarce animal, and 
at one time was thought to be extinct ; but there are still specimens to be obtained by those 
who have no objection to pay the price which is demanded for these pretty little creatures. 

THE Liox DOG, so called on account of its fancied resemblance to the king of beasts, when 
it is shaven after the fashion of poodles, is a cross between the poodle and the Maltese Dog, 
possessing the tightly curled hair of the poodle without its elongated ears and determinate 
aspect. 



THE POODLE. 



215 



A VERT decided contrast to the last-mentioned Dog is afforded by the ALPINE SPANIEL, 
more generally known by the title of the St. Bernard's Dog, on account of the celebrated 
monastery where these magnificent animals are taught to exercise their wondrous powers, 
which have gained for them and their teachers a world-wide fame. 

These splendid Dogs are among the largest of the canine race, being equal in size to a large 
mastiff. The good work which is done by these Dogs is so well known that it is only necessary 
to give a passing reference. Bred among the coldest regions of the Alps, and accustomed from 
its birth to the deep snows which everlastingly cover the mountain-top, the St. Bernard's Dog 
is a most useful animal in discovering any unfortunate traveller who has been overtaken by a 




ST. BERNARD'S DOG. Cani* familiarto trtrariim at. ternardt. 

sudden storm and lost the path, or who has fallen upon the cold ground, worn out by fatigue 
and hardship, and fallen into the death-sleep which is the result of severe cold. 

Whenever a snow-storm occurs, the monks belonging to the monastery of St. Bernard send 
forth their Dogs on their errand of mercy. Taught by the wonderful instinct with which they 
are endowed, they traverse the dangerous paths, and seldom fail to discover the frozen sufferer, 
even though he be buried under a deep snow-drift. When the Dog has made such a discovery, 
it gives notice by its deep and powerful bay of the perilous state of the sufferer, and endeavors 
to clear away the snow that covers the lifeless form. 

The monks, hearing the voice of the Dog, immediately set off to the aid of the perishing 
traveller, and in many cases have thus preserved lives that must have perished without their 
timely assistance. In order to afford every possible help to the sufferer, a small flask of spirits 
is generally tied to the Dog's neck. 

The illustration which accompanies this notice of the Alpine Spaniel, is a representative 
of the popular variety of the species. 

OF all the domesticated Dogs, the POODLE seems to be, take him all in all, the most 
obedient and the most intellectual. Accomplishments the most difficult are mastered by this 
clever animal, which displays an ease and intelligence in its performances that appear to be 
far beyond the ordinary canine capabilities. 



216 THE POODLE. 

A barbarous custom is prevalent of removing the greater portion of the Poodle' s coat, 
leaving him but a ruff round the neck and legs, and a puff on the tip of the tail as the sole 
relic of his abundant fur. 

Such a deprivation is directly in opposition to the natural state of the Dog, which is fur- 
nished with a peculiarly luxuriant fur, hanging in long ringlets from every portion of the 
head, body, and limbs. The Poodle is not the only Dog that suffers a like tonsorial abridg- 
ment of coat ; for under the dry arches of the many bridges that cross the Seine, in Paris, may 
be daily seen a mournful spectacle. Numerous Dogs of every imaginable and unimaginable 
breed, lie helpless in the shade of the arch, their legs tied together, and their eyes contem- 




7 

POODLE. Canii familiarlt genuinui. 

plating with woeful looks the struggles of their fellows, who are being shorn of their natural 
covering, and protesting with mournful cries against the operation. 

THEBE is a diminutive variety of the Poodle, which is termed the BAEBET. This little 
Dog is possessed of all the intellectual powers of its larger relative, and on account of its com- 
paratively small size, was formerly in great request as a lady's Dog. For this enviable post it 
is well fitted, as it is a cleanly little creature, very affectionate, and full of the oddest tricks 
and vagaries. 

Some years since, I made acquaintance with a comical little Dog, named "Quiz," which 
I believe to have been a Barbet, though no one had ventured definitely to refer the strange 
little creature to any known variety. 

He was very small, not larger than an ordinary rabbit, and was overwhelmed with such a 
torrent of corkscrew curls that his entire shape was concealed under their luxuriance ; and, 
when he was lying asleep on the sofa, he reminded the spectator of a loose armful of mop 
thrums. While reposing, his head was quite undistinguishable from his tail ; and when 
walking, his trailing curls collected such an ever-increasing mass of leaves, dry sticks, straws, 
and other impediments, that he was frequently obliged to halt, in order to be released from 
his encumbrances. 



THE BLOODHOUND. 217 

Casual passengers were constantly arrested in their walk by the singular animated mop 
that rolled along without any visible means of progression, and I have more than once been 
witness to a warm dispute respecting the position in nature which the strange animal might 
occupy. Some thought it might be a Dog, while others suggested that it was a young lion ; 
but the prevailing idea referred little Quiz to a position among the bears. 

He was a most amusing and clever little animal, readily picking up acquirements, and 
inventing new accomplishments of his own. He would sit at the piano, and sing a song to his 
own accompaniment, the manual, or rather the pedal, part of the performance being achieved 
by a dexterous patting of the keys, and the vocal efforts by a prolonged and modulated howl. 
He could also "talk," by uttering little yelps in rapid succession. 

Like all pet Dogs, he was jealous of disposition, and could not bear that any one, not 
excepting his mistress, should be more noticed than himself. 

When his mistress was ill, he was much aggrieved at the exclusive attention which was 
given to the invalid, and cast about in his doggish brain for some method of attracting the 
notice which he coveted. It is supposed that he must have watched the interview between 
the medical man and patient, and have settled in his mind the attraction which exercised so 
powerful an influence upon the physician ; for just as the well-known carriage drew up to 
the door, Quiz got on a chair, sat up on his hind legs, and began to put out his tongue, and 
hold forth his paw, as he had seen his mistress do, and evidently expected to be treated in a 
similar manner. His purpose was certainly gained, for he attracted universal attention by 
his ruse. He had not patience to keep his tongue out of his mouth, but rapidly thrust it out, 
and as rapidly withdrew it again. 

Poor Quiz died very shortly after I made acquaintance with him, a victim to the cholera, 
which at that time was rife in Oxford. 

THE VERY tiniest of the Dog family is the MEXICAN LAPDOG, a creature so very minute 
in its dimensions as to appear almost fabulous to those who have not seen the animal itself. 

One of these little canine pets is to be seen in the British Museum, and always attracts 
much attention from the visitors. Indeed, if it were not in so dignified a locality, it would 
be generally classed with the mermaid, the flying serpent, and the Tartar lamb, as an admir- 
able example of clever workmanship. It is precisely like those white woolen toy Dogs which 
sit upon a pair of bellows, and when pressed give forth a nondescript sound, intended to do 
duty for the legitimate canine bark. To say that it is no larger than these toys would be 
hardly true, for I have seen in the shop windows many a toy Dog which exceeded in size the 
veritable Mexican Lapdog. 

THE MAGNIFICENT animal which is termed the BLOODHOUND, on account of its peculiar 
facility for tracking a wounded animal through all the mazes of its devious course, is very 
scarce in England, as there is but little need for these Dogs for its chief employment. 

In the "good old times" this animal was largely used by thief -takers, for the purpose of 
tracking and securing the robbers who in those days made the country unsafe, and laid the 
roads under a black mail. Sheep-stealers, who were much more common jvhen the offence 
was visited with capital punishment, were frequently detected by the delicate nose of the 
BLOODHOUND, which would, when once laid on the scent, follow it up with unerring precision, 
unravelling the single trail from among a hundred crossing footsteps, and only to be baffled by 
water or blood. Water holds no scent, and if the hunted man is able to take a long leap into 
the water, and to get out again in some similar fashion, he may set at defiance the Blood- 
hound's nose. If blood be spilt upon the track, the delicate olfactories of the animal are 
blunted, and it is no longer able to follow the comparatively weak scent which is left by the 
retreating footsteps. 

Both these methods have been successfully employed, but in either case great caution is 
needed. When the hound suspects that the quarry has taken to the water, it swims backward 
and forward, testing every inch of the bank on both sides, and applying its nose to every leaf, 
stick, or frothy scum that comes floating by. 



218 



THE STAG HOUND. 



In this country the Bloodhound is chiefly employed in deer-shooting, aiding the sportsman 
by singling out some animal, and keeping it ever before him, and by driving it in certain 
directions, giving to its master an opportunity for a shot from his rifle. Should the deer not 
fall to the shot, but be only wounded, it dashes off at a greatly increased pace, followed by the 
Bloodhound, which here displays his qualities. Being guided by the blood-drops that stud 
the path of the wounded animal, the hound has an easy task in keeping the trail, and by dint 
of persevering exertions is sure to come up with his prey at last. 

The Bloodhound is generally irascible in temper, and therefore a rather dangerous animal 
to be meddled with by any one excepting its owner. So fierce is its desire for blood, and so utterly 
is it excited when it reaches its prey, that it will often keep its master at bay when he 
approaches, and receive his overtures with such unmistakable indications of anger that he will 




BLOODHOUND.- Canl* famUiarit. 

not venture to approach until his Bog has satisfied its appetite on the carcass of the animal 
which it has brought to the ground When fairly on the track of the deer, the Bloodhound 
utters a peculiar, long, loud, and deep bay, which, if once heard, will never be forgotten. 

The modern Bloodhound is not the same animal as that which was known by the same 
title in the days of early English history, the breed of which is supposed to be extinct. The 
ancient Bloodhound was, from all accounts, an animal of extremely irritable temper, and 
therefore more dangerous as a companion than the modern hound. 

The color of a good Bloodhound ought to be nearly uniform, no white being permitted, 
except on the tip of the stern. The prevailing tints are a blackish-tan, or a deep fawn. The 
tail of this Dog is long and sweeping, and by certain expressive wavings and flourishings 
of that member, the animal indicates its success or failure. 

CLOSELY allied to the bloodhound is the now rare STAGHOUKD, a Dog which is supposed to 
derive its origin from the bloodhound and the greyhound, the latter animal being employed in 
order to add lightness and speed to the exquisite scent and powerful limbs of the former. 
Sometimes the foxhound is used to cross with this animal. 

It is a large and powerful Dog, possessed of very great capabilities of scent, and able, like 
the bloodhound, to hold to the trail on which it is laid, and to distinguish it among the foot- 



THE STAGHOUND. 



219 



prints of a crowd. Despite of the infusion of greyhound blood, the Staghound is hardly so 
swift an animal as might be conjectured from its proportions, and probably on account of 
its slow pace has fallen into comparative disrepute at the present day. Until the death of 
George III. the stag-chase was greatly in vogue ; but since that time it has failed to attract the 
attention of the sporting world, and has gradually yielded to the greater charms of the fox- 
hunt. 

The real old English Staghound is now extremely rare, and is in danger of becoming 
entirely extinct. The Dog which is now used for the purpose of chasing the stag is simply 
a very large breed of the foxhound, which, on account of its superior length of limb, is more 




8TAGHO0ND. Cani* familiarit lagax aaxptoriiu. 

capable of matching itself against the swift-footed deer than the ordinary hound. These Dogs 
are very powerful when in a good state of health, and have been known to achieve very wonder- 
ful feats of speed and endurance. They have been known to run for a distance of fifty miles in 
pursuit of a stag ; and one memorable run is recorded, where the stag and the only two hounds 
which kept to its trail, were found dead close to each other. The stag had made one powerful 
effort, had leaped over a park wall, which the Dogs in their wearied state were unable to 
surmount, and had fallen dead just as it had gained a place of safety. 

It is needful that the Staghound should be a courageous as well as a powerful animal ; for 
when the stag is brought to bay it becomes a formidable antagonist, dashing boldly at the 
nearest foe, whether man or Dog, and often inflicting by the stroke of its sharp antlers a 
mortal wound upon any Dog that may be within its reach. Some degree of cunning is also 
requisite, so that the Dog may not rush blindly upon its fate, but may craftily watch its 
opportunity, and seize its quarry without suffering for its boldness. 

When the country was more open, and less broken up into fields and enclosures than is the 
case at the present, stag-hunting was a comparatively easy task, but in the present day, when a 



220 



THE FOXHOUND. 



free Englishman can hardly walk half-a-mile without being checked by a wall or fence, or 
a warning notice, the stag has so much the advantage of the hounds and horses that the chase 
has gradually sunk into comparative disuse. With one or two exceptions, the royal Stag- 
hounds are now almost the only representatives of this once popular and exciting sport. 

OF ALL the Dogs which are known by the common title of "hound," the FOXHOUND is the 
best known. There are few animals which have received more attention than the Foxhound, 
and none perhaps which have so entirely fulfilled the wishes of its teachers. A well-known 
sporting author, who writes under the nom deplume of " Stonehenge," remarks, with pardon- 
able enthusiasm, that " the modern Foxhound is one of the most wonderful animals in creation." 
The efforts which have been made, and the sums which have been spent, in the endeavor to 
make this animal as perfect as possible, are scarcely credible. 




FOXHOUND. Canis familial-it. 



Without in the least disparaging any efforts to improve the nature and the character of 
any animal, we cannot but draw a sad comparison between the unwearying pains that are 
bestowed upon the condition of the Foxhound, and the neglected state of many a human being 
in the vicinity of the palatial dog-kennel and the magnificent stables. At one establishment, 
eight or ten thousand pounds per annum have been expended iipon the Dogs and horses, and 
this for a series of many years. As might be expected, the command of such enormous sums 
of money, backed by great judgment on the parts of the owners and trainers of hounds, has 
produced a race of Dogs that for speed, endurance, delicate scent, and high courage, approach 
as near to absolute perfection as can well be imagined. 

By thus improving the condition of the domesticated Dog, the country has been bene- 
fited, for it is impossible to improve any inhabitant of a country without conferring a benefit 
on the land in which it is reared. Still, supposing that half the sums which are annually 
expended on training Dogs for the amusement of the upper classes had been employed in 
improving the condition of the uneducated and neglected poor, and had been backed by equal 
judgment, I cannot but fancy that the country would have received a greater benefit than is 
conferred upon it by the most admirable pack of hounds that can be conceived. 

It is supposed that the modem Foxhound derives its origin from the old English hound, 
and its various points of perfection from judicioiis crosses with other breeds. For example, 
in order to increase its speed, the greyhound is made to take part in his pedigree, and the 
greyhound having already some admixture of the bull-dog blood, there is an infusion of stub- 
bornness as well as of mere speed. 



THE FOXHOUND. 221 

There are various breeds of Dogs which are remarkable for the very great development of 
some peculiar faculty, such as speed in the greyhound, courage in the bull-dog, delicacy of 
ecent in the bloodhound, sagacity in the poodle, and so on. So that, when a breed of Dogs 
begins to fail in any of these characteristics, the fault is amended by the introduction of a 
Dog belonging to the breed which exhibits the needful quality in greatest perfection. It is 
remarkable that the mental character is transmitted through a longer series of descendants 
than the outward form. Even in the case of such widely different Dogs as the bull-dog and 
the greyhound, all vestige of the bull-dog form is lost in the fourth cross, while the deter- 
minate courage of the animal is persistent, and serves to invigorate the character of unnum- 
bered successive progeny. 

By using these means with the greatest care and judgment, the modern sportsmen have 
succeeded in obtaining an animal which is so accurate of scent, that it might almost challenge 
the bloodhound himself in its power of discovering it, and of adhering to it when found ; so 
determined in character, that it has many a time been known to persevere in its chase 
until it has fallen dead on the track ; and so swift of foot that few horses can keep pace with 
it in the hunting-field, if the scent be good and ground easy. It is averred by competent 
authority, that no man can undertake to remain in the same field with the hounds while they 
are running. 

The speed which can be attained by Foxhounds may be estimated from the well-known 
match which took place upon the Beacon course at Newmarket. The length of the course is 
4 miles 1 furlong and 132 yards, and this distance was run by the winning Dog, " Blue-cap," 
in eight minutes and a few seconds. The famous racehorse, "Flying Childers," in running 
over the same ground, was little more than half a minute ahead of the hounds. Now, if we 
compare the dimensions of the horse and the hound, we shall form a tolerably accurate con- 
ception of the extraordinary swiftness to which the latter animal can attain. In that match, 
no less than sixty horses started together with the competitors, but of the sixty only twelve 
were with the Dogs at the end of this short run. 

It must be remembered that, in addition to the severe and unceasing labor of the chase, 
in which the Dogs are always busily at work, either in searching for a lost scent, or following 
it up when found, the hounds are forced to undergo no small exertion in walking from their 
kennel to the "meet," which is frequently at some distance from their home; and then in 
walking back again when the chase is over. 

That the animal should be enabled to perform these severe tasks, which often occur 
several times weekly, it is necessary that it should not be too large, lest it should fatigue 
itself with its own bulk, and go through considerable needless exertion in forcing its way 
through thickets where a lesser Dog would pass without difficulty ; and it is equally necessary 
that it should not be too small, lest it should be unequal to the various impediments which 
cross its path, and by reason of its shorter limbs be unable to keep up properly with the rest 
of the pack. 

According to the latest authorities, the best average height for Foxhounds is from twenty- 
one to twenty-five inches, the female being generally smaller than the male. However, the 
size of the Dog does not matter so much ; but it is expected to match the rest of the pack in 
height as well as in general appearance. 

It has been well remarked, by a writer to whom allusion has already been made, that a 
hound ought not to be looked upon as an individual, but as a component part of a pack, and, 
therefore, that a Dog which will be almost invaluable in one pack will be quite inadmissible 
into another. It is a great fault in a Dog to be slower than its companions, but it is a fault of 
hardly less magnitude to be too fast for them, and to run away at such a pace that it seems to 
be getting all the hunting to itself. To use an expressive, but conventional term, " suitiness " 
is one of the principal points in a pack of hounds, which ought to appear as if they all 
belonged to one family. 

In its natural state, the head of the Foxhound has a different aspect from that which is 
presented by the trained dog. This change of appearance is caused by the custom of crop- 
ping, or rather of trimming, the ears, so as t<p dock them of their full proportions, and to 



222 THE HARRIER. 

leave no more of the external organ than is necessary to protect the orifice. It is said that 
this process is necessary in order to guard the animal's ears from being torn by the brambles 
and other thorny impediments which constantly come in its path, and through which the Dog 
is continually forced to thrust itself. But the custom does not seem to confer a corresponding 
benefit on the poor creature whose ears are subjected to the operator's steel, and it maybe that 
the custom of cropping Dogs' ears will go out of fashion, as is happily the case with the 
equally cruel practice of cropping the ears of horses, and docking their tails. 

This Dog is a sufficiently sagacious animal, and if it were subjected to the influence of 
man as frequently as the Terrier and other companions of the human race, would not lose by 
comparison with them. Even in the state of semi-civilization into which these Dogs are 
brought, their obedience to the voice and gestures of the huntsman is quite marvellous ; and 
even when in their kennel they will come individually to be fed, no Dog venturing to leave its 
place until its name has been called. 

As to the various sporting details connected with this animal, such as breeding, training, 
feeding, etc., they may be found in many sporting works, where they are elaborately discussed, 
but are not suitable for a work of the present character. 

THE HAERIER, so called because it is chiefly employed in hunting the hare, is in the 
present day nothing more or less than a small foxhound, the description of the latter animal 
serving equally for that of the former, with the one exception of size. As has been mentioned 
in the account of the foxhound, the average height is about twenty-three inches, but the height 
of the Harrier ought not to exceed eighteen or nineteen inches. 

Partly on account of its smaller size, and partly on account of the character of its work, 
the Harrier is not so swift an animal as the foxhound, and does not test so fully the speed and 
strength of the horses that follow in its track. It is a swifter animal in these days than was 
the case some few years back, because in the modern system of hare-hunting, poor "puss" is 
so rapidly followed by the hounds that she has no time to waste in those subtle contrivances 
for throwing the hounds off her track for which she is so justly famous, and which have often 
baffled the efforts of the best and strongest Harriers. 

The points of a good Harrier are similar to those of the foxhound, and may be described 
as follows : 

"There are necessary points in the shape of a hound which ought always to be attended 
to by a sportsman, for if he be not of a perfect symmetry he will neither run fast nor bear 
much work. He has much to undergo, and should have strength proportioned to it. Let his 
legs be straight as arrows, his feet round and not too large ; his shoulders back ; his breast 
rather wide than narrow ; his chest deep ; his back broad ; his head small ; his neck thin ; his 
tail thick and bushy ; if he carry it well, so much the better. Such hounds as are out at the 
elbows, and such as are weak from the knees to the foot, should never be taken into the pack. 

" I find that I have mentioned a small head as one of the necessary requisites of a hound ; 
but you will observe that it is relative to beauty only, for as to goodness, I believe that large- 
headed hounds are in no wise inferior. The color I think of little moment, and am of opinion 
with our friend Foote, respecting his negro friend, that a good Dog, like a good candidate, 
cannot be of bad color." 

These remarks were written by Beckford, in the year 1779, and are of such sterling value 
that they are accepted even in the present day as the criteria of a good hound. He proceeds 
to observe in the same letter from which the above description has been transcribed, that the 
shape of the Dog's head is as variable as the color of his hide, and that some sportsmen prefer 
a sharp-nosed hound, while others care nothing for a Dog unless he have a large and roomy 
head. Each, however, in his opinion, is equally useful in its own way ; for " speed and beaiity 
are the chief excellences of the one, while stoutness and tenderness of nose in hunting are char- 
acteristic of the other." To these qualifications the modern huntsmen have added another, 
consisting of depth of the back ribs, in order to secure a stout build, and the capability of 
enduring daily work for a lengthened period. 

Uniformity of size and color is even more requisite in a pack of Harriers than of foxhounds. 



THE BEAULE. 

Such packs indeed are often composed of the latter variety of Dog, which are too small to be 
admitted into the regular foxhound pack. However, if a pack is composed of these dwarf 
foxhounds, the two best characters of the true Harrier are lost, namely, the musical tongue 
and the sensitive nose, and the only compensating quality that these animals possess is extreme 
speed. A pack of true Harriers is distinguished for the melodious tongues of its members 
which can be heard at a distance of several miles, while the delicacy of their scent is so great 
that they can work out all the complicated doubles of the hare. 

THERE are several breeds of the BEAGLE, which are distinguishable from each other by 
their size and general aspect. 

The Medium-sized Beagle is not unlike the harrier, but is heavier about the throat than 
that animal, and has stouter limbs, and a comparatively larger body. The height of this Dog 
is from a foot to fourteen or fifteen inches. 




BEAGLE. C'anif familiaris tagax irHtant. 

The Eough Beagle is thought to be produced by crossing the original stock with the rough 
terrier, and possesses the squeaking bark of the terrier rather than the prolonged musical 
intonation of the Beagle. Some authorities, however, take the animal to be a distinct variety. 
The nose of this creature is furnished with the stiff whisker-hairs which are found on the 
muzzle of the rough terrier, and the fur is nearly as stiff and wiry as the terrier's. 

The Dwarf Beagle, or Eabbit Beagle, as it is sometimes called, is the smallest of the three 
animals, delicate in form and aspect, but good of nose and swift of foot. So very small are 
some of these little creatures that a whole pack has been conveyed to and from the field in 
hampers slung over the back of a horse, or simply in the shooting pockets of the men. Their 
strength was thus preserved for the labors of the field, and they were saved from the fatiguing 
walk to the field and back again. Ten inches is the average height of a Eabbit Beagle. 

These little Dogs are chiefly employed by those who hunt on foot, as they are not suffi- 
ciently swift to drive the hare from her doubles, and by patiently tracking her through all her 
wiles, "win like Fabius, by delay." Beagles used to be much in favor with the junior mem- 
bers of the universities, for the purpose of affording a pleasant afternoon's amusement. It is 
true that the legitimate object of chase, namely, the hare, is seldom forthcoming, but her place 
is readily supplied by a long-winded lad, who traverses the country at speed, trailing after 
him a rabbit-skin well rubbed with turpentine or aniseed. If the scent be good, and the course 
lie tolerably straight, the endurance of the hunter is severely tested, but if the miniature 
hounds come often to a check, any one of average powers can be in at the finish. 



224 



THE POINTER. 



THEKE are two breeds of the POINTER, the modern English Pointer, and the Spanish 
Pointer. The latter of these Dogs is now seldom used in the field, as it is too slow and 
heavily built an animal for the present fast style of sporting, which makes the Dogs do all the 
ranging, and leaves to their master but a comparatively small amount of distance to pass over. 
The nose of this Dog is peculiarly delicate, as may be inferred from its exceedingly wide 
Jtnuzzle, and for those sportsmen who cannot walk fast or far, it is an useful assistant. 

As may be seen from the engraving, the modern English Pointer is a very different animal, 
built on a much lighter model, and altogether with a more bold and dashing air about it. 
While it possesses a sufficiently wide muzzle to permit the development of the olfactory 




POINTER.- Canis familiars aviculariut. 

nerves, its limbs are so light and wiry that it can match almost any Dog in speed. Indeed, 
some of these animals are known to eqiial a slow greyhound in point of swiftness. 

This quality is specially useful, because it permits the sportsman to walk forward, at a 
moderate pace, while his Dogs are beating over the field to his right and left. The sagacious 
animals are so obedient to the voice and gesture of their master, and are so well trained to act 
with each other, that at a wave of the hand they will separate, one going to the right and the 
other to the left, and so traverse the entire field in a series of "tacks," to speak nautically, 
crossing each other regularly in front of the sportsman as he walks forward. 

When either of them scents a bird, he stops suddenly, arresting even his foot as it is 
raised in the air, his head thrust forward, his body and limbs fixed, and his tail stretched 
straight out behind him. This attitude is termed a "point," and on account of this peculiar 
mode of indicating game, the animal is termed the "Pointer." The Dogs are so trained that 
when one of them comes to a point he is backed by his companion, so as to avoid the disturb- 
ance of more game than is necessary for the purpose of the sportsman. 

It is a matter of some difficulty to teach their lesson rightly, for the Dogs are quite as 
liable to error through their over-anxiety to please their master as through sluggishness or 
carelessness. Such Dogs are very provoking in the field, for they will come to a point at 
almost every strange odor that crosses their nostrils, and so will stand at pigs, sparrows, cats, 



. THE POINTER. , 225 

or any other creature that may come in their way, and will hold so firmly to their "point" 
that they cannot be induced to move, except by compulsory means. This extreme excitability 
seems to be caused by too close adherence to the same stock in breeding, and is set right by a 
judicious admixture with another family. 

According to " Stonehenge," the marks of a good Pointer are as follows. "A moderately 
large head, wide rather than long, with a high forehead and an intelligent eye, of medium size. 
Muzzle broad, with its outline square in front, not receding as in the hound. Flews (i.e. the 
overhanging lips) manifestly present, but not pendent. The head should be well set on the 
neck, with a peculiar form at the junction only seen in the Pointer. The neck itself should 
be long, convex in its upper outline, without any tendency to a dewlap or a ruff, as the loose 
skin covered with long hair round the neck is called. The body is of good length, with a 
strong loin, wide hips, and rather arched ribs, the chest being well let down, but not in a 
hatchet shape as in the greyhound, and the depth in the back ribs being proportionably 
greater than in that Dog. The tail, or ' stern,' as it is technically called, is strong at the root, 
but, suddenly diminishing, it becomes very fine, and then continues nearly of the same size to 
within two inches of the tip, where it goes off to a point, looking as sharp as the sting of a 
wasp, and giving the whole very much the appearance of that part of the insect, but magnified 
as a matter of course. This peculiar shape of the stern characterizes the breed, and its absence 
shows a cross with the hound or some other Dog." 

The author then proceeds to recommend long, slanting, but muscular shoulder-blades, a 
long upper arm, a very low elbow, and a short fore-arm. The feet must be round and strong, 
and padded with a thick sole, the knee strong, and the ankle of full size. The color is of com- 
paratively small importance, but ought, if possible, to be white, so that the animal may be 
visible while beating among heather, clover, or turnips. Black or liver-colored dogs are very 
handsome to the eye, but often cause much trouble to the sportsman, on account of the diffi- 
culty of distinguishing them among the herbage. White Dogs, with lemon-colored heads, are 
the favorites of this author. 

As the Pointer is seldom in contact with its master, except when in the field, its domestic 
qualities are rarely prized as they deserve to be. No Dog can be properly appreciated until 
it is a constant companion of man, and it is probable that many Dogs which are set down as 
stupid and untractable, are only so called becaiise they have been deprived of the society of 
human beings, through whom alone their higher qualities can be developed, and have been con- 
fined to the kennel, the yard, or the field. The Pointer is but little known as a companion 
Dog, but when it is in the habit of living constantly with its owner speedily puts forth its 
intellectual powers, and becomes an amusing and interesting companion. One of my friends 
has kindly sent me the following account of a Pointer that belonged to him, and had been 
constantly with his master for a lengthened period of time. The animal was not an example 
of the thorough-bred Pointer, but was, nevertheless, a very respectable creature. 

" I O:NCE possessed a Dog whose nose, sight, and instinct were well developed ; and as he 
was my companion for many a day, and my only friend for many months, some of his pecu- 
liarities may not be uninteresting. 

" The Dog could point a partridge, but he would eat it, too, if he had a chance ; and often 
when I could not take a day 1 s shooting I have observed my Dog doing a little amateur work 
on his own account. Very successful, also, was he in this occupation ; and he frequently 
dined on a partridge or quail which he had gained by means of his own skill. There was no 
concealing the fact that he was, however, an arrant coward ; and he himself was perfectly 
conscious of this defect. As is usual amongst men, he endeavored to conceal his weakness by 
the aid of a formidable exterior ; and few who knew him not would ever venture even to 
insinuate that he was not as brave as a lion. If he happened to encounter any other Dog with 
which he was unacquainted he would immediately stand perfectly still, raise his tail, and keep 
it very firmly in one position ; he would then elevate the hair on his back, and dragging up 
his jowls, would exhibit a formidable array of grinders. Thus exhibiting by no means a pre- 
possessing appearance, he would merely growl whilst the other Dog walked round him, and 



THE DALMATfAN OR COACH DO&. 

he thus frequently prevented any liberties from being taken with him. No sooner had his 
visitor left him than his attitude would change ; and with a glance, as much as to say, ' I did 
that very well,' he would jog along before ma. In spite of his warlike positions, he was once 
terribly punished by a little terrier which resided in a buteher's shambles. Passing this 
locality, my Dog was set upon before even he had time to study attitiides or to assume a pose, 
so he made good use of his legs, and escaped with a few scratches. Now it happened that 
amongst Ms friends he had one which was a well-bred bull terrier, and after the mauling that 
he had received from the butcher's Dog I noticed that he was very much oftener with this 
friend than he had been before. The next time that I attempted to take him past the shambles 
he refused to come, and retreated home. I followed him, and, by dint of whistling, at length 
brought him out from his retreat, from which he was followed by his friend the bull terrier. 

"The two jogged along very pleasantly and cheerfully, my Dog evidently paying marked 
attention to his friend. When we approached the locality of the shambles my Dog ran 
along in front, whilst the bull terrier followed behind, and both looked as though ' up ' to 
something. Opposite the shambles the terrier rushed out upon my Dog, which retreated with 
wonderful precipitancy behind his friend, who at once collared the assailant, and tumbled 
him over and over to the tune of the joyful barks of my old cur, which had evidently made 
the preliminary arrangements with his friend for this scene." 

The same Dog was once taught a useful lesson in a singular manner. His master is an 
officer, and during the time when he possessed the Dog was annoyed by its constant intrusion 
into the mess-room when breakfast was on the table. Nothing could keep the Dog away from 
the tempting tables with their savory viands, and as each member of the mess was liable to a 
fine every time that his Dog entered the room it was clear that these pertinacious intrusions 
must be stopped. 

One morning the Dog crept into the room, after its custom, and fortunately there was no 
one at breakfast except its master. Attracted by the ham and fowls that lay so temptingly on 
the table, the Dog stealthily approached them, and stood pointing at the longed-for food, with 
watering mouth and eager eye. Seeing the Dog's attention thus occupied, his master slyly 
tilted the teapot, so as to let a slender stream of the hot liquid trickle on the Dog's back. At 
first, its faculties were so absorbed in contemplation of the forbidden dainties, that it only 
acknowledged the hot liquid by a nervous twitching of the skin. As soon, however, as the 
fur was saturated, and the full effects of the boiling tea made themselves felt, the Dog sprang 
up with a yell of astonishment, and dashed howling through the door. Ever after its adven- 
ture with the teapot, no inducement could tempt the animal to enter that room, or come fairly 
within the threshold ; and even if a chicken bone were held out as a bait the poor Dog would 
only lick its lips, and put on a plaintive and beseeching look as an appeal to the humanity of 
its tempter. 

THE DALMATIAN DOG is even better known as a carriage or coach Dog than the Danish 
Dog, which has already been described and figured. Its shape is very like that of the pointer, 
but the artificially shortened ears give it a different aspect. 

The ground color of this animal's fur is nearly white, and is richly crossed with black 
spots, earning for it, in common with the Danish Dog, the title of "Plum-pudding." The 
height of this animal is about twenty-four or twenty-five inches. Some years ago, the Dalma- 
tian Dog was very frequently seen in attendance upon the carriage of its owner, scampering 
along in high glee by the side of the vehicle, or running just in front of the horses, apparently 
in imminent danger of being knocked over every moment. Now, however, the creature has 
lost its hold on the fashionable world, and is but seldom seen. 

This animal is seldom if ever permitted to be the constant companion of its master, and 
has therefore but little of that humanly intelligent look which marks the countenance of the 
companionable poodle or spaniel, and gives to the animal a certain semblance of its master. 

We may see in every country a singular similitude between the human inhabitants of the 
land and the various animals which tread the same earth and breathe the same air. So we 



THE DALMATIAN OR COACH DOG. 227 

find that the countries which are the most productive of ferocious animals are most productive 
of ferocious men : the Lion of Africa, the Tiger of India, the Grizzly Bear of America, the 
Polar Bear of the northern regions, being but lower types of the destructive humanity that 
prevails in those portions of the globe. 

As this subtle bond of similar affections is found to pervade the wild animals and the 
human inhabitants of the same country, it is but natural that when the man and the brute are 
drawn closer together by domestication, and the higher Being enabled to pour its influence 
upon the lower, the similarity in their character should be still more apparent. 

So we find that, whether in cats, Dogs, or horses, the animals which are most frequently 
made the companions of man, the disposition of the owner is reflected in the character of the 
beast. The large-hearted, kind-souled man will be surrounded with loving and gentle animals. 
His cat will sit and purr upon his shoulder fearless of repulse, his Dog will love and reverence 
his master with faithful worship, and his horse will follow him about the field in which it is 
freely grazing, and solicit the kind notice to which it is accustomed. On the other hand, the 




DALMATIAN OK COACH DOG Cams /amUtaru. 

cross and snappish cat, the snarling Dog, and the crabbed-tempered horse are sure signs of 
corresponding qualities in the man that owns them, and will deter an observer of animal 
natures from placing his confidence in the man who could infuse such evil qualities into the 
creatures that surround him, and from whom they take their tone. 

As the Dog is possessed of a disposition which is more easily assimilated with that of man 
than is the case with most animals, the affinity between itself and its master is constantly 
brought before our notice. 

One man loves nothing so well as the largest Newfoundland or deerhound, while another 
is not satisfied unless his Dog be of the minutest proportions compatible with canine nature. 
One man places his faith in the terrier, another in the poodle ; one prefers the retriever, and 
another the spaniel. The man who pursues his sport at morning, in the face of the sun, is 
accompanied by the loud-tongued foxhound or beagle ; while the skulking nocturnal poacher 
is aided in his midnight thefts by the silent and crafty lurcher. 

But of all the Dogs that are associated with man, and of all the men that make compan- 
ionship with Dogs, the most repulsive, and most to be avoided by honest Dogs and men, are 
the bull-dog and his owner. 

I may be accused of delivering too severe a judgment on Dog and man. Those who have 
been led by duty, curiosity, or chance through the unsavory localities which are haunted by 
the members of the "Fancy," and have instinctively stepped aside from the fur-capped, 
beetle-browed, sleek -haired, suspicious ruffian, leading his sullen and scowling bull -dog at his 



228 



SETTER DOGS. 



heels, will hardly find terms too severe for the depraved human character that could encourage 
or cherish such an epitome of the most brutal features of the canine nature. Dog and man 
suit each other admirably ; and, had there been no human ruffian, there would have been no 
canine representation of his own ruffianism. 

That such a similarity should exist is an absolute necessity, inasmuch as the more power- 
ful nature will inevitably expel the weaker, unless there is something in common between their 
characters, which will enable the higher being to convey its meaning to the lower, and the 
lower to receive obediently the mandates of the higher. As the two natures become more 
assimilated, they produce a corresponding effect in the outer form, and the resemblance 
extends to form and feature as well as to character. We notice the same effect to be produced 




ENGLISH SETTER. Con fa famUiaris. 

among human beings when they are much thrown together, and a similar though not so 
evident a phenomenon takes place between the man and the brute. 

The very form of the Dog tells its character as clearly as the human countenance betrays 
the disposition of the spirit which moulds its lines. It is most truly said by Bailey, in that 
mine of golden poetry, "Festus" : 

" All animals are living hieroglyphs 
The dashing Dog and stealthy-stepping cat, 
Hawk, bull, and all that breathe, mean something more 
To the true eye than their shapes show ; for all 
Were made in love, and made to be beloved." 

As the pointers derive their name from their habits of standing still and pointing at any 
game which they may discover, so the SETTEES have earned their title from their custom of 
"setting" or crouching when they perceive their game. In the olden days of sporting, the 
Setter used always to drop as soon as it found the game, but at the present day the animal is 
in so far the imitator of the pointer, that it remains erect while marking down its game. 

There are several breeds of these animals : the ordinary English Setter, the Russian Setter, 
and the Irish Setter, 



SETTER DOGS. 229 

Each of these breeds possesses its particular excellences, which are combined in experienced 
and skillful hands by careful admixtures of one breed with another. 

The Russian Setter is a curious animal in appearance, the fur being so long and woolly in 
texture, and so thoroughly matted together, that the form of the Dog is rendered quite indis- 
tinct. It is by no means a common animal, and is but seldom seen. It is an admirable 
worker, quartering its ground very closely, seldom starting game without first marking them ; 
and possessed of a singularly delicate nose. In spite of its heavy coat, it bears heat as well as 
the lighter-clad pointer, and better than the ordinary English Setters, with their curly locks. 
When crossed with the English Setter it produces a mixed breed, which seems to be as near 
perfection as can be expected in a Dog, and which unites the good properties of both parents. 
A well-known sportsman, when trying these Dogs against his own animal, which he fondly 
thought to be unrivalled, found that the Russian animals obtained three points where his own 
Dog only made one, and that from their quiet way of getting over the ground they did not 
put up the birds out of gun-range, as was too often the case with his own swifter-footed Dogs. 

The muzzle of this animal is bearded almost as much as that of the deerhound and the 
Scotch terrier, and the overhanging hair about the eyes gives it a look of self -relying intelli- 
gence that is very suggestive of the expression of a Skye terrier's countenance. The soles of 
the feet are well covered with hair, so that the Dog is able to bear plenty of hard work among 
heather or other rough substances. 

The Irish Setter is very similar to the English animal, but has larger legs in proportion to 
the size of the body, and is distinguished from its English relative by a certain Hibernian air 
that characterizes it, and which, although conspicuous enough to a practised eye, is not easy 
of description. 

Taking as our authority the author above quoted, in the history of the pointer, the points 
of the Setter are shortly as follows : "A moderately heavy head, but not so much so as in the 
pointer ; the muzzle not so broad nor so square in profile, the lower angle being rounded off, 
but the upper being still nearly a right angle. The eye is similar to that of the pointer, but 
not so soft, being more sparkling and full of spirit. The ear long, but thin, and covered with 
soft, silky hair, slightly waved. The neck is long, but straighter than that of the pointer, 
being also lighter and very flexible. The back and loins are hardly so strong as those of the 
pointer, the latter also being rather longer ; the hips also are more ragged, and the ribs not so 
round and barrel-like. The tail or ' flag ' is usually set on a little lower, is furnished with a 
fan-like brush of long hair, and is slightly curled upwards towards the tip, but it should never 
be carried over the back or raised above the level of its root, excepting while standing, and 
then a slight elevation is admired, every hair standing down with a stiff and regular appear- 
ance. The elbow, when in perfection, is placed so low as to be fully an inch below the brisket, 
making the fore-arm appear very short. The hind-feet and legs are clothed with hair or 
'feathered,' as it is called, in the same way as the fore-legs, and the amount of this beautiful 
provision is taken into consideration in selecting the Dog for his points." 

This description applies equally to the English and the Irish Setters. 

While at work, the Setter has a strange predilection for water, and this fancy is carried 
so far in some Dogs that they will not go on with their work unless they can wet the whole of 
their coats once at least in every half -hour. If deprived of this luxury they pant and puff with 
heat and exertion, and are quite useless for the time. 

It seems that the Setter is a less tractable pupil than the pointer, and even when taught is 
apt to forget its instructions, and requires a second course of lessons before it will behave 
properly in the field. Owing to the rough coat and hair-defended feet of the Setter, it is able 
to go through more rough work than the pointer, and is therefore used in preference to that 
animal, where the rough stem of the heather would work much woe to a tender-footed Dog, 
and where the vicissitudes of the climate are so rapid and so fierce that they would injure the 
constitution of any but a most powerfully built animal. 

This Dog, as well as the foxhound and harrier, is guided to its game by the odor that 
proceeds from the bird or beast which it is following ; but the scent reaches its notrils in a 
different manner. 



230 



THE RETRIEVER. 



The foxhound, together with the harrier and beagle, follows up the odorous track which is 
left on the earth by the imprint of the hunted animal's feet, or the accidental contact of the 
under-side of its body with the ground. But the pointer, Setter, spaniel, and other Dogs that 
are employed in finding victims for the gun, are attracted at some distance by the scent that 
exhales from the body of its game, and are therefore said to hunt by "body-scent," in contra- 
distinction to the hounds who hunt by "foot-scent." The direction in which the wind blows 
is, therefore, a matter of some consequence, and is duly taken advantage of by every good 
sportsman. 

RETRIEVER Dogs, which are so called on account of their value in recovering or "retriev- 
ing" game that has fallen out of the reach of the sportsman, or on which he does not choose 
to expend the labor of fetching for himself, are of various kinds, and in every case are obtained 




RETRIEVER. Cauls famiUaru. 



by a crossing of two breeds. There are two principal breeds of Retrievers, the one being 
obtained by the mixture of a Newfoundland Dog and a setter, and the other by a cross between 
the water spaniel and the terrier. 

The former of these breeds is the most generally known, and is the animal which is 
represented in the engraving. On inspection of this Dog, the characteristics of both parents 
are plainly perceptible in its form. For the larger kinds of game, such as hares or pheasants, 
this Dog is preferable to the Terrier Retriever, as it is a more powerful animal, and therefore 
better able to carry its burden ; but, for the lesser description of game, the smaller Dog is 
preferable for many reasons. 

The height of the large Retriever is from twenty -two to twenty-four inches ; its frame is 
powerfully built, and its limbs strong. A good nose is necessary, for the purpose of enabling 
the Dog to trace the devious and manifold windings of the wounded birds, which would baffle 
any animal not endowed with so exquisite a sense of smell. The fur of this Dog is curly and 
of moderate length, and is almost invariably black in color. Indeed, many Dog-owners will 
repudiate a Retriever of any other color but black. 



THE RETRIEVER. 281 

To train a Retriever properly is rather a difficult task, demanding the greatest patience 
and perseverance on the part of the instructor. It is comparatively easy to teach a Dog to 
fetch and carry a load, but to teach him to retrieve in water is quite a different matter. On 
land the Dog can see the object from some little distance, but in the water his nose is so nearly 
on a level with the object for which he is searching, that he can only see a very little distance 
ahead, and must learn to guide his way by the voice and gesture of his master. 

It is said that the greatest difficulty in the course of instruction is to keep the Dog from 
the water-rats, which are found so abundantly on the banks of rivers and ponds, and which 
afford such powerful temptations to a young and inexperienced animal. 

Another obstacle in the tuition is the natural propensity of the Dog to bark when he is 
excited ; and as a young Dog is excited by almost everything that crosses his path, he gener- 
ally tries his teacher's patience sorely before he learns to be silent and not to disturb the 
game by even a low whine. Again : the natural instinct of the Dog tells him to eat the animal 
which he has found, and it is not until he has been duly instructed that he learns to bring the 
game to his master without injuring it. July and August are the best months for teaching 
the Retriever, because the water is then comparatively warm, and there is no risk of disgusting 
the animals by forcing them into an icy bath, or of bringing on disease by overmuch exposure 
to a cold wind while their coats are wet and themselves wearied. 

In order to keep the Dog from closing his teeth too firmly upon the game, he should 
always be made to lay down his spoil at his master's feet, or to loosen his hold as soon as his 
master touches the object which he is carrying. If the prey be snatched from his mouth, he 
instinctively bites sharply in order to retain it ; and when he gets into so bad a habit often 
damages the dead game so much that it is quite useless. Whenever a Dog is sent to fetch any 
object he must on no account be permitted to return without it, as, if he should once do so, he 
will ever afterwards be liable to give up the search as soon as he feels tired. 

There are many other little difficulties in the training of the Retriever, some of them inci- 
dental to the Dog, simply because it is a Dog, and others belonging to the character of the 
individual animal. One great point to gain is, to make the Dog imderstand that the birds 
which he delights in fetching are killed by the gun and not by himself. Until he fully under- 
stands this lesson he is apt to dart off in chase of a bird as soon as he sees it, or perceives its 
scent, and to chase it until it is out of sight, just as we may see puppies chasing sparrows 
half over a field, barking at them as if they were to be caught as easily as if they were so many 
mice. 

The smaller Retriever is produced by a cross of the terrier with the beagle, and in many 
points is superior to the large black Retriever. Should a larger animal be required, the pointer 
is employed in the cross instead of the beagle. 

They are very quiet Dogs, and when on their quest do not make so much noise as the 
larger Retrievers, so that they are especially useful when the game is wild. The kind of 
terrier which is employed in the crossing depends on the caprice of the breeder, some persons 
preferring the smooth English Dog, and others the rough Scotch terrier. Being small Dogs, 
they can be kept in the house, and become very companionable, so tljat when they go to their 
regular work they feel more love and respect for their master than would have been the case 
if they had been kept in a kennel, or sent to a cottage on board-wages. 

Spaniels can be taught to retrieve, and will perform their task nearly as well as a Retriever 
itself. A thoroughly well-taught Dog is almost invaluable to the sportsman, and will com- 
mand a large price. If possible, the animal should in every case be taught by the person who 
intends to use him in the field, as neither the Dog nor its master can learn each other's ways 
without some experience, and without this knowledge neither can work well, or feel sure of 
the co-operation of the other. 

These animals are also valuable for retrieving, because, like the smaller Retrievers, they 
are capable of sharing the house with their master, and are therefore more amenable to his 
authority, and more likely to follow out his wishes, than if their intercourse were restricted 
to the hunting-field. The peculiar and very unpleasant odor of the skin, which is found to 
exist in almost every kind of Dog, can be removed by careful and periodical washing a prac- 



232 THE SHEPHERD'S DOG. 

tice which the animal soon learns to appreciate. There is, however, a drawback to the com- 
panionship of the Dog, in the parasitic insects with which it is generally infested, and which 
are too tenacious of life to be destroyed by immersion in water, or too strong to be dislodged 
by ordinary mechanical means. 

The only method by which these disagreeable pests can be destroyed is by a rapidly acting 
poison, which kills them before they can retreat from its action. Such poisonous substances 
are too often dangerous to the Dog as well as to its parasites, and may seriously injure the 
animal instead of conferring any benefit upon it. Preparations of mercury are frequently 
used for this purpose, but are dangerous remedies for the reason above given, and are, more- 
over, rather tedious of application, requiring a careful rubbing in of the poison, and as careful 
a rubbing out again, together with the drawback of a muzzle on the poor Dog's mouth for 
three or four days, to prevent him from licking his irritated skin. 

One very safe and very quick remedy is the "Persian Insect-destroying Powder," which 
has almost a magical effect, and is perfectly harmless to the Dog. 

The best mode of applying this remedy is, first to dust the Dog well with the substance 
until every portion of him has received a few particles of the powder, and then to put him 
into a strong canvas bag, in which a small handful of the powder has been placed and shaken 
about well, so as to distribute it equally over the interior of the bag. Leave his head protrud- 
ing from the bag, and put on his head and neck a linen cap, in which are holes for his nose 
and eyes, and let the interior of the cap be well treated with the powder. Lay him on the 
ground, and let him tumble about as much as he chooses, the more the better. In an hour or 
two let him out of the bag, and scrub his coat well the wrong way with a stiff brush. 

If, during this operation, the Dog be placed on a sheet, or any white substance, it will be 
covered with dead and dying insects, and if the contents of the bag be emptied upon the white 
cloth, the number of moribund parasites will be rather astonishing. In a week or so the 
operation should be repeated, in order to destroy the creatures that have been produced from 
the unhatctied eggs that always resist the powers of the destructive powder. I have person- 
ally tried the experiment, and have found the results to be invariably successful. The 
same substance is equally useful in freeing birds from their chief pest, the red mite, and is 
of deadly efficacy in the immolation of certain insects that are too often found in human 
houses. 

THE MOST useful variety of the canine species is that sagacious creature on whose talent 
and energy depends the chief safety of the flock. 

This animal seems to be, as far can be judged from appearances, the original ancestor of 
the true British Dogs, and preserves its pecular aspect in almost every country in Europe. It 
is a rather large Dog, as is necessary, in order to enable the animal to undergo the incessant 
labor which it is called on to perform, and is possessed of limbs sufficiently large and power- 
ful to enable it to outrun the truant members of the flock, who, if bred on the mountain-side, 
are so swift and agile that they would readily baffle the efforts of any Dog less admirably fitted 
by nature for the task of^keeping them together. 

As the Sheep-dog is constantly exposed to the weather, it needs the protection of very 
thick and closely-set fur, which, in this Dog, is rather woolly in its character, and is especially 
heavy about the neck and breast. The tail of the Sheep-dog is naturally long and bushy, but 
is generally removed in early youth, on account of the now obsolete laws, which refused to 
acknowledge any Dog as a Sheep-dog, or to exempt it from the payment of a tax, unless it 
were deprived of its tail. This law, however, often defeated its own object, for many persons 
who liked the sport of coursing, and cared little for appearances, used to cut off the tails of 
their greyhounds, and evade the tax by describing them as Sheep-dogs. 

The muzzle of this Dog is sharp, its head is of moderate size, its eyes are very bright and 
intelligent, as might be expected in an animal of so much sagacity and ready resource in time 
of need. Its feet are strongly made, and sufficiently well protected to endure severe work 
among the harsh stems of the heather on the hills, or the sharply -cutting stones of the high- 
road. Probably on account of its constant exercise in the open air, and the hardy manner in 



THE SHEPHERD'S DOO. 



233 



which it is brought up, the Sheep-dog is perhaps the most untiring of our domesticated 
animals. 

There are many breeds of this animal, differing from each other in color and aspect, and 
deriving their varied forms from the Dog with which the family has been crossed. Nearly 
all the sporting Dogs are used for this purpose, so that some Sheep-dogs have something of 
the pointer nature in them, others of the foxhound, and others of the setter. This last cross 
is the most common. Together with the outward form, the creature inherits much of the sport- 
ing predilections of its ancestry, and is capable of being trained into a capital sporting Dog. 

Many of these animals are sad double-dealers in their characters, being by day most 
respectable Sheep-dogs, and by night most disreputable poachers. The mixed offspring of 
a Sheep-dog and a setter is as silently successful in discovering and marking game by night as 
he is openly useful in managing the flocks by day. As he spends the whole of his time in the 




SHEPHERD'S DOG. Cants famiHarit pemarius. 



society of his master, and learns from long companionship to comprehend the least gesture of 
hand or tone of voice, he is far better adapted for nocturnal poaching than the more legitimate 
setter or retriever, and causes far more deadly havoc among the furred and feathered game. 
Moreover, he often escapes the suspicion of the gamekeeper by his quiet and honorable 
demeanor during the daytime, and his devotion to his arduous task of guarding the fold, and 
reclaiming its wandering members. It seems hardly possible that an animal which works so 
hard during the day should be able to pass the night in beating for game. 

Sometimes there is an infusion of the bull-dog blood into the Sheep-dog, but this mixture 
is thought to be unadvisable, as such Dogs are too apt to bite their charge, and so to alienate 
from themselves the confidence of the helpless creatures whom they are intended to protect, 
and not to injure. Unless the sheep can feel that the Dog is, next to the shepherd, their best 
friend, the chief value of the animal is lost. 

It is well observed by Mr. Youatt, in his valuable work on these Dogs, that if the sheep 
do not crowd round the Dog when they are alarmed, and place themselves under his protection, 
there is something radically wrong in the management of the flock. He remarks, that the 
Dog will seldom, if ever, bite a sheep, unless incited to do so by its master, and suggests that 



234 THE SCOTCH SHEEP-DOG. 

the shepherd should be liable to a certain fine for every tooth-mark upon his flock. Very 
great injury is done to the weakly sheep and tender lambs by the crowding and racing that 
takes place when a cruel Dog begins to run among the flock. However, the fault always lies 
more with the shepherd than with his Bog, for as the man is, so will his Dog be. The reader 
must bear in mind that the barbarous treatment to which travelling flocks are so often sub- 
jected is caused by drovers and not shepherds, who, in almost every instance, know each 
sheep by its name, and are as careful of its well-being as if it were a member of their own 
family. The Dogs which so persecute the poor sheep in their bewilderments among cross- 
roads and the perplexity of crowded streets, are in their turn treated by their masters quite 
as cruelly as they treat the sheep. In this, as in other instances, it is "like man and like 
Dog." 

As a general rule, the Sheep-dog cares little for any one but his master, and so far from 
courting the notice or caresses of a stranger will coldly withdraw from them, and keep his 
distance. Even with other Dogs he rarely makes companionship, contenting himself with the 
society of his master alone. 

THE SCOTCH SHEEP-DOG, more familiarly called the COLLET, is not unlike the English 
Sheep-dog in character, though it rather differs from that animal in form. It is sharp of nose, 
bright and mild of eye, and most sagacious of aspect. Its body is heavily covered with long 
and woolly hair, which stands boldly out from its body, and forms a most effectual screen 
against the heat of the blazing sun, or the cold, sleety blasts of the winter winds. The tail is 
exceedingly bushy, and curves upwards towards the end, so as to carry the long hairs free 
from the ground. The color of the fur is always dark, and is sometimes variegated with a 
very little white. The most approved tint is black and tan ; but it sometimes happens that 
the entire coat is of one of these colors, and in that case the Dog is not so highly valued. 

The "dew-claws" of the English and Scotch Sheep-dogs are generally double, and are not 
attached to the bone, as is the case with the other claws. At the present day it is the custom 
to remove these appendages, on the grounds that they are of no use to the Dog, and that they 
are apt to be rudely torn off by the various obstacles through which the animal is obliged to 
force its way, or by the many accidents to which it is liable in its laborious vocation. In the 
entire aspect of this creature there is a curious resemblance to the Dingo, as may be seen on 
reference to the account of that animal in a subsequent page. 

It is hardly possible to overrate the marvellous intelligence of a well-taught Sheep-dog ; 
for if the shepherd were deprived of the help of his Dog his office would be almost impracti- 
cable. It has been forcibly said by a competent authority that, if the work of the Dog were 
to be performed by men, their maintenance would more than swallow up the entire profits 
of the flock. They, indeed, could never direct the sheep so successfully as the Dog directs 
them ; for the sheep understand the Dog better than they comprehend the shepherd. The 
Dog serves as a medium through which the instructions of the man are communicated to the 
flock ; and being in intelligence the superior of his charge, and the inferior of Ms master, he is 
equally capable of communicating with either extreme. 

One of these Dogs performed a feat which would have been, excusably, thought impossible, 
had it not been proved to be true. A large flock of lambs took a sudden alarm one night, as 
sheep are wont, unaccountably and most skittishly, to do, and dashed off among the hills in 
three different directions. The shepherd tried in vain to recall the fugitives ; but finding all 
his endeavors useless, told his Dog that the lambs had all run away, and then set off himself in 
search of the lost flock. The remainder of the night was passed in fruitless search, and the 
shepherd was returning to his master to report his loss. However, as he was on the way, 
he saw a number of lambs standing at the bottom of a deep ravine, and his faithful Dog keeping 
watch over them. He immediately concluded that his Dog had discovered one of the three 
bands which had started off so inopportunely in the darkness ; but on visiting the recovered 
truants he discovered, to his equal joy and wonder, that the entire flock was collected in the 
ravine, without the loss of a single lamb. 

How that wonderful Dog had performed this task, not even his master could conceive. It 



THE CUR DOG. 235 

may be that the sheep had been accustomed to place themselves under the guidance of the 
Dog, though they might have fled from the presence of the shepherd ; and that when they felt 
themselves bewildered in the darkness they were quite willing to entrust themselves to their 
well-known friend and guardian. 

The memory of the Shepherd's Dog is singularly tenacious, as may appear from the fact 
that one of these Dogs, when assisting his master, for the first time, in conducting some sheep, 
experienced very great difficulty in guiding his charge among the many cross-roads and by- 
ways that intersected their route. But on the next journey he found but little hindrance, as 
he was able to remember the points which had caused Mm so much trouble on his former 
expedition, and to profit by the experience which he had then gained. 

THE DROVER'S DOG is generally produced from the sheep-dog and the mastiff or fox- 
hound, and sometimes from the sheep-dog and the greyhound or pointer ; the peculiar mix- 
tures being employed to suit the different localities in which the Dog is intended to exercise its 
powers. In some places the Drover's Dog is comparatively small, because the sheep are small, 
docile, and not very active. But when the sheep are large, agile, and vigorous, and can run 
over a large extent of ground, a much larger and more powerful animal is needed, in order to 
cope with the extended powers of the sheep which are committed to its guardianship. 

Although the Drover's Dog may be entrusted with the entire charge of the flock, its rightful 
vocation is the conveyance of the sheep from place to place. It will often learn its business so 
thoroughly that it will conduct a flock of sheep or a herd of cattle to the destined point, and 
then deliver up its charge to the person who is appointed to receive them. Not the least 
extraordinary part of its performance is, that it will conduct its own flock through the midst 
of other sheep without permitting a single sheep under its charge to escape, or allowing a 
single stranger to mix with its own flock. 

Such abilities as these can be applied to wrong purposes as well as to good ones, and there 
is a well-known story of a drover who was accustomed to steal sheep through the help of his 
Dog. His plan was to indicate, by some expressive gesture which the Dog well understood, the 
particular sheep which he wished to be added to his own flock, and then to send his flock 
forward under the guardianship of the Dog, while he remained with his companions at the 
public-house bar. The clever animal would then so craftily intermingle the two flocks that 
it contrived to entice the coveted sheep into its own flock, and then would drive them for- 
wards, carrying off the stolen sheep among the number. If the stratagem were not discovered, 
the owner of the Dog speedily changed the marks on the sheep, and thus merged them with 
his own legitimate property. If the fraud were detected, it was set down as an excusable 
mistake of the Dog, the stolen animals were restored, and the real thief escaped punishment. 
However, detection came at last, as it always does, sooner or later. 

THE true CUR DOG is produced from the sheep-dog and the terrier, and is a most useful 
animal to the class of persons among whom it is generally found. It is rather apt to be petu- 
lant in its temper, and is singularly suspicious of strangers ; so that, although it is rather an 
unpleasant neighbor by reason of its perpetually noisy tongue, it is of the greatest service to 
the person to whom it belongs. It is an admirable house-dog, and specially honest, being 
capable of restraining its natural instincts, and of guarding its owner's provisions, even 
though it may be almost perishing with hunger. 

The Cur is the acknowledged pest of the passing traveller, especially if he be mounted, or 
is driving, as it rushes out of its house at the sound of the strange footstep, and follows the 
supposed intruder with yelps and snaps until it flatters itself that it has completely put the 
enemy to flight. About the house the Cur is as useful as is the colley among the hills, for it 
is as ready to comprehend and execute the wishes of its master at home as is the sheep-dog on 
the hills. Indeed, if the two Dogs were to change places for a day or two, the Cur would 
manage better with the sheep than the sheep-dog would manage the household tasks. 

One principal reason of this distinction is, that a thorough-going sheep-dog is accustomed 
only to one line of action, and fails to comprehend anything that has no connection with sheep, 



236 THE LURCHER. 

while the Cur has been constantly employed in all kinds of various tasks, and is, therefore, 
very quick at learning a new accomplishment. When the laborers are at their daily work 
they are often accustomed to take their dinners with them, in order to save themselves the 
trouble of returning home in the middle of the day. As, however, there are often lawless 
characters among the laborers, especially if many of them come from a distance, and are only 
hired for the work in hand, the services of the Cur Dog are brought into requisition. Mounting 
guard on his master's coat, and defending with the utmost honesty his master's little stock of 
provisions, he snarls defiance at every one who approaches the spot where he acts as sentinel, 
and refuses to deliver his charge into the hands of any but its owner. He then sits down, 
happy and proud of the caresses that await him, and perfectly contented to eat the fragments 
of that very meal which he might have consumed entirely had he not been restrained by his 
sense of honor. 

Mr. Hogg, the "Ettrick Shepherd," says that he has known one of these Dogs to mount 
guard night and day over a dairy full of milk and cream, and never so much as break the 




LUECHEK. Canis famUiaris. 

cream with the tip of its tongue, nor permit a cat, or rat, or any other creature, to touch the 
milk pans. 

The Cur Dog has as all animals have its little defects. It is sadly given to poaching on 
its own account, and is very destructive to the young game. It is too fond of provoking a 
combat with any strange Dog, and if its antagonist should move away, as is generally the case 
with high-bred Dogs, when they feel themselves intruding upon territories not their own, takes 
advantage of the supposed pusillanimity of the stranger, and annoys him to the best of its 
power ; but if the stranger should not feel inclined to brook such treatment, and should turn 
upon its persecutor, the Cur is rather apt to invoke discretion instead of valor, and to seek the 
shelter of its own home, from whence it launches its angry yelpings as if it would tear its 
throat in pieces. 

POSSESSING many of the elements of the sheep-dog, but employed for different purposes, 
the LXTKCHEK has fallen into great disrepute, being seldom seen as the companion of respect- 
able persons. It is bred from the greyhound and sheep-dog, and is supposed to be most 
valuable when its parents are the rough Scotch greyhound and the Scotch colley. 

It is a matter of some regret that the Dog should bear so bad a character, as it is a 
remarkably handsome animal, combining the best attributes of both parents, and being equally 
eminent in speed, scent, and intelligence. As, however, it is usually the companion of 
poachers and other disreputable characters, the gamekeeper bears a deadly hatred towards 



THE OTTEEHOUND. 237 

the LTircher, and is sure to shoot the poor animal at the earliest opportunity. For this con- 
duct there is some pretext, as the creature is so admirably adapted for the pursuit and capture 
of game that a single poacher is enabled, by the aid of his four-legged assistant, to secure at 
least twice as much game as could be taken by any two men without the help of the Dog. 

That punishment generally falls on the wrong shoulders is proverbially true, and holds 
good in the present instance. For the poor Dog is only doing his duty when he is engaged in 
marking or capturing game, and ought not to be subjected to the penalty of wounds or death 
for obeying the order which he has received. If any one is to be punished, the penalty ought 
to fall on the master, and not on his Dog, which is only acting under his orders, and carrying 
out his intentions. 

The sagacity of this Dog is really wonderful. It learns to comprehend the unspoken com- 
mands of its master, and appreciates quite as fully as himself the necessity for lying concealed 
when foes are near, and, in every case, of moving as stealthily as possible. It is even trained 
to pioneer the way for its owner, and to give him timely warning of hidden enemies. Destruc- 
tive to all game, whether winged or furred, the Lurcher is especially so in the rabbit warren, 
or in any locality where hares abound. Its delicate sense of smell permits it to perceive its 
prey at a distance, and its very great speed enables it to pounce upon the hare or rabbit before 
it can shelter itself in the accustomed place of refuge. As soon as the Lurcher has caught its 
prey it brings it to its master, deposits it in his hands, and silently renews its search after 
another victim. Even pheasants and partridges are often caught by this crafty and agile animal. 

Sometimes the game-destroying instincts of the Lurcher take a wrong turn, and lead the 
animal to hunt sheep, instead of confining itself to ordinary game. When it becomes thus 
perverted it is a most dangerous foe to the flocks, and commits sad havoc among them. One 
farmer, living in Cornwall, lost no less than fifteen sheep in one month, all of which were 
killed by Lurchers. 

There are many breeds of the Lurcher, on account of the various Dogs of which the 
parentage is formed. The greyhound and sheep-dog are the original progenitors, but their 
offspring is crossed with various other Dogs, in order to obtain the desired qualifications. 
Thus, the greyhound is used on account of its speedy foot and silent tongue, and the sheep-dog 
on account of its hardiness, its sagacity, and its readiness in obeying its master. The spaniel 
is often made to take part in the pedigree, in order to give its well-known predilection for 
questing game, and the hound is employed for a similar purpose. But in all these crossings 
the greyhound must morally predominate, although its form is barely to be traced under the 
rough lineaments of the Lurcher. 

As the Lurcher causes such suspicion in the minds of the gamekeeper or the landlord, the 
owners of these Dogs were accustomed to cut off their tails, in order to make them look like 
honorable sheep-dogs, and so to escape the tax which presses upon sporting Dogs, and to elude 
the suspicious glance of the game-preserving landlord and his emissaries. So swift is this 
animal that it has been frequently used for the purpose of coursing the hare, and is said to 
perform this task to the satisfaction of its owner. It can also be entrusted with the guardian- 
ship of the house, and watches over the property committed to its charge with vigilance and 
fidelity. Or it can take upon itself that character in reality which its cropped tail too often 
falsely indicates, and can watch a fold, keep the sheep in order, or conduct them from one 
place to another, nearly if not quite as well as the true sheep-dog from which it sprang. 

THE OTTERHOUND is now almost exclusively employed for the chase of the animal from 
which it derives its name. Formerly it was largely used for the purpose of hunting the hare, 
and from that pursuit has derived the name of "Welsh Harrier." 

It is a bold, hardy, and active animal, as is needful for any Dog which engages in the 
chase of so fierce and bard-biting a creature as the otter. As it is forced to take to the water 
in search or in chase of its prey, it is necessarily endowed with great powers of swimming, or 
it could never match that most amphibious of quadrupeds. Those who have seen an otter 
when disporting itself in its congenial element must have been struck with the exceeding 
rapidity and consummate ease of its movements, and can appreciate the great aquatic powers 



238 



THE OTTERHOUND. 



that must be possessed by any Dog which endeavors to compete with so lithe and agile an 
antagonist. 

Great courage is needful on the part of the Dog, because the otter is, when irritated, a 
peculiarly fierce animal, and can inflict most painful wounds by the bite of its long sharp teeth. 
It is, moreover, so pliant of body that it can twist itself about almost like a snake, and, if 
grasped heedlessly, can writhe itself about as actively and slipperily as an eel, and unex- 
pectedly plant its teeth in its antagonist's nose. Now, the nose is a very sensitive portion of 
all animal economy, and a wound or a bite in that region causes such exceeding pain that none 
but a well-bred Dog can endure the torture without flinching. 

Such needful courage is found in the Otter Dog, but is sometimes rather prone to degen- 
erate into needless ferocity. There are few animals, with the exception of the bull-dog, which 
fight so savagely as the Otterhound, or bite so fiercely and with such terrible results. The 
attack of the Otterhound is even more dangerous than that of the bull-dog and its bite more to 




OTTERHOUND.- Canis familiari*. 

be dreaded. As is well known, where the bull-dog has once fixed his teeth there he hangs, 
and cannot be forced to loosen his hold without the greatest difficulty ; but when the Otter- 
hound bites, it instantly tears its teeth away without relaxing its jaws, and immediately seizes 
its prey with a second gripe. The wounds which it inflicts by this ferocious mode of action 
are of the most terrible description, lacerating all the tissues, and tearing asunder the largest 
and most important vessels. The reason for this very savage mode of attack is evident enough. 
The otter is so quick and agile, that, if the Dog were to retain his hold, the otter would twist 
round and inflict a severe bite, so the Dog bites as fast and as often as he can, in order to give 
his antagonist the fewest possible chances of retaliation. 

When a number of these Dogs are placed in the same kennel they are sadly apt to fight, 
and to inflict fatal injuries on each other from the sheer love of combat. If two of the Dogs 
begin to quarrel and to fight, the others are sure to join them ; so that, from the bad temper 
of a single Dog, half the pack may lose their lives. 

As these Dogs are obliged to endiire the most turbulent weather and the coldest streams, 
they are furnished with a very strong, rough, and wiry coat, which is capable of resisting the 
effects of cold and storm, and is also of much service in blunting the severity of the otter's bite. 
The face and muzzle are guarded with a profusion of longish and very rough "whisker" hairs. 

Whether this animal is the production of a cross breed between two families of Dogs, or 
whether it forms a distinct family in itself, is a mooted point. According to the best authori- 
ties, the latter opinion seems to be the best founded. It is thought by those who consider the 
Dog to be of mixed breed, that it was originally the offspring of the deerhound and terrier ; 



THE ROARHOUND. 239 

but as it retains the full melodious note of the hound, which is always injured or destroyed 
by an admixture with the sharp-voiced terrier, it appears to owe more of its parentage to that 
animal. Be this as it may, it is now treated as a separate breed, and may claim the honors of 
a pure lineage. In all probability it is a variety of the old southern hound, which was selected 
carefully for the work which it is intended to perform, and which in course of time has so 
settled down to its vocation as to have undergone that curious variation in form and aspect 
that is always found in animals or men which have long been employed in the same kind 
of work. 

Any one of moderate experience among Dogs and their habits can, on seeing the animal, 
determine its avocation, just as any one who is conversant with men and their manners can, 
on seeing a man, at once announce his calling. There is something in the little peculiarities 
of the formation which tells its tale to the observing eye. There is a kind of moral and intel- 
lectual, as well as physical, atmosphere, that seems to surround every creature, and to tell of 
its essential natiire, its education, and its habits. Animals appear to be peculiarly sensitive 
to this surrounding emanation, and to be attracted or repelled by an influence as powerful, 
though as invisible, as that which attracts or repels the different poles of a magnet. We feel 
it ourselves in the instinctive cordiality or repugnance which we perceive when brought in 
contact with a fresh acquaintance, and which very seldom misleads those who are content to 
follow their instincts. The nature of each being seems to pervade its every particle, as it were 
to overflow and shed its influence, consciously or otherwise, on every object with which it 
enters into communion. There are some men whose very presence warms and enlivens all 
whom they approach, and that not from any suavity of manner, for such men are often most 
abrupt and truth-telling in their demeanor ; and there are others who, however urbane may be 
their deportment, seem to cast from them a cold and freezing atmosphere that congeals all 
those around them, like the icebergs of the northern seas. 

Although, on examining the form of the Otterhound, we should not be able to point out 
the description of game which it is accustomed to pursue, we should at once pronounce it to 
be a strong and hardy animal, a good swimmer, possessed of a delicate nose, and of stout 
courage. In each of these accomplishments the Otterhound excels, and needs them all when 
it ventures to cope with the tierce prey which it is taught to pursue. 

The Otterhound is a tolerably large Dog, measuring nearly two feet in height at the 
shoulder. This is the height of the male ; that of the female is an inch or two less. 

THE FINE animal which is represented in the accompanying engraving can hardly be con- 
sidered as belonging to a separate breed, but rather as a mixture between several families of 
domesticated Dogs. 

According to competent judges, the BOARHOTJND is derived from a mingling of the mastiff 
with the greyhound, crossed afterwards with the terrier. The I'eader will see why these three 
animals are employed for the purpose of obtaining a Dog which is capable of successful attack 
on so dangerous and powerful a brute as the boar. The greyhound element is required in order 
to give the Dog sufficient speed for overtaking the boar, which is a much swifter animal than 
would be supposed from his apparently unwieldy and heavy frame. The admixture of the 
mastiff is needed to give it the requisite muscular power and dimensions of body, and the 
terrier element is introduced for the sake of obtaining a sensitive nose, and a quick, spirited 
action. 

As might be imagined would be the case with an animal which derives its origin from 
these sources, the Boarhound varies very considerably in form and habits, according to the 
element which may preponderate in the individual. A Dog in which the greyhound nature is 
dominant will be remarkably long of limb and swift of foot ; one in whose parentage the 
mastiff takes the greatest share will be proportionately large and powerful ; while the Dog in 
whose blood is the strongest infusion of the terrier will not be so swift or so large as the other 
two, but will excel them in its power of scent and its brisk activity of movement. 

To train the Dog rightly to his work is a matter of some difficulty, because a mistake is 
generally fatal, and puts an end to further instruction by the death of the pupil. It is com- 



240 



THE BULL-DOG. 



paratively easy to train a pointer or a retriever, because if lie fails in his task through over- 
eagerness or over -tardiness, the worst consequence is, that the sportsman loses his next shot 
or two, and the Dog is corrected for his behavior. But if a Boarhound rushes too eagerly 
at the bristly quarry, he will in all probability be laid bleeding on the ground by a rapid 
stroke from the boar's tusks, and if he should hang back and decline the combat, he is just as 
likely to be struck by an infuriated boar as if he were boldly attacking it in front. A boar 
has been known to turn with such terrible effect upon a pack containing fifty Dogs, that only 
ten escaped scathless, and six or seven were killed on the spot. 

Great tact is required on the part of the hound in getting into a proper position, so as to 
make his onset without exposing himself to the retaliating sweeps of the foam-flecked tusks, 
and at the same time to act in concert with his companions, so as to keep the animal busily 




BOAKHOUND. Canls familial it. 

engaged with their reiterated attacks, while their master delivers the death-blow with a spear 
or rifle-bullet. 

As we have no wild boars ranging at will through our forests, the Boarhound is never 
seen in this country except as an object for the curious to gaze upon, or imported through 
the caprice of some dog-loving individval. But in many parts of Germany it is still employed 
in its legitimate avocation of chasing the wild boar, and is used in Denmark and Norway for 
the pursuit of that noble animal, the elk. The latter creature is so large, so fleet, and so 
vigorous, that it would easily outrun or outfight any Dog less swift or less powerful than 
the Boarhound. 

In the fiir of the Boarhound the color of the mastiff generally predominate-, the coat 
being usually brown or brindled uniformly over the body and limbs, but in some animals 
the color is rather more varied, with large brown patches upon a slate-colored ground. The 
limbs are long and exceedingly powerful, and the head possesses the square muzzle of the 
mastiff, together with the sharp and somewhat pert air of the terrier. It is a very large 
animal, measuring from thirty to thirty -two inches in height at the shoulder. 

THE BULL-DOG is said, by all those who have had an opportunity of judging its capa- 
bilities, to be, with the exception of the game-cock, the most courageous animal in the world 



THE BULL-DOG. 



241 



Its extraordinary courage is so well known as to have passed into a proverb, and to have 
so excited the admiration of the British nation that they have been pleased to symbolize their 
peculiar tenacity of purpose under the emblem of this small but most determined animal. In 
height the Bull-dog is but insignificant, but in strength and courage there is no Dog that can 
match him. Indeed, there is hardly any breed of sporting Dog which does not owe its high 
courage to an infusion of the Bull-dog blood ; and it is chiefly for this purpose that the pure 
breed is continued. 

Those cruel and cowardly combats between the bull and the Dog, which were a dis- 
grace, even in the earlier part of the present century, have long been abolished, and a few 
"bull rings," still remaining in the ground, are their sole relics. In these contests the Dog 




BULL-DOG. Canli familiarls motottus. 

was trained to fly at the head of the bull, and to seize him by the muzzle as he stooped 
his head for the purpose of tossing his antagonist into the air. When he had once made 
good his hold it was almost impossible for the bull to shake off his pertinacious foe, 
who clung firmly to his antagonist, and suffered himself to be swung about as the bull might 
choose. 

There seems, indeed, to be no animal which the*Bull-dog will not attack without the least 
hesitation. The instinct of fight is strong within him, and manifests itself actively in the 
countenance and the entire formation of this creature. 

It is generally assumed that the Bull-dog must be a very dull and brutish animal, because 
almost every specimen which has come before the notice of the public has held such a char- 
acter. For this unpleasant disposition, a celebrated writer and zoologist attempts to account 
by observing that the brain of the Bull-dog is smaller in proportion to its body than that of 
any other Dog, and that therefore the animal must needs be of small sagacity. But " Stone- 
henge" well remarks, that although the Bull -dog's brain appears to the eye to be very small 



242 THE BULL-DOG. 

when compared with the body, the alleged discrepancy is only caused by the deceptive 
appearance of the skull. It is true that the brain appears to be small when compared with 
the heavy bony processes and ridges that serve to support the muscles of the head and neck, 
but if the brain be weighed against the remainder of the body, it will be found rather to 
exceed the average than to be below it. 

The same writer is disposed to think the Bull-dog to be a sadly maligned animal, and that 
his sagacity and affections have been greatly underrated. He states that the pure Bull-dog is 
not naturally a quarrelsome creature, and that it would not bear so evil a character if it were 
better taught. 

According to him, the Bull-dog is really a sufficiently intelligent animal, and its mental 
qualities capable of high cultivation. It is true that the animal is an unsafe companion even 
for its master, and that it is just as likely to attack its owner as a stranger, if it feels aggrieved. 
An accidental kick, or a tread on the toes, affords ample pretext for the animal to fasten on 
its supposed enemy ; and when once it does fix its teeth, it is not to be removed except by the 
barbarous method which is considered to be legitimate for such a purpose, but which will not 
be mentioned in these pages. However, most of these shortcomings in temper are said to be 
produced by the life which the poor Dog leads, being tied up to his kennel for the greater 
part of his time ; and, when released from his bondage, only enjoying a limited freedom for 
the purpose of fighting a maddened bull, or engaging in deadly warfare with one of his own 
kind. Any animal would become morose under such treatment ; and when the sufferer is a 
Bull-dog, the results of his training are often disastrous enoiigh. 

The shape of this remarkable animal is worthy of notice. The fore-quarters are particu- 
larly strong, massive, and muscular ; the chest wide and roomy ; and the neck singularly 
powerful. The hind-quarters, on the contrary, are very thin, and comparatively feeble ; all 
the vigor of the animal seeming to settle in its fore-legs, chest, and head. Indeed, it gives the 
spectator an impression as if it were composed of two different Dogs ; the one a large and 
powerful animal, and the other a weak and puny quadruped, which had been put together by 
mistake. The little fierce eyes that gleam savagely from the round, combative head, have a 
latent fire in them that gives cause for much suspicion on the part of a stranger who comes 
unwarily within reach of one of 'these Dogs. The underhung jaw, with its row of white 
glittering teeth, seems to be watering with desire to take a good bite at the stranger's leg ; and 
the matter is not improved by the well-known custom of the Bull-dog to bite without giving 
the least vocal indication of his purpose. 

In all tasks where persevering courage is required, the Bull-dog is quietly eminent, and 
can conquer many a Dog in its own peculiar accomplishment. The idea of yielding does not 
seem to enter his imagination, and he steadily perseveres until he succeeds or falls. One of 
these animals was lately matched by his owner to swim a race against a large white Newfound- 
land Dog, and won the race by nearly a hundred yards. The owners of the competing quad- 
rupeds threw them out of a boat at a given signal, and then rowed away as fast as they could 
pull. The two Dogs followed the boat at the best of their speed, and the race was finally won 
by the Bull-dog. It is rather remarkable that the Bull-dog swam with the whole of his head 
and the greater part of his neck out of the water, while the Newfoundland only showed the 
upper part of his head above the surface. 

According to the authority which has already been quoted, a well-bred Bull-dog ought to 
present the following characteristics of form. "The head should be round, the skull high, 
the eye of moderate size, and the forehead' well sunk between the eyes ; the ears semi-erect and 
small, well placed on the top of the head, and rather close together than otherwise ; the muzzle 
short, truncate, and well furnished with chop ; the back should be short, well arched towards 
the stern, which should be fine, and of moderate length. Many Bull-dogs have what is called 
a crooked stern, as though the vertebrae of the tail were dislocated or broken ; I am disposed 
to attribute this to in-breeding. The coat should be fine, though many superior strains are 
very woolly coated ; the chest should be deep and broad, the legs strong and muscular, and 
the foot narrow, and well split up like a hare's." 



THE MASTIFF. 



243 



THE MASTIFF, which is the largest and most powerful of the indigenous English Dogs, is 
of a singularly mild and placid temper, seeming to delight in employing its great powers in 
affording protection to the weak, whether they be men or Dogs. It is averse to inflicting an 
injury upon a smaller animal, even when it has been sorely provoked, and either looks down 
upon its puny tormentor with sovereign disdain, or inflicts just sufficient punishment to indi- 
cate the vast strength which it could employ, but which it would not condescend to waste 
upon so insignificant a foe. 

Yet, with all this nobility of its gentle nature, it is a most determined and courageous 
animal in fight, and, when defending its master or his property, becomes a foe which few 
opponents would like to face. These qualifications of mingled courage and gentleness adapt 
it especially for the service of watch-dog, a task in which the animal is as likely to fail by 
overweening zeal as by neglect of its duty. It sometimes happens that a watch-dog is too 




MA8TIFF.-<7onw fanuHarie. 



hasty in its judgment, and attacks a harmless stranger, on the supposition that it is resisting 
the approach of an enemy. Sometimes the bull-dog strain is mixed with the Mastiff, in order 
to add a moi'e stubborn courage to the animal ; but in the eyes of good judges this admixture 
is quite unnecessary. 

It has already been mentioned that the Mastiff is fond of affording the benefit of its pro- 
tection to those who need it. As, however, the Dog is but a Dog after all, it sometimes brings 
evil instead of good upon those who accept its guardianship. 

During my school-boy days, a large Mastiff, called Nelson, struck up a great friendship 
with myself and some of my school -fellows, and was accustomed to partake of our hebdomadal 
banquets at the pastry-cook's shop, and to accompany us in our walks. One summer, as we 
were bathing in the Dove, a man pounced upon our clothes, and would have carried them off, 
had it not been for the opportune assistance of some older lads of the same school, who captured 
the offender after a smart chase, and tossed him into the river until he was fain to cry for 
mercy. 

In order to prevent a repetition of a similar mischance, we determined to take Nelson with 
us, and put him in charge of our clothes. The old Dog was delighted at the walk, and 



244 THE ENGLISH TERRIER. 

mounted sentry over the pile of garments, while we recreated ourselves in the stream, and 
caught crayfish or tickled trout at our leisure. Unfortunately, a number of cows had lately 
been placed in the field, and after the usually inquisitive custom of cows, they approached the 
spot where Nelson was lying, in order to ascertain the nature of the strange object on the 
river bank. Nelson permitted them to come quite close, merely uttering a few warning growls, 
but when one of the cows began to toss a jacket with her horns, his patience gave way and he 
flew at the offender. Off scampered all the cows, but soon returned to the charge. Nelson 
stood firm to his post, only retreating a few steps as the cows approached the garments which 
he was guarding, and then dashing at them again. However, the cows' hoofs and the Dog's 
feet began to wreak such dire mischief among the clothes, that we found ourselves compelled 
to drive away the assailants and carry our clothes to the opposite bank of the river, where no 
cows could interfere with us. 

The head of the Mastiff bears a certain similitude to that of the bloodhound and the bull- 
dog, possessing the pendent lips and squared muzzle of the bloodhound, with the heavy 
muscular development of the bull-dog. The under jaw sometimes protrudes a little, but the 
teeth are not left uncovered by the upper lip, as is the case with the latter animal. The fur of 
the Mastiff is always smooth, and its color varies between a uniform reddish -fawn and differ- 
ent brindlings and patches of dark and white. The voice is peculiarly deep and mellow. The 
height of this animal is generally from twenty-five to twenty-eight inches, but sometimes 
exceeds these dimensions. One of these Dogs was no less than thirty-three inches in height 
at the shoulder, measured fifty inches round his body, and weighed a hundred and seventy- 
five pounds. 

THE CUBAN MASTIFF is supposed to be produced by a mixture of the true Mastiff with 
the bloodhound, and was used for the same purpose as the latter animal. It was not a native 
of the country where its services were brought into requisition, and from which it has conse- 
quently derived its name, but was imported there for the purposes of its owners, being taught 
to chase men instead of deer. 

This Dog was employed with terrible success in the invasion of America by the Span- 
iards, and was, in the eyes of the simple natives, a veritably incarnated spirit of evil, of which 
they had never seen the like, and which was a fit companion to those fearful apparitions 
which could separate themselves into two distinct beings at will, one with four legs and the 
other with two, and destroy them at a distance with fiery missiles, against which they were as 
defenceless as against the lightning from above. 

Even in more recent times, the services of these Dogs have been rendered available against 
the rebel forces of Jamaica, when they rose against the Government, and but for the able 
assistance of these fierce and sagacious animals, would apparently have swept off the European 
inhabitants of the island. 

THE TERRIER, with all its numerous variations of crossed and mongrel breeds, is more 
generally known in England than any other kind of Dog. Of the recognized breeds, four are 
generally acknowledged ; namely, the English and Scotch Terriers, the Skye, and the little 
Toy Terrier, which will be described in their order. 

The ENGLISH TERRIER possesses a smooth coat, a tapering muzzle, a high forehead, a 
bright intelligent eye, and a strong muscular jaw. As its instinct leads it to dig in the ground, 
its shoulders and fore-legs are well developed, and it is able to make quite a deep burrow in 
a marvellously short time, throwing out the loose earth with its feet, and dragging away the 
stones and other large substances in its mouth. It is not a large Dog, seldom weighing more 
than ten pounds, and often hardly exceeding the moiety of that weight. 

Although a light, quick, and lively creature, and fuming with anxiety at the sight or 
smell of the animals which are popularly termed "vermin," the pure English Terrier will 
seldom venture to attack a rat openly, although it will be of the greatest service in discovering 
and unharboring that mischievous rodent. The sport which this Dog prefers is, that itself 
should startle the rats, while its master destroys them. If a rat should fasten upon this 



THE BULL-TERRIER. 245 

Dog, he will yelp and cry piteously, and when relieved from his antagonist, will make the 
best of his way from the spot ; or if the rat should turn to bay, the Dog will usually scamper 
off and decline the combat. The celebrated rat-killing Terriers, of whose feats so much has 
been said, were all indebted for their valor to an infusion of the bull-dog blood, which gives 
the requisite courage without detracting from the shape of the Dog, or adding too much to its 
size. Of these bull-terrier Dogs, more will be said in their place. 

The color of the pure English Terrier is generally black and tan, the richness of the two 
tints determining much of the animal's value. The nose and the palate of the Dog ought to 
be always black, and over each eye is a small patch of tan color. The tail ought to be rather, 
long and very fine, and the legs as light as is consistent with strength. 

THE SCOTCH TERRIER is a rough-haired, quaint-looking animal, always ready for work 
or play, and always pleased to be at the service of its master. It is a capital Dog for those 
whose perverted taste leads them to hunt rats, or any kind of " vermin," and is equally good 
at chasing a fox to earth, and digging him out again when he fancies himself in safety. It 
was in former days largely employed in that most cruel and dastardly pursuit of badger- 
drawing, in which "sport" both the badger and the Dogs were so unmercifully wounded by 
the teeth of their antagonist, that even the winning Dog was often crippled, and the poor 
badger reduced to a state of suffering that would touch the heart of any but a hardened 
follower of these pursuits. 

The color of the Scotch Terrier is generally the same as that of the English Dog, saving 
that the black and tan tints are often besprinkled with gray, so as to give that peculiar modi- 
fication of coloring which is popularly known by the name of "pepper-and-salt." 

There is a peculiar breed of the Scotch Terrier which is called the Dandie Dinmont, in 
honor of the character of that name in Scott's "Guy Mannering." These Dogs are of two 
colors; one a light brown with a reddish tinge, termed "mustard," and the other a bluish- 
gray on the body and tan on the legs, denominated "pepper." These little animals are very 
courageous ; although they often exhibit no proofs of their bold nature until they have passed 
the age of two years, appearing until that time to be rather cowardly than otherwise. This 
conduct is supposed to be occasioned by their gentle and affectionate disposition. The legs of 
this variety of Terrier are short in proportion to the length of the body, the hair is wiry and 
abundant, and the ears are large, hanging closely over the sides of the head. 

THE BULL-TERRIER unites in itself the best qualifications of the sporting Dogs, being very 
intelligent, apt at learning, delicate of nose, quick of eye, and of indomitable courage. In size 
it is extremely variable, some specimens being among the smallest of the canine tribes, while 
others measure as much as twenty inches in height. In this Dog it is quite unnecessary to 
have equal parts of the bull-dog and the Terrier ; for in that case the progeny is sure to be 
too heavily made about the head and jaws, and not sufficiently docile to pay instant and 
implicit obedience to the commands of its master. Until these points are removed, the Terrier 
cross should be continued, so as to restore the light, active form of the Terrier, together with 
its habit of ready obedience, while the courageous disposition remains. Indeed, the most 
ferocious Dogs, and the hardest fighters, are generally the immediate offspring of the bull-dog 
and Terrier, and are often erroneously described under the name of the former animal. 

How entirely the external form of the bull-dog can be eradicated, while its dauntless 
courage remains intact, is shown in the graceful little Terriers which are used for rat-killing, 
and which are formed on the most delicate model. 

The endurance and gallantry of these little creatures are so great that they will permit 
several rats, each nearly as large as themselves, to fix upon their lips without flinching in the 
least, or giving any indications of suffering. Yet the badly-bred Dog will yell with pain if 
even a mouse should inflict a bite upon this sensitive portion of its frame, and will refuse to 
face its little enemy a second time. One of these highly bred animals, which was celebrated 
in the sporting world under the title of " Tiny," weighed only five pounds and a half, and yet 
was known to destroy fifty rats in twenty-eight minutes and five seconds. It is estimated that 



246 THE BULL-TERRIER. 

this Dog must have killed more than five thousand rats, the aggregate weight of which nearly 
equals a ton and a half. He could not be daunted by size or numbers, and was repeatedly 
matched against the largest rats that could be procured. 

He used to go about his work in the most systematic and business-like style, picking out 
all the largest and most powerful rats first, so as to take the most difficult part of the task 
while he was fresh. When fatigued with his exertions, he would lie down and permit his 
master to wash his mouth and refresh him by fanning him, and then would set to work with 
renewed vigor. He was a most excitable little creature during his younger days, running 
about the room with such preternatural activity that a gentleman to whom he was exhibited 
declared that he could not distinguish the Dog's head from his tail, or pronounce judgment on 
the color of his fur. 

As he grew older, however, he became more sedate in his demeanor, and used to sit in 
state every evening on a crimson velvet cushion edged with gold fringe, and flanked with a 
candle on each side, so that he might be inspected at leisure. 

However quiet he might be in external demeanor, he was hardly less excitable in disposi- 
tion, and actually died from the effects of over-excitement. He happened to hear or to smell 
a rat which was in a cage in another room ; and being chained in an adjoining apartment, and 
unable even to see the rat, he chafed and fretted himself into such feverish agitation that he 
died in a short time afterwards, although he was permitted to kill the rat. There are Dogs 
which have destroyed more rats in less time than this little creature ; but none which was 
nearly so successful in proportion to its size and w r eight. 

A larger variety of the Bull-terrier was formerly in great request for dislodging foxes 
from their holes, or "earths," as their burrows are technically termed ; and one or two of 
these animals were invariably borne on the strength of each pack of foxhounds. There used 
to be a special strain of these Dogs, named Fox-terriers, which were bred and trained for this 
purpose alone. 

The mental powers of this Dog are very considerable, 1 and the animal is capable of per- 
forming self-taught feats which argue no small amount of intellect. There are several exam- 
ples of Dogs which could in some degree appreciate the object of money, and which would 
take a coin to the proper shop and exchange it for food. A well-known black-and-tan Terrier, 
named Prince, was accustomed to make his own purchases of biscuit as often as he could 
obtain the gift of a penny for that purpose. On several occasions the baker whom he honored 
with his custom thought to put him off by giving him a burnt biscuit in exchange for his 
penny. The Dog was very much aggrieved at this inequitable treatment, but at the time 
could find no opportunity of showing his resentment. However, when he next received an 
eleemosynary penny, he wended his way to the baker's as usual, with the coin between his 
teeth, and waited to be served. As soon as the baker proffered him a biscuit, Prince drew up 
his lips, so as to exhibit the penny, and then walked coolly out of the shop, transferring his 
custom to another member of the same trade who lived on the opposite side of the road. 

Several instances of a similar nature have been recorded, but in no case does the animal 
appear to have comprehended the difference of value between the various coins of the realm. 
The elephant, for example, readily learns to take a coin from a visitor, and to exchange it for 
apples, cakes, or similar dainties, at a neighboring stall. But he seems to be ignorant of the 
fact that he ought to receive twice as many cakes for a penny as for a halfpenny, and is quite 
contented so long as he gives a coin and receives cakes. 

One of these Dogs, named Peter, an inhabitant of Dover, displays great ingemiity in 
adapting himself to the pressure of circumstances. 

Several years since, he had the mishap to fall under the wheels of a carriage, and to be 
lamed in both his fore-legs. In consequence of this accident his limbs are so enfeebled that he 
cannot trust their powers in leaping, and therefore has taught himself to jump with his hind- 
legs alone, after the manner of a kangaroo. He can spring upon a chair or on a low wall 
without any difficulty, and does so after the usual manner of Dogs. But when he is forced to 
return again to earth he mistrusts his fore-limbs, and alights upon his hinder feet, making one 
or two small leaps upon those members before he ventures to place his fore-feet on the ground. 



THE SKYE TERRIER. 



247 



When he is accompanying his master in the fields, and comes to a gate or a gap in a wall, he 
dares not leap through the aperture, as most Dogs would do, but hops up, and then down 
again, upon his hind-i'eet alone. 

The real Bull-terrier of the first cross is a marvellously brave animal, falling but little 
short in courage from his bull-dog ancestor, and very far exceeding that animal in agility and 
intellectual quickness. Fear seems to make no part of a good Bull-terrier's character ; and he 
dashes with brilliant audacity at any foe which his master may indicate to him, or which he 
thinks he ought to attack without orders. Mr. Andersson, in his valuable work entitled 
"Lake Ngami," gives an account of the courage and sagacity of one of these animals which 
accompanied him in his travels through South-western Africa. He had wounded a rhinoceros, 
which ran a few hundred yards, and then came to a stand. 

" At break of day my men went on his trail. He had still strength enough to make a dash 
at them ; and would probably have laid hold of some of them, had not a small bitch (half 
Terrier and half bull-dog, called Venus, in derision of her ugliness) caught the enraged animal 




SKYE TERRIER. -CaniafamiHarit. 

by the lower lip, where she stuck with such tenacity that the rhinoceros, with all his fury, 
was unable to shake her off. She only relinquished her hold when her huge antagonist was 
fairly laid prostrate by a ball. 

"But the sagacity of this favorite Dog was as great as her courage. Being now in a game 
country, all sorts of beasts of prey abounded, more especially jackals, which might be seen 
running about by dozens. In order not to frighten the elephants, and other large animals, we 
were in the habit of encamping some little way from the water, to which Miss Venus regularly 
resorted to bathe and drink. On perceiving a jackal she instantly crouched, looking very 
timid. Reynard, mistaking her posture for an indication of fear, and probably thinking that 
from her diminutive size she would prove an easy conquest, boldly approached his supposed 
victim. But he had reckoned without his host, for the instant that the cunning Dog found 
her antagonist sufficiently near, she leaped like a cat at his throat, and, once there, the beast 
had no chance. 

" She then returned to camp, where her contented looks and bleeding jaws soon attracted 
the attention of the men, who immediately went on her track and brought the jackal, who was 
valued on account of his fur." 

THE quaint-looking SKYE TERRIER has of late years been much affected by all classes of 
Dog-owners, and for many reasons deserves the popularity which it has obtained. 

When of pure breed the legs are very short, and the body extremely long in proportion 
to the length of limb ; the neck is powerfully made, but of considerable length, and the head 



248 HYDROPHOBIA. 

is also rather elongated, so that the total length of the animal is three times as great as its 
height. The "dew-claws" are wanting in this variety of domestic Dog. The hair is long and 
straight, falling heavily over the body and limbs, and hanging so thickly upon the face that 
the eyes and nose are hardly perceptible under their luxuriant covering. The quality of the 
hair is rather harsh and wiry in the pure-bred Skye Terrier ; for the silky texture of the 
generality of "toy" Skyes is obtained by a cross with the spaniel. It is easy to detect the 
presence of this cross by the scanty appearance of the hair on the face. 

The size of this animal is rather small, but it ought not to imitate the minute proportions 
of many "toy" Dogs. Its weight ought to range from ten to seventeen or eighteen pounds. 
Even amongst these animals there are at least two distinct breeds, while some Dog-fanciers 
establish a third. 

It is an amusing and clever Dog, and admirably adapted for the companionship of man- 
kind, being faithful and affectionate in disposition, and as brave as any of its congeners, except 
that epitome of courage, the bull-dog. Sometimes, though not frequently, it is employed for 
sporting purposes, and is said to pursue that avocation with great credit. 

A HISTOET, however short, of the Dogs would be incomplete without some reference to 
that terrible disease called "Hydrophobia," which at times arises among the canine race, and 
converts the trusted companion into an involuntary foe. From some cause, which at present 
is quite unexplained, the bite of a Dog which is affected with this terrible malady, or even the 
mere contact of his saliva with a broken skin, becomes endued with such deadly virulence, 
that the unfortunate person upon whom such an injury is inflicted is as certain to die as if he 
had been struck by the poison-fangs of the rattlesnake or cobra. 

As far as is known, this dread malady appears to originate only in the canine tribe, being 
communicable to almost every other description of animal, man not excepted, and dooming 
them to a most painful illness and death. It is worthy of .consideration, that the Dog does 
not perspire through the skin, and that the tongue and throat offer the only means by which 
the animal can avail itself of that needful exhalation. The symptoms of this malady are 
rather various in different individuals, but yet are of the same type in all. 

There is an entire change of manner in the animal. The affectionate, caressing Dog 
becomes suddenly cross, shy, and snappish ; retreating from the touch of the friendly hand as 
if it were the hand of a stranger. His appetite becomes depraved, and, forsaking his ordinary 
food, he eagerly swallows pieces of stick, straws, or any other innutritions substances that 
may lie in his way. He is strangely restless, seeming unable to remain in the same position 
for two seconds together, and continually snaps at imaginary objects which his disordered 
senses image in rapid succession before his eyes. Strange voices seem to fall upon his ears, 
and he ever and anon starts up and listens eagerly to the sounds which so powerfully affect 
him. Generally, he utters at intervals a wild howl, which tells its fearful tale even to unprac- 
tised ears, but in some cases the Dog remains perfectly silent during the whole of his illness, 
and is then said to be afflicted with the dumb madness. In most instances, the Dog is silent 
during the latter stages of the illness. 

Before the disease has developed itself to any extent, the poor creature becomes thought- 
ful and anxious, and looks with wistful eyes upon his friends, as if beseeching them to aid 
him in the unknown evil that hangs so heavily upon him. He then retires to his usual resting- 
place, and sluggishly lies upon his bed, paying scarcely any attention to the voice of his master, 
but strangely uneasy, and ever and anon shifting his posture, as if endeavoring to discover some 
attitude that may bring ease and repose to his fevered limbs. Fortunately, the disposition to 
bite does not make its appearance until the disease has made considerable progress. 

In these stages of the malady the Dog is often seen to fight with his paws at the corner of 
his mouth, as if endeavoring to rid himself of a bone that had become fixed among his teeth, 
and assumes much of the anxious aspect that is always seen in animals when their respiration 
is impeded. This symptom may, however, be readily distinguished by the fact that the Dog 
is able to close his mouth between the paroxysms of his ailment, which he is unable to do 
when he is affected by the presence of a bone or other extraneous substance in his throat. 



HYDROPHOBIA. . 249 

There is, indeed, a mechanical hindrance to respiration, which, although not so outwardly 
apparent as the obstruction which is caused by a bone or similar substance, yet harasses the 
poor creature quite as painfully. As the poison, which has been infused into and taints the 
blood of the poor victim, works its dread mission through the frame, it infects some of the 
fluids that are secreted from the blood, and changes their external aspect as well as their 
inward essence. The saliva becomes thick and viscid in character, and is secreted in quanti- 
ties so great that it obstructs the channels of respiration, and gives rise to those convulsive 
efforts on the part of the Dog which have already been mentioned. 

Strangely enough, the infected Dog seems to partake of the serpent nature, and, like the 
cobra or viper, to elaborate a deadly poison from harmless food. The snake feels but little 
inconvenience from the accumulation of venomous matter, as it is furnished with receptacles 
in which the lethal secretion may be lodged until it is needed. But the Dog has no such store- 
house, and the poison is therefore diffused through the moisture of the throat and mouth, 
instead of being concentrated into one locality. There is another curious resemblance between 
the poison of serpents and that of rabid Dogs ; namely, that while the venom of either creature 
produces such terrible effects when mixed with the blood, it may be swallowed with perfect 
safety, provided that the lips and mouth are free from sores. 

I would offer a suggestion, that the instinct which induces the Dog to bite everything 
which may come within its reach, is intended to aid the creature in its cure, and that if it 
could only be induced to bite a succession of lifeless objects, it might rid itself of the venomous 
influence, and be restored to its normal state of health. So powerfully is this instinct devel- 
oped, that the poor Dog will bite itself, and inflict the most fearful lacerations on its own 
flesh, rather than resist the furious impulse which fills its being. Horses and other animals 
which have been infected with this terrible disease have been known to feel the same necessity, 
and in default of other victims have torn the flesh from their own limbs. 

An unquenchable thirst soon fastens upon the afflicted Dog, and drives him to the nearest 
spot where he can obtain any liquid that may cool his burning throat. 

In the earlier stages of the complaint he laps without ceasing, but when the disease has 
destroyed the powers of his tongue and throat, he plunges his head into the water as far as 
the depth of the vessel will permit, in hope of bringing his throat in contact with the cooling 
fluid. It is generally supposed that a mad Dog will not touch water, and for this reason the 
malady was termed Hydrophobia, or "dread of water," but it is now ascertained that the 
animal is so anxious to drink, that he often spills the fluid in his eagerness, and so defeats his 
own object. 

In the last stage of this terrible disease the Dog is seized with an uncontrollable propensity 
to run. He seems not to cai'e where he goes, but runs for the most part in a straight line, 
seldom turning out of his way, and rarely attempting to bite unless he be obstructed in his 
course ; and then he turns savagely upon his real or fancied assailant, and furiously snaps and 
bites without fear or reason. Not the least curious fact of this disease is, that it causes a 
singular insensibility to pain. A rabid Dog will endure terrible injuries without appearing to 
be conscious of them, and, in many cases, these poor creatures have been known to tear away 
portions of their own bodies as calmly as if they were lacerating the dead body of another 
Dog. A similar insensibility to pain is noticeable in human lunatics, who will often inflict the 
most terrible injuries on their own persons, with the most deliberate and unconcerned air 
imaginable. The nerves seem to be deprived of their powers, and to be insensible even to the 
contact of burning coals or red-hot metals. In anger, too, which is in truth a short-lived mad- 
ness, pain is unfelt, and the severest wounds may be received unheeded. 

It is possible that this locomotive instinct of the Dog may give a clue to the cure of this 
fearful malady, and that if a rabid Dog could be permitted to follow its instinct without 
molestation it might rid itself of its ailment by means of this unwonted exercise. 

By this terrible malady the nerves are excited to the highest degree of tension, and it is 
not improbable that by violent and continual exercise the system might by enabled to throw 
off the "peccant humors" that infect every particle of the blood as it circulates through the 
veins, and envenom the natural moisture of the Dog's tongue. 



250 HYDROPHOBIA. 

There exists a curious parallel to this propensity for exertion in the celebrated Tarantula- 
dancing which was so famous in Naples during the sixteenth century. Those persons who 
were affected with this curious disease, which was for many years thought to be the effect of 
the bite of the Tarantula spider, were impelled to leap and dance continually in a kind of 
frenzy, until they sank from sheer fatigue. In many cases the dancing would continue for 
three or four days, and seemed to be cured best by the profuse perspiration which poured from 
the wearied frames of the dancers. In a similar manner the effects of a serpent's tooth may be 
driven from the system. When a person has suffered from the bite of a cobra, or other venom- 
ous snake, the most effectual treatment is to prevent him from falling into the lethargy which 
is produced by the poisonous infusion, and to keep him in constant and violent motion. 

It is a remarkable fact that the Tarantismus, as this disease is termed, used in many cases 
to recur at regular annual intervals, as has already been related of the wounds caused by the 
lion's bite, and is the case with the healed wound which has been inflicted by the teeth of a 
rabid Dog. So subtle is this influence, and so thoroughly does it pervade the system, that 
where anger has risen in the mind of a person who has been bitten by a mad Dog, and by 
taking precaution has felt no evil results, the old sores have become flushed and swollen, and 
throbbed in unison with the angry feelings that occupied their mind. 

How the nature of the Dog can be so utterly changed as to charge its bite with deadly 
venom, or how it is that the moist saliva of the rabid animal should communicate the disease 
to other beings, is at present but a mystery. There seems to be an actual infusion of the Dog 
nature into the animal which is bitten by a rabid Dog, or by one of the creatures which has 
been inoculated by the bite of one of these terrible beings. It is evident that the virus is resi- 
dent in the saliva, because the malady has been communicated by the mere touch of the Dog's 
tongue upon a wound without the infliction of a bite from its teeth. Yet it is equally evident 
that the poisonous property belongs not to the saliva, but to the influence which is conducted 
by its means. In some strange fashion the spirit of the angry Dog seems to be infused into 
the victim of its bite, and it is well known that even where an angry Dog has in the heat of its 
passion inflicted a wound the result has been very similar to Hydrophobia, though the animal 
was not affected with that disease. Ordinarily, the bite of a Dog, such as the playful bite of 
a puppy, though sufficiently painful, carries no danger with it, but if the animal has only been 
touched with this malady its bite is but too frequently fatal. This death-dealing influence has 
been proved to remain in the saliva for four-and-twenty hours after the animal's death. Per- 
haps there may be something of electricity in the fatal influence, which requires a fluid con- 
ductor, for if the teeth of the animal have been wiped dry by passing through the clothing of 
its intended victim no evil results follow. 

Not every one that is bitten by a rabid Dog is a sufferer from Hydrophobia, for it is need- 
ful that the constitution should be in a fit state to receive the poison, for its influence to pro- 
duce any effect. We may notice a similar phenomenon among those who are vaccinated. 
Some persons appear to be almost proof against the vaccine virus, while others feel its effects 
so powerfully that they are thrown into a temporary fever, and the limb on which the vaccina- 
tion is performed, swells to such a degree as to be extremely painful to the patient, and some- 
times even alarming to the operator. In others, again, no visible effect is produced until they 
have undergone the operation two or three times, and then the disease develops itself fully 
and with great rapidity. 

A rather remarkable circumstance connected with this subject took place within the last 
few years. A rabid Dog contrived to bite a large number of victims, including other Dogs, 
sheep, oxen, and human beings ; a surgeon attended the human sufferers, and treated the 
wounds by the severe application of nitrate of silver. All were treated in the same manner, 
but although the greater number escaped without further injury, several died from Hydropho- 
bia ; and all those in whom the disease made itself manifest were light-haired persons, while 
those who escaped had dark hair. 

The mode of treatment in such dire necessity is fortunately very simple, and can be 
applied by any one who is possessed of sufficient nerve and presence of mind. A piece of nitrate 
of silver, or lunar caustic, as it is popularly called, should be cut to a point like a common 



THE TURNSPIT. 



251 






cedar-pencil, and applied to every part of the wound that can be reached. In default of the 
caustic, a hot iron, such as a steel fork, a knitting-needle, a skewer, or any similar household 
article, may be heated to a glowing redness, and applied in the same manner. The iron should 
be as hot as possible, for it is efficacious in proportion to its temperature, and is not nearly so 
painful in application if the heat is sufficiently powerful to destroy the nerves at once. A 
white-hot iron will not cause nearly so much suffering as if it were applied at a dull red heat. 

Washing the injured part, applying cupping-glasses to the wound, and cutting away the 
surrounding portions, have been recommended by some writers, but are strongly condemned 
by men of large practical experience. They say that the water which is used for the purpose 
of washing away the poisonous substance will only dilute it, and render it more fluid for the 
blood to take up ; that the application of a cupping-glass will only draw blood into the wound, 
and so cause the mixture of the poison with the system ; and that in using the knife, the blood 
which runs from the newly-made incision is apt to overflow into the poisoned locality, and so 
to convey the venom into the circulation 
by mixing with the fast-flowing blood as 
it bathes the enlarged wound. 

There are one or two curious circum- 
stances connected with this subject. It 
is said that the disease of Hydrophobia 
never originates with the female Dog ; 
and, moreover, that it is most commonly 
found in the fighting Dogs, and those 
animals which are kept for the illicit 
destruction of game. In Africa, and sev- 
eral other hot countries, the malady is 
unknown, although the animals swarm 
in very great numbers, and are exposed 
to the burning sun and the heated atmos- 
phere, without the least assistance from 
human aid. 

The time during which this disease 
may remain latent in the system is 
extremely variable. Sometimes it be- 
comes manifest in a few days, while in other cases the virus has produced no tangible effects 
until the expiration of several months. In one case, however, the disease made its appearance 
after the seventh month. Mr. Youatt suggests that if every Dog could be kept in separate 
quarantine for the space of eight months, "the disease might be annihilated in this country 
(England), and could only appear in consequence of the importation of some infected animal." 
This opinion, however, will hardly hold its ground, for although all Dogs that are actually 
infected might be removed by this course of probation, there is no possibility of warranting 
that the disease might not again originate in some previously healthy individual, as it must 
have done in the first instance. 

JUST as the invention of the spinning-jenny abolished the use of distaff and wheel, which 
were formerly the occupants of every well-ordained cottage, so the invention of automaton 
roasting-jacks has destroyed the occupation of the TURNSPIT DOG, and by degrees has almost 
annihilated its very existence. Here and there a solitary Turnspit may be seen, just as a 
spinning-wheel or a distaff may be seen in a few isolated cottages ; but both the Dog and the 
implement are exceptions to the general rule, and are only worthy of notice as being curious 
relics of a bygone time. 

In former days, and even within the remembrance of the present generation, the task of 
roasting a joint of meat or a fowl was a comparatively serious one, and required the constant 
attendance of the cook, in order to prevent the meat from being spoiled by the unequal action 
of the fire. The smoke-jack, as it was rather improperly termed inasmuch as it was turned, 




THE TUBNSPIT. Cants J'amUiaiie. 



252 THE' PUG-DOG. 

not by the smoke, but by the heated air that rushed up the chimney was a great improve- 
ment, because the spit revolved at a rate that corresponded with the heat of the fire. 

So complicated an apparatus, however, could not be applied to all chimneys, or in all 
localities, and therefore the services of the Turnspit Dog were brought into requisition. At 
one extremity of the spit was fastened a large circular box, or hollow wheel, something like 
the wire wheels which are so often appended to squirrel-cages ; and in this wheel the Dog was 
accustomed to perform its daily task, by keeping it continually working. As the labor would 
be too great for a single Dog, it was usual to keep at least two animals for the purpose, and to 
make them relieve each other at regular intervals. The Dogs were quite able to appreciate 




PUG-DOG. Cants familiaiis molosus fr',catur. 

the lapse of time, and, if not relieved from their toils at the proper hour, would leap out of 
the wheel without orders, and force their companions to take their place, and complete their 
portion of the daily toil. 

There are one or two varieties of this Dog, but the true Turnspit breed is now nearly 
extinct in England. On the Continent, the spits are still turned by canine labor in some 
localities ; but the owners of spit and Dog are not particular about the genealogy of the 
animal, and press into their service any kind of Dog, provided that it is adequately small, 
and sufficiently amenable to authority. 

THE PUG-DOG is an example of the fluctuating state of fashion and its votaries. 

Many years ago the Pug was in very great request as a lapdog, or "toy" Dog, as these 
little animals are more correctly termed. The satirical publications of the last century are 
full of sarcastic remarks upon Pug-dogs and their owners, and delighted in the easy task of 
drawing a parallel between the black-visaged, dumpy -nmzzled Dog and the presumed per- 
sonal attractions of its owner. 

By degrees, however, this fashion passed away, as is the wont of fashions to do, and, as 



THE PUG-DOG. 253 

Is equally their wont, has again returned in due course of time, and with renewed impetus. 
Although, in the interregnum that elapsed between the two periods of the Pug-dog's ascend- 
ancy, it was in very little request, yet in its recent popularity it has acquired so great a 
conventional value, that a thoroughly well-bred Dog will fetch as much as a hundred dol- 
lars, or even more, if it be a peculiarly fine specimen. The purity of the breed has been 
scrupulously preserved by one or two British Dog-fanciers, and to them the Pug-dog is 
indebted for its present position in the popular esteem. 

It is a cheerful and amusing companion, and very affectionate in disposition. Sometimes 
it is apt to be rather snappish to strangers, but this is a fault which is common to all lap-dogs 
which are not kept in proper order by their possessors. For those who cannot spend much 
time in the open air it is a more suitable companion than any other Dog, because it can bear 
the confinement of the house better than any other of the canine species ; and, indeed, seems 
to be as much at home on a carpet as is a canary on the perch of its cage. Moreover, it is 
almost wholly free from the unpleasant odor with which the canine race is affected. 

The head of the Pug-dog ought to be round, and its forehead high, with a short, but not 
a turned-up, nose. The whole of the fore- front of the face, extending to the eyes, and tech- 
nically termed the "mask," ought to be of a jetty black, marked clearly on the lighter ground 
of the face. The line which separates the two tints should be as sharply cut as possible. The 
tail should curl sharply and tightly round, lying on one side of the hinder quarters, and never 
standing upon the back. The height of the Pug-dog ought not to exceed fifteen inches, or its 
weight to be more than ten pounds. 

The number of puppies which the Dog produces at a single litter is very large, varying 
from three or four to fifteen, or even a still greater number. They are born, as is the case 
with kittens and several other young animals, with closed eyes, and do not open their eyelids 
for the space of several days. As it is manifestly impossible for the mother to rear the whole 
of a very large family, their number must be reduced, either by destroying several of the little 
ones, which of course ought to be the weakest and smallest specimens, or by removing the 
supernumerary offspring and placing them under the care of another Dog which has lately 
taken upon herself the maternal duties. In this case it needs not that the wet nurse should 
be of the same kind with her charge, as it is found that health of constitution and a liberal 
supply of milk are the only necessary qualifications for that responsible office. 

Sometimes the health of the mother will not permit her to rear her progeny ; and in that 
case, if no worthy substitute can be found, the most humane mode of action is to remove the 
young puppies in succession, and so to avoid too severe a shock to the maternal feelings of their 
progenitrix. If they are all removed at the same time, the sudden deprivation is very likely to 
bring on a severe fever, and to endanger the already weakened life of the mother. If the 
process of removing and destroying the young ones has been repeated more than once, the 
mother becomes so watchful over her progeny that it is by no means easy to withdraw them 
without her cognizance. As an example of this maternal vigilance, I am enabled to give an 
anecdote which has been forwarded to me by Mrs. S. C. Hall, which exhibits not only the good 
memory of an often bereaved mother, but a most touching instance of maternal affection. 

"In our large, rambling, country home, we had Dogs of high and low degree, from the 
silky and sleepy King Charles down (query, up ?) to the stately Newfoundland, who disputed 
possession of the top step or rather platform to which the steps led of the lumbering hall- 
door with a magnificent Angora ram, who was as tame and almost as intelligent as Master 
Neptune himself. After simdry growls and butts the Dog and the ram generally compromised 
matters by dividing the step between them, much to the inconvenience of every other quad- 
ruped or biped who might desire to pass in or out of the hall. 

"The King Charles, named Chloe, was my dear grandmother's favorite ; she was a meek, 
soft, fawning little creature, blind of one eye, and so gentle and faithful, refusing food except 
from the one dear hand that was liberal of kindness to her. Chloe' s puppies were in great 
demand ; and it must be confessed that her supply was very bountiful, too bountiful, indeed, 
for out of the four which she considered the proper number at a birth, two were generally 



254 MATERNAL SAGACITY. 

drowned. My grandmother thought that Chloe ought not to raise more than two ; Chloe 
believed that she could educate four, and it was always difficult to abstract the doomed ones 
from the watchful little mother. 

" It so chanced that once, after the two pups had been drowned by one of the stablemen, 
poor Chloe discovered their little wet bodies in the stable-yard, and brought them to the live 
ones that remained in her basket. She licked them, cherished them, howled over them, but 
still they continued damp and cold. Gentle at all other times, she would not now permit 
even her dear mistress to remove them, and no stratagem could draw her from her basket. 
At last, we supposed, Chloe felt it was not good for the dead and the living to be together, 
so she took one of the poor things in her mouth, walked with it across the lawn to the spot 
where a lovely red thorn-tree made a shady place, dug a hole, laid the puppy in it, came back 
for the other, placed it with its little relative, scraped the earth over them, and returned sadly 
and slowly to her duties. 

"The story of the Dog burying her puppies was discredited by some of our neighbors ; 
and the next time that Chloe became a mother the dead puppies were left in her way, for my 
grandmother was resolved that her friends should witness her Dog's sagacity. This time 
Chloe did not bring the dead to the living, but carried them at once to the same spot, dug 
their graves, and placed them quietly in it. It almost seemed as if she had ascertained what 
death was." 

I am also indebted to the same lady for a short history of canine life, which corroborates 
the account of assistance requested by one Dog and given by another. 

"Neptune, the ram's antagonist, had a warm friendship for a very pretty retriever, 
Charger by name, who, in addition to very warm affections, possessed a very hot temper. In 
short, he was a decidedly quarrelsome Dog ; but Neptune overlooked his friend's faults, and 
bore his ill-temper with the most dignified gravity, turning away his head, and not seeming to 
hear his snarls, or even to feel his snaps. 

"But all Dogs were not equally charitable, and Charger had a long-standing quarrel with 
a huge bull-dog, I believe it was, for it was ugly and ferocious enough to have been a bull- 
dog, belonging to a butcher, the only butcher within a circle of five miles. He was very 
nearly as authoritative -as his bull-dog. It so chanced that Charger and the bull-dog met 
somewhere, and the result was that our beautiful retriever was brought home so fearfully 
mangled that it was a question whether it should not be shot at once, everything like recovery 
seeming impossible. 

" But I really think Neptune saved his life. The trusty friend applied himself so carefully 
to licking his wounds, hanging over him with such tenderness, and gazing at his master with 
such mute entreaty, that it was decided to leave the Dogs together for that night. The devo- 
tion of the great Dog knew no change ; he suffered any of the people to dress his friend's 
wounds, or feed him, but he growled if they attempted to remove him. Although after the 
lapse of ten or twelve days he could limp to the sunny spots of the lawn always attended by 
Neptune it was quite three months before Charger was himself again, and his recovery was 
entirely attributed to Neptune, who ever after was called Doctor Neptune a distinction which 
he received with his usual gravity. 

"Now here I must say that Neptune was never quarrelsome. He was a very large liver- 
colored Dog, with huge, firm jaws, and those small cunniug eyes which I always think detract 
from the nobility of the head of the Newfoundland ; his paws were pillows, and his chest 
broad and firm. He was a dignified, gentlemanly Dog, who looked down upon the general run 
of quarrels as quite beneath him. If grievously insulted, he would lift up the aggressor in his 
jaws, shake him, and let him go if he could go that was all. But in his heart of hearts he 
resented the treatment his friend had received. 

" So when Charger was fully recovered, the two Dogs set off together to the Hill, a distance 
of more than a mile from their home, and then and there set upon the bull-dog. While we 
were at breakfast, the butler came in with the information that something had gone wrong, 
for both Neptune and Charger had come home covered with blood and wounds, and were 
licking each other in the little stable. This was quickly followed by a visit from the butcher, 



THE l>lMi(>. 



265 



crying like a child the great rough-looking bear of a man because our Dogs had gone up the 
Hill and killed his pup 'Blue-nose.' 'The two fell on him,' he said, ' together, and now you 
could hardly tell his head from his tail.' It was a fearful retribution ; but even his master 
confessed that ' Blue-nose ' deserved his fate, and every cur in the country rejoiced that he 
was dead." 

THE DINGO, or Warragal, as it is called by the natives, is an inhabitant of Australia, 
where it is found in the greatest profusion, being, indeed, a pest of no ordinary character to 
those colonists who are employed in raising and maintaining large flocks of sheep. 

The color of this animal is a reddish-brown, sometimes plentifully sprinkled with black 
hairs over the back and ribs, the legs retaining the ordinary ruddy hue. Its muzzle is very 
sharp, as is generally the case with wild Dogs ; its ears are sharp, short, and erect ; its tail is 




DINGO.- Cunl: Uimju. 

pendent and rather bushy ; and its eyes small, cunning, and obliquely placed in the head. 
It was formerly thought to be an aboriginal inhabitant of Australia, but is now allowed to be 
an importation from some source which is at present uncertain. 

Large packs of these wild Dogs ravage the localities in which they have taken up their 
residence, and have attained to so high a degree of organization that each pack will only hunt 
over its own district, and will neither intrude upon the territory which has been allotted to a 
neighboring pack of Dingos, nor permit any intrusion upon its own soil. For this reason, 
their raids upon the flocks and herds are so dangerous that the colonists were obliged to call a 
meeting, in order to arrange proceedings against the common foe. Before the sheep-owners 
had learned to take effectual measures to check the inroads of these marauders, they lost their 
flocks in such numbers that they counted their missing sheep by the hundred. From one 
colony no less than twelve hundred sheep and lambs were stolen in three months. 

The tenacity of life which is exhibited by the Dingo is almost incredible, and it appears 
to cling as firmly to existence as the opossum. Like the last-mentioned animal, the Dingo 
appears to feign death when it finds that escape is impracticable, and often manages to elude 



256 THE JACKAL. 

its opponents by the exercise of mingled craft and endurance. Mr. Bennett, in his well-known 
" Wanderings,' 1 mentions several instances of the wonderful tenacity of life exhibited by the 
Dingo, and the almost incredible fortitude with which it will submit to wounds of the most 
fearful description. One of these animals had been overtaken by its exasperated foes, and 
had been "beaten so severely that it was supposed that all the bones had been broken, and it 
was left for dead." After its supposed slayer had walked away from the apparently lifeless 
carcass, he was surprised to see the slain animal arise, shake itself, and slink away into the 
bush. Another apparently dead Dingo had been brought into the hut for the purpose of 
being skinned, and had actually suffered the operator to remove the skin from one side of its 
face before it permitted any symptoms of life or sensation to escape it. 

Mr. Bennett further remarks, that this marvellous vitality of the Dingo accounts for the 
fact that the skeletons of these animals are not found in the places where they have been 
reported to lie dead. For, although the carrion-devouring beasts and birds will soon carry 
away every particle of the flesh of a dead animal, they always leave its larger bones as 
memorials of their ghoul-like repast. There are many similar accounts of the Dingo, and its 
fast hold of life. 

As a general fact, the Dingo is not of a pugnacious character, and would at any time 
rather run away than fight. But when it is hard pressed by its foes, and finds that its legs are 
of no use, it turns to bay with savage ferocity, and dashes at its opponents with the furious 
energy of despair. It carries these uncivilized customs into domesticated life, and even when 
its restless limbs are subjected to the torpifying thraldrom of chain and collar, and its wild, 
wolfish nature allayed by regular meals and restricted exercise, it is ever ready to make a 
sudden and unprovoked attack upon man or beast, provided always that its treachennis onset 
can be made unseen. After the attack, it always retreats into the farthest recesses of its 
habitation, and there crouches in fear and silence, whether it has failed or succeeded in its 
cowardly malice. 

A Dingo which was kept for some years at the Zoological Gardens was accustomed to sit 
on its tail and bay the moon after the manner of dogs, making night hideous with its mournful 
monotone. Moreover, its voice was not silenced by the genial light of day, but rose continually 
in dolesome ululation, as if in perpetual lament for its captive lot. 

. In its native land it is a very crafty animal, rivalling the cunning fox in its ready wit 
when it feels itself endangered, and oftentimes outwitting even the intellectual power of its 
human foes. A litter of Dingo cubs was once discovered in a rocky crevice near the Yas 
Plains, but as the mother was not with them the discoverer marked the locality, intending to 
return in a short time and to destroy the whole family at one fell swoop. After leaving the 
spot for such a length of time as he judged sufficient for the return of the mother, he came 
back to the den, and to his great discomfiture found it to be deserted. The maternal Dingo 
had probably seen the intruder, and had carried off her young family into a place of safety as 
soon as she found the coast clear. It is possible that she might not actually have Avitnessed 
the hasty visit which this unwelcome guest had paid to her family mansion, but on her return 
to her little ones had perceived by her sense of smell the late advent of a strange footstep. 

IT is generally found that any large group of animals in one country will be represented 
in another land by creatures of similar character, and not very dissimilar form. In accordance 
with this general rule, we find that the part which the dingo plays in Australia is taken up in 
Asia and Africa by several animals belonging to the canine race, of which the most remarkable 
are the Jackals and certain wolves. From the former animals the continent of Europe is free ; 
and in these comparatively civilized times the wolves which still haunt several portions of 
Europe are simply looked upon as pests of which the country ought to be rid, and not as 
holding undisputed possession of the territory, and scouring at will over the land in nightly 
search after prey. 

There are several species of the Jackal, two of which will be noticed and figured in this 
work. 

The common JACKAL, or KHOLAH, as it is termed by the natives, is an inhabitant of India, 



THE JACKAL. 



267 



Ceylon, and neighboring countries, where it is found in very great numbers, forcing itself upon 
the notice of the traveller not only by its bodily presence, but by its noisy howling wherewith 
it vexes the ears of the wearied and sleepy wayfarer, as he endeavors in vain to find repose. 
Nocturnal in their habits, the Jackals are accustomed to conceal themselves as much as possi- 
ble during the daytime, and to issue out on their hunting expeditions together with the advent 
of night. Sometimes, a Jackal will prefer a solitary life, and is then a most provoking neigh- 
bor to the habitations of civilized humanity ; for it is so voracious in its appetite that it 
becomes a terribly destructive foe to domesticated animals, and so wily in its nature that it 
carries on its malpractices with impunity until it has worked dire mischief in home or fold. 
In these depredations, the audacity of the Jackal is as notable as his cunning. He will wait 
at the very door, biding his time patiently until it be opened and he may slink through the 




JACKAL. Canit aureus. 



aperture. Pigs, lambs, kids, and poultry fall victims to his insatiate appetite, and he has 
been known to steal the sleeping puppies from the side of their mother without detection. 
The larder suffers as severely from his attacks as the hen-roost, for his accommodating palate 
is equally satisfied with cooked meat as with living prey. 

Always ready to take advantage of every favorable opportunity, the Jackal is a sad para- 
site, and hangs on the skirts of the larger carnivora as they roam the country for prey, in the 
hops of securing some share of the creatures which they destroy or wound. On account of 
this companionship between the large and the small marauders, the Jackal has popularly 
gained the name of the Lion's Provider. But, in due justice, the title ought to be reversed, 
for the lion is in truth the Jackal's provider, and is often thereby deprived of the chance of 
making a second meal on an animal which he has slain. Sometimes, it is said, the Jackal does 
provide the lion with a meal, by becoming a victim to the hungry animal in default of better 
and more savory prey. 

There is a very unpleasant odor which arises from this creature, nearly as powerful and 
quite as offensive as that of the fox. In spite, however, of this drawback, the Jackal is often 
used as an article of food among the natives, and is said, by those who have tried it, to be 
pleasant to the palate, and very much superior to tough venison. A hungry lion, therefore, 
may be expected to find but little impediment in the rank odor of a slaughtered Jackal. 



L>r>S THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL. 

In India, the tiger is often followed during his nightly quests by a company of these 
animals, and in- most cases by a single old Jackal, called in the native tongue, the Khole, or 
Kholah-balloo, whose expressive cries are well understood by the hunters, whether bipedal or 
quadrupedal. Many a tiger has been discovered and brought to his deatli by the yell of a 
Jackal, which led the pursuers on his track. When the tiger has killed some large animal, 
such as a buffalo, which he cannot consume at one time, the Jackals collect round the carcass 
at a respectful distance, and wait patiently until the tiger moves off and they can venture 
to approach. 

As soon as the tiger moves away, the Jackals rush from all directions, carousing upon the 
slaughtered buffalo, and each anxious to eat as much as it can contain in the shortest time. 
So eager are they after their prey that they are jealous not only of their companions, but of 
the vultures that gather round every dead animal, and snap fiercely at them as they wheel 
round on their broad pinions, or try to push their beaks among the noses of the fighting and 
struggling Jackals. But although they may snap and snarl, they never seem to inflict any 
real injury. They are so audacious in their hunger that they will follow human hunters, and 
take possession of the dead game in a marvellously shameless manner. 

They always keep a sharp watch for wounded animals, and pursue them with such relent- 
less vigor that they are said never to permit their weakened prey to escape their fangs. One 
of these wild dogs, as they really seemed to be, has been known to leap at the throat of a 
wounded Axis deer, and then to hang with such indomitable pertinacity that it resisted all 
the effoi-ts of its wretched victim to free itself from so terrible a foe. When hanging by its 
teeth, it contracted its body into as small a compass as was compatible with its si/,c. 

Although not a brave animal individually, yet it will, when hard pressed, fight with great 
ferocity, and inflict extremely painful and dangerous wounds with its long and sharp teeth. 
It has a great dread of the civilized dog, but has more than once been known to turn the tables 
on its pursuers, and to call the help of its comrades to its aid. On one of these occasions two 
greyhounds had been sent in pursuit of a Jackal, which immediately made for a rising ground 
covered with grass and small bushes. Dogs and Jackal arrived at the spot almost simulta- 
neously, when the Jackal gave a cry of distress, which was immediately answered by the 
appearance of a small pack of Jackals, which issued in every direction from the cover, and 
attacked the hounds. The owner of the dogs was at the time impounded in thick mud, and 
could not reach the spot in time to rescue his hounds from their furious enemies until they had 
been most severely mangled. One was quite unable to walk, and was carried home by bearers, 
and the other was so dreadfully bitten over his whole person that he appeared to have been 
fired at with buck-shot. Both dogs ultimately recovered, but not until the lapse of a long time. 

On another occasion, when a pack of hounds was hunting a Jackal, a very much larger 
pack of Jackals came to the rescue, and in their turn attacked the hounds with such vehe- 
mence that they were unable to take the field for many weeks afterwards. So fierce were the 
assailants in their attack, that even when the hunters came to the aid of their hounds the 
Jackals flew upon the horses, and were so persevering in their onset that a rescue was not 
effected without considerable difficulty. If unmolested, the Jackal is harmless enough, and 
will permit a human being to pass quite closely without attempting to bite. 

The Jackal is tolerably susceptible of human influence, and if taken when very young, or 
if born into captivity, can be brought to follow its master about like a dog, and to obey his 
orders. If it should be made captive when it has once tasted a free life, it behaves after the 
manner of the dingo, being shy, suspicious, and treacherous towards those who may come 
unexpectedly within reach of its teeth. It is rather remarkable that the animal loses its 
unpleasant odor in proportion to the length of its captivity. The name of "aureus," or 
golden, is derived from the yellowish tinge of the Jackal's fur. In size it rather exceeds a 
large fox, but its tail is not proportionately so long or so bushy as the well-known "brush" 
of the fox. 

THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL is an inhabitant of Soiithern Africa, being especially abun- 
dant about the Cape of. Good Hope, from which circumstance it is sometimes termed the Cape 



THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL. 



259 



Jackal. In size it equals the common Jackal, but is easily distinguished from that animal by 
the black and white mottlings which are thickly spread over its back, and give a peculiar rich- 
ness to the coloring of its fur. Its habits are precisely the same as those of the common 
Jackal, and need not be separate ty described. 

It is a very cunning as well as audacious animal, and is extremely apt at extricating itself 
from any dangerous situation into which it has ventured in search of prey. 

One of these animals had for several successive nights insinuated itself into a hen-roost, 
in Pietermaritzberg, and borne away its inmates without being detected or checked. The 
proprietor of the poultry, finding that his fowls vanished nightly, and not knowing the mode 
of their departure, vowed vengeance against the robber, whoever he might be, and fixed a 
spring-gun across the only opening that gave access to the hen-house. In the course of the 
succeeding night the report of the gun gave notice that the thief had been at his usual work, 




2?*Cv- v -. 

- - - ' . -'--*-' ' ~, - ... 

BLACK-BACKED JACK AL. Oanit menonulati. 

and the bereaved owner ran out towards the discharged gun, hoping to find its charge lodged 
in the dead body of the marauder. However, the thief had made his escape, but had left 
behind him sure tokens of his punishment in the shape of several heavy spots of blood that lay 
along the ground for some little distance. Some hairs that were discovered in the cleft of a 
splintered bar, by which the animal had passed, announced that a Jackal was the delinquent. 

In the morning the trail was followed up, but with little success, as it led across some 
nnids where so many footsteps were constantly passing that the blood-spots were hopelessly 
destroyed, and the scent of the animal broken up by the trails of men and cattle. The road 
that led to the plains was carefully examined, but no traces of the wounded animal could be 
discovered. Two days afterwards it was found, with a hind -leg broken, in a bundle of Tam- 
bookie grass, in the very middle of the village, and close to a butcher's shambles. The cun- 
ning animal evidently knew that if it went to the plains it must die of starvation, and might, 
moreover, be easily overtaken by its pursuers, so it concealed itself in the very spot where they 
would least think of looking for it, and where it was within easy reach of food. 

The nightly shrieks with which the Black-backed Jackal fills the air are loud and piercing : 



260 



THE WOLF. 



but when heard at a distance are thought by some sportsmen to possess a certain melody to 
initiated ears. 

The peculiar dark mottlings of the back form a band that extends from its neck and 
shoulders to the tail, is very broad in front, passing over the withers as far as the shoulders, 
and narrowing gradually towards the tail, where it becomes only two inches wide. The tail 
is of a fawn color, and does not partake of this variable coloring, with the exception of the 
tip, which is black. 

Lieutenant Burton remarks, that among the Somali the morning cry of the Jackal is used 
as an omen of good or evil, according to its direction and its tone. He also mentions that it 
is in the habit of attacking the peculiar fat-tailed sheep which inhabit that country, and car- 



i 




THE WOLF. Canit lupaster. 

rying off their lambs. The fat-biirdened tail forms an article of diet which seems to be greatly 
to the Jackal's taste, and which he procures by leaping suddenly upon the poor sheep, and 
then making a fierce bite at its tail. The terrified sheep starts off at best speed, and leaves a 
large mouthful of its tail between the Jackal's teeth. Kids and other small animals fall vic- 
tims to this insatiate devourer. 

In that country the Jackal, called by the natives "Duwas," dances nightly attendance'' 
upon the spotted hyena. 



WOLVES. 

FEW animals have earned so widely popular, or so little enviable, a fame as the WOLVES. 
Whether in the annals of history, in fiction, in poetry, or even in the less honored, but hardly 
less important, literature of nursery fables, the Wolf holds a prominent position among 
animals. 

There are several species of Wolf, each of which species is divided into three or four 
varieties, which seem to be tolerably permanent, and by many observers are thought to be 
sufficiently marked to be considered as separate species. However, as even the members of 



THE WOLF. 



261 



the same litter partake of several minor varieties in form and color, it is very possible that the 
so-called species may be nothing more than very distinctly marked varieties. These voracious 
and dangerous animals are found in almost every quarter of the globe ; whether the country 
which they infest is heated by the beams of the tropical sun or frozen by the lengthened winter 
of the northern regions. Mountain and plain, forest and field, jungle and prairie, are equally 
infested with Wolves, which possess the power of finding nourishment for their united bands 
in localities where even a single predaceous animal might be perplexed to gain a livelihood. 

THE color of the common WOLF is gray, mingled with a slight tinting of fawn, and diver- 
sified with many black hairs that are interspersed among the lighter colored fur. In the older 







SOUTH AMERICAN WOLF. Cants jubatut. 



animals the gray appears to predominate over the fawn, while the fur of the younger Wolves 
is of a warmer fawn tint. The under parts of the animal, the lower jaw, and the edge of the 
upper lip, are nearly white, while the interior face of the limbs is of a gray tint. From this 
latter circumstance the Norwegians, with their usual superstitious dislike to calling an animal 
by its right name, dignify the Wolf by the title of "Graabeen," or Gray-legs. The equally 
superstitious Finns prefer the name of "Loajalg," or Broad -foot. Between the ears the head 
is almost entirely gray, and without the mixture of black hairs, which is found in greatest 
profusion along the line of the spine. 

When hungry and the Wolf is almost always hungry it is a bold and dangerous animal, 
daring almost all things to reach its prey, and venturing to attack large and powerful animals, 
such as the buffalo, the elk, or the wild horse. Sometimes it has been known to oppose 
itself to other carnivora, and to attack so unpromising a foe as the bear. Mr. Lloyd records 
an instance of this presumption on the part of the Wolves. 

During a bear-hunt, when the hunting party was led by a dog that was following the 
footsteps of a bear, a small herd of Wolves, few in number, suddenly made their appearance, 
pounced on the dog, and devoured it. They then took up the trail, and when they came up 



262 THE WOLF. 

with the bear entered into battle with him. The fight terminated in favor of the bear ; but not 
without much exertion and great danger to both parties, as was proved by the quantity of bear 
and Wolf fur that lay scattered about the scene of combat. So severely had the bear been 
treated that his fur was found to be quite useless when he was killed by the hunters a few 
days after the conflict. 

This is not a solitary example of a fight between bears and Wolves, as the same author 
mentions a similar combat, which would apparently have had a different result. The bear had 
retreated to a large tree ; and, standing with his back against the trunk, boldly faced his 
antagonists, and for some time kept them at bay. At last, however, some of the Wolves crept 
round the tree, and seizing him unexpectedly in the flank, inflicted such severe wounds that 
he would soon have fallen a victim to their ferocity had not they been put to flight by the 
approach of some men. 

It is by no means nice in its palate, and will eat almost any living animal, from human 
beings down to frogs, lizards, and insects. Moreover, it is a sad cannibal, and is thought by 
several travellers who have noted its habits to be especially partial to the flesh of its own kind. 
A weak, sickly, or wounded Wolf is sure to fall under the cruel teeth of its companions ; who 
are said to be so fearfully ravenous that if one of their companions should chance to besmear 
himself with the blood of the prey which has just been hunted down, he is instantly attacked 
and devoured by the remainder of the pack. 

In their hunting expeditions the Wolves usually unite in bands, larger or smaller in 
number, according to circumstances, and acting simultaneouly for a settled purpose. If they 
are on the trail of a flying animal, the footsteps of their prey are followed up by one or two of 
the Wolves, while the remainder of the band take up their position to the right and left of the 
leaders, so as to intercept the quarry if it should attempt to turn from its course. Woe be to 
any animal that is unlucky enough to be chased by a pack of Wolves. No matter how swift 
it may be, it will most surely be overtaken at last by the long, slouching, tireless gallop of the 
Wolves ; and no matter what may be its strength, it must at last fail under the repeated and 
constant attacks of the sharp teeth. 

There is something remarkable about the bite of a Wolf. Instead of making its teeth 
meet in the flesh of its antagonist, and then maintaining its hold, as is done by most of the 
carnivora, the Wolf snaps sharply, fiercely, and repeatedly at its opponent or its quarry ; 
delivering these attacks with such furious energy that when it misses its mark its jaws clash 
together with a sound that has been likened to the sudden closing of a steel-trap. These 
sharply snapping bites, so rapidly delivered, are of terrible efficacy in destroying an enemy, or 
bringing down the prey. 

Putting aside the differences that exist between the feline and the canine dentition, the 
general character of the whole form is worthy of notice, and points out the creature as belong- 
ing to the group of carnivorous animals which obtains its prey by running it down in a lengthy 
chase, rather than to those predaceous animals which destroy their prey by a single powerful 
spring. The limbs are larger in proportion than those of the lion, and the bones are more 
slenderly made. The head and neck are very differently formed. Those of the lion are intended 
to serve the purpose of an animal which leaps upon its prey, fixes its teeth in the flesh of 
its quarry, and there hangs until it has destroyed its prey ; but the corresponding portions of 
the Wolfs anatomy belong evidently to an animal which is not intended by nature to exert the 
clinging hold of the cat tribe, but to overtake its prey by fair chase, to run, and to bite. 

The sharp teeth with which the Wolf is furnished are strong enough to cut their way 
through substances which might be thought impervious to teeth. A hungry Wolf will devour 
a raw hide with enviable ease, and, when hard pressed by its unsatisfied appetite, has often 
been known to make a meal on thick leather traces that had been left unguarded for a few 
minutes. 

Bold as is the Wolf in ordinary circumstances, it is one of the most suspicious animals in 
existence, and is infected with the most abject terror at the sight of any object to which its 
eyes, nose, or ears are unaccustomed. 

Very fortunately for the hunters, this excess of caution on the part of the Wolf is the 



THE BLACK WOLF. 



263 



means of preserving th'eir slaughtered game from the hungry maws of the Wolves that ever 
accompany a hunter, and hang on his steps in hope of obtaining the offal of such animals as he 
may slaughter, or of securing such creatures as he may wound and fail to kill on the spot. In 
order to preserve the carcass of a slain buffalo or deer, the hunter merely plants a stick by the 
side of the animal, and ties to the top of the stick a fluttering piece of linen, or any similar 
substance, and then goes his way, secure that the Wolves will not dare to approach such an 
object. In default of a strip of calico or linen, the inflated bladder of the dead animal is an 
approved " scare-wolf ; '" and, as a last resource, a strip of its hide is used for that purpose. 

To this peculiarity have been owing, not only the preservation of game, but the lives of 
defenceless travellers. It has several times happened that a band of Wolves have been press- 
ing closely upon the footsteps of their human quarry, and have been checked in their onward 
course by the judicious exhibition of certain articles of which the Wolves were suspicious, and 
from which they kept aloof until they had satisfied themselves of their harmlessness. As one 
article began to lose its efficacy, another was exhibited, so that the persecuted travellers were 



i 




BLACK WOLF. C'anie occidental!*. 

enabled to gain the refuge of some friendly village, and to baffle the furious animals by means 
which in themselves were utterly inadequate to their effects. A piece of rope trailed from a 
horse or carriage is always an object of much fear to the Wolves. 

When the Wolf is once within a trap, it becomes the most cowardly of animals, and will 
permit itself to be handled or wounded without displaying the least sign of animation, or 
attempting to resist' the hand of its destroyer. The sensation of imprisonment appears to 
deprive it of all energy, and it sometimes happens that a trapped Wolf is so entirely destitute 
of self-control, that it has permitted the hunter to drag it from the trap, and to make it lie 
passively by his side while he reset the trap for the occupancy of another victim. On one 
occasion, a pitfall-trap contained two occupants, one a Wolf, and the other a poor old woman, 
who had unfortunately fallen into the pit when returning from her work. The Wolf was so 
cowed by finding itself entrapped, that it made no attempt to injure its fellow prisoner, but lay 
quietly at the bottom of the pit, and was shot in the morning by a peasant. 

THE BLACK WOLF of America was thought by some naturalists to be only a variety of 
the common Wolf, but it is now considered to be a distinct species. Not only does the color 



THE PRAIRIE WOLF. 



of its fur vary from that of the common Wolf, but there are various differences of structure 
in the position of the eye, the peculiar bushiness of the hair, and other peculiarities, which 
have entitled it to rank as a separate species. 

The American Wolves partake of the general lupine character, being fierce, dangerous, 
and cowardly, like their European brethren. They are marvellously pusillanimous when they 
find themselves fairly inclosed ; and even if their prison-house be a large yard they crouch 
timidly in the corners, and do not venture to attack a human being if he enters the same 
inclosure. Audubon mentions a curious instance of this strange timidity in so fierce an animal, 
and of which he was an eye-witness. 

A farmer had suffered greatly from the Wolves, and had determined to take his revenge 
by means of pitfalls, of which he had dug several within easy reach of his residence. They 

were eight feet in depth, and wider at 
the bottom than at the top. Into one 
of these traps three fine Wolves had 
fallen ; two of them being black and the 
other a brindled animal. To the very 
great astonishment of M. Audubon, the 
farmer got into the pit, pulled out the 
hind-legs of the Wolves as they lay 
trembling at the bottom, and with his 
knife severed the chief tendon of the 
hind-limbs, so as to prevent their escape. 
The farmer was thus repaying himself 
for the damage which he had suffered, 
for the skins of the captured Wolves 
were sufficiently valuable to reimburse 
him for his labor and previous losses. 

Among the Esquimaux the Wolves 
are caught in traps made of large blocks 
of ice, and constructed in precisely the 
same manner as an ordinary mouse-trap 
with a drop-door. The trap is made so 
naiTow that the Wolf cannot turn him- 
self, and when he is fairly inclosed by 
the treachercms door, he is put to death 
by spears, which are thrust through in- 
terstices left for that purpose. 

PSAIRIE WOLF. Canis latrans. 

THERE is a rather smaller species 

of Wolf, which is found in great numbers upon the American prairies, and named for that 
reason the PRAIRIE WOLF. These animals are always found hanging on the outskirts of the 
numerous herds of bisons that roam the prairies, and pick up a subsistence by assailing the 
weakly and wounded members of the herd. Small as is each individual Wolf, it becomes a 
terrible assailant when backed by numbers, and seldom fails to bring to the ground any 
animal which may be unfortunate enough to attract its attention. 

When they have once brought their prey to the ground, they make marvellously short 
work. There is a scuffle of some two minutes in length, during which the Wolves are so 
eagerly plying their feet and jaws that nothing is visible except a cloud of dust and hair, in 
the midst of which is a mass of whisking tails. The dusty cloud then subsides, and the 
Wolves are seen moving slowly away from the scene of their late repast. They also are in the 
habit of accompanying the hunters through their long peregrinations over the prairies, always 
hanging behind at respectful distances, and at night encamping within easy range of the fire. 
They seem never to injure the hunter or his horse, preferring to make use of his superior 
powers in procuring them a daily supply of food. They are wise in so doing, as the hunter 




THE COYOTE. 265 

seldom requires more than the "hump," tongue, marrow-bones, and skin of the slaughtered 
bison, and leaves the remainder of the huge carcass for the Wolves. 

ANOTHER well-known American Wolf is the COYOTE, or CA.IOTE, in which there is some- 
thing of the vulpine aspect. In habits it resembles the other Wolves. According to European 
ideas, the flesh of the Wolf would be thought a very strange, and decidedly repulsive, article 
of diet. But it is found by those who have had practical experience on this subject, that the 
Wolf, when properly dressed, affords a really excellent dinner, the tables being thus turned 
on him. The ribs are the portion which are most esteemed. 

Like many other wild animals, the Wolf will feign death when it has fallen into the hands 
of its pursuers, and finds that escape is impossible. So admirably will it achieve this feat 
that it has often deceived the experienced eyes of the hunter, and, taking advantage of an 
unguarded moment on his part, has made good its escape. How perseveringly the animal will 
enact his part may be imagined from the description of a captive Wolf given by Captain Lyon, 
in his private journal. 

The Wolf had been brought on board apparently dead, but as the eyes were observed to 
wink when an object was passed rapidly before them, a rope was fastened to his hind-legs, and 
he was suspended from the rigging, with his head downwards. Suddenly he threw off all 
disguise, and began to snap viciously in all directions ; at one time aiming his attacks at the 
persons who surrounded him, and at another moment curling himself upwards and trying to 
bite the rope asunder. He was so very full of life that it required several heavy blows on his 
head, and the employment of a bayonet, to reduce him in reality to the state which he had 
previously been feigning. 

It was formerly supposed that the Wolf was an untamable animal, but it is now known 
that there are few creatures which are more susceptible of affection than the Wolf, if it be 
captured when young, and treated rightly. It will follow its master like a dog, will obey his 
orders readily, will recognize him after a long term of absence, and in all things conduct itself 
with a propriety that is not always found in the domesticated dogs. Several instances of this 
tamable disposition of the Wolf are well known. One such example is afforded by the tame 
Wolf which belonged to Mr. F. Cuvier, and which recognized him after an absence of 
three years. 

A Norwegian gentleman, named Grieff, "reared up two young Wolves until they were 
full-grown. They were male and female. The latter became so tame that she played with me, 
and licked my hands, and I had her often with me in the sledge in winter. Once when I was 
absent she got loose from the chain she was bound with, and was away for three days. When 
I returned home I went out on a hill, and called 'Where is my Tussa?' as she was named, 
when she immediately came home, and fondled with me like the most friendly dog. She could 
not bear other people, but the male, on the contrary, was friendly with others, but not with 
me, from the moment when he once seized a hen, and I whipped him with a carrier whip. 
As they were well treated, they got very large and had fine skins." 

When Wolves and dogs are domesticated in the same residence, a mutual attachment will 
often spring up between them, although they naturally bear the bitterest hatred to each other. 
A mixed offspring is sometimes the result of this curious friendship, and it is said that these 
half-bred animals are more powerful and courageous than the ordinary dog. Mr. Palliser 
possessed a remarkably fine animal of this kind, the father of which was a white Wolf, and 
the mother an ordinary Indian dog. Its fur was white, like that of its AVolf -parent. 

When "Ishmah," as the dog was named, was first purchased from its Indian owners, he 
was so terrified at the white face of his new master, that he always ran away whenever he saw 
him, and could not be persuaded to come within two hundred yards. Ishmah was then tied 
up with a cord, but the moment that he was left to himself he held the cord to the ground 
with his paw, severed it in an instant with his sharp teeth, leaped out of the window, and 
dashed off to his former owners. After awhile, however, he became reconciled to his white 
master, and proved to be a most faithful and useful ally ; dragging a small sledge that 
contained the heavier necessaries of a hunter's life, and partaking with his master all the 



266 THE COYOTE. 

pleasures and privations of a nomad existence. On account of his wolfish ancestry, he was 
rather apt to run off and play with the young Wolves instead of attending to his duty, but 
was never induced to throw off his allegiance. On one occasion the dog saved the life of his 
master by lying close to him on a bitterly freezing night, and with his long warm fur preserving 
him from the terrible death by frost. 

The Wolf is a rather prolific animal, producing from three to nine young at a litter. In 
January the mother Wolf begins to prepare her habitation for the expected inmates, a task 
in which she is protected, and perhaps assisted, by her mate, who has won her in fair fight 
from his many rivals. He attaches himself solely to one single mate, and never leaves her 
until the young Wolves are able to shift for themselves. The nest in which the little family 
is nurtured is softly and warmly lined with dry moss and with the fur of the mother, which 
she pulls from her own body. March is the usual month for the appearance of the little 
family, and they remain under the' maternal protection for seven or eight months. They 
begin to eat meat at four or five weeks of age, and are taught by their parents to join 
In the chase. 

In the family Canidce (the Dogs), species are pretty evenly distributed over the two 
continents, America and Asia. In North America there are ten species, and in South 
America nine. 

The Dog family is well marked by two groups : the Wolves and Foxes. 

The Gray Wolf (Canis occidentalis). This species is now regarded as distinct from the 
European form, though naturalists formerly claimed their identity. 

Prince Maximilian, of New Wied, Germany, in his "Journey to North America, 1841," 
says: "This Wolf is" speaking of the form seen by him in the Western Territories 
"distinguished from that of the Eastern States which resembles the European by the 
somewhat smaller size, shorter, thicker snout, somewhat shorter ears, and by the want of the 
dark strips running down the legs in the European species ; also by the color, varying from 
the ordinary Wolf's-gray to the pure white." This Wolf brings forth in April a litter of from 
four to nine young, in a burrow. 

In Florida, a variety of this Wolf * is found, having a jet black pelt. Audubon states that 
this kind was very abundant in Henderson, Kentucky, his place of residence, and mentions an 
instance of the complete domestication of one of these animals. 

A singular result of the frequent discharge of fire-arms in the region inhabited by the 
Coyotes, is seen in their inquisitive habits. So ravenous are they, the discharge of a gun has 

* Note by the Editor. THE PRAIRIE WOLF (Canis latrans) is intermediate in size between the Fox and the Wolf, 
resembling the former in the sharpness of its muzzle, and the latter in the form and character of the tail. The description 
above referring to the "Coyote," which has been named Canis ochropus, Esch., applies only to a variety, not to a distinct 
species. The Prairie Wolf is called also Coyote. Lewis and Clark named it Burrowing Dog. The terms Canis ochropus 
and Canis latrans are therefore synonymous. 

Dr. Coues has had most excellent opportunities to study this animal, being stationed, as IT. S. Army Surgeon, at 
various posts near which this creatnre abounds. He gives us, in his usual scholarly and interesting language, the following 
account : "The Prairie or Barking Wolf (Canis latrans, Say), is by far the most abundant carnivorous animal in Arizona, as 
it also is in almost every part of the West. Practically, the Coyote is a nuisance ; theoretically, he commands a certain 
degree of admiration, viewing his irrepressible positivity of character and his versatile nature. If his genius lias nothing 
essentially noble or lofty about it, it is undeniable that few animals possess so many and so various attributes, or act them 
out with such dogged perseverance. Ever on the alert, and keenly alive to a sense of danger, he yet exhibits the coolest 
effrontery when his path crosses ours. The main object of his life seems to be the satisfying of a hunger which is always 
craving, and to this aim all his cunning, impudence, and audacity are mainly directed." * * * 

" It is a singular fact that the howling of two or three Wolves gives an impression that a score are engaged, so many, 
so long-drawn are the notes, and so uninterruptedly are they continued by one individual after another. A short, sharp 
bark is sounded, followed by several more in quick succession, the time growing faster and the pitch higher, till they run 
together into a long-drawn, lugubrious howl in the highest possible key. The same strain is taken up again and again by 
different members of the pack, while from a greater distance the deep, melancholy baying of the more wary Lobo breaks in, 
to add to the discord, till the very leaves of the trees seem quivering to the inharmonious sounds. It is not true, as asserted 
by some, that the Coyotes howl only just after dark and at daylight. They are rarely, if ever, heard in the daytime, though 
frequently to be seen, especially in secluded places." * * 

"There is abundant evidence that the Coyote will cross and bear fertile offspring with the domestic dog. The 
hybrid is said to possess the bad qualities of both parents, and the good ones of neither." It brings forth in May, live 
or six puppies. 



THE FOX. 267 

no terrors for them, but they have learned to connect the sound with its usual results, and imme' 
diately appear on such occasions ready to take advantage of a stray or overlooked bit of game. 

ACCORDING to some systematic naturalists the FOXES are placed in the genus Cams, 
together with the dogs and the wolves. Those eminent zoologists, however, who have arranged 
the magnificent collections in the British Museum, have decided upon separating the Foxes from 
the dogs and wolves, and placing them in the genus Vulpes. To this decision they have come 
for several reasons, among which may be noted the shape of the pupil of the eye, which in the 




A GROUP OF FOXES. 

Foxes is elongated, but in the animals which compose the genus Canis is circular. The ears of 
the Foxes are triangular in shape, and pointed, and the tail is always exceedingly bushy. 

A very powerful scent is poured forth from the Fox in consequence of some glands which 
are placed near .the root of the tail, and furnish the odorous secretion. Glands of a similar 
nature, but not so well developed, are found in the wolves. The tenacity with which this 
scent clings to any object which it has touched is quite extraordinary. I remember an 
instance when a Fox was captured by an old laborer, in revenge for killing his fowls, and 
which he exhibited in an outhouse for a short time. The animal could not have been in the 
shed for more than twenty minutes, and yet the odor which it evolved was so pertinaciously 
adherent to everything which had been touched by the animal that the shed was not free from 
the tell-tale scent for many weeks. 



268 THE FOX. 

At night, while walking over various roads, I have frequently been aware that a Fox had 
crossed the path, and could have followed up the scent for some distance. 

It is by this scent that the hounds are able to follow the footsteps of a flying Fox, and to 
run it down by their superior speed and endurance. The Fox, indeed, seems to be aware that 
its pursuers are guided in their chase by this odor, and puts in practice every expedient that 
its fertile brain can produce in order to break the continuity of the scent, or to overpower it 
by the presence of other odors, which are more powerful, though not more agreeable. A 
hunted Fox will make the most extraordinary leaps in order to break the line of scent, and 
throw the hounds on a false track. It will run for a considerable distance in a straight line, 
return upon its own track, and then make a powerful spring to one side, so as to induce the 
dogs to run forward while it quietly steals away. It will take every opportunity of perfuming, 
or rather of scenting, itself with any odorous substance with which it can meet, in the hope of 
making the hounds believe that they have mistaken their quarry. In fine, there are a thousand 
wiles which this crafty animal employs, and which are related by every one who has watched 
a Fox or hunted it. 

Even when tamed it preserves its singular cunning. A tame Fox, that was kept in a 
stable-yard, had managed to strike up a friendship with several of the dogs, and would play 
with them, but could never induce the cats to approach him. Cats are very sensitive in their 
nostrils, and could not endure the vulpine odor. They would not even walk upon any spot 
where the Fox had been standing, and kept as far aloof as possible from him. 

The crafty animal soon perceived that the cats would not come near him, and made use 
of his knowledge to cheat them of their breakfast. As soon as the servant poured out the 
cats' allowance of milk, the Fox would run to the spot and walk about the saucer, well know- 
ing that none of the rightful owners would approach the defiled locality. Day after day the 
cats lost their milk until the vulpine stratagem was discovered, and the milk was placed in a 
spot where it could not be reached by the Fox. There were three cats attached to the stables, 
and they all partook of the same detestation ; so that their abhorrence of the vulpine odor 
seems to belong to the general character of cats, and not to the fastidious individuality of a 
single animal. He was also very successful in cheating the dogs of their food, achieving his 
thefts by the force of superior intellect. 

The same animal was cunning enough to procure a supply of milk, even after he had been 
prevented from robbing the cats. On one occasion, as the dairymaid was passing along with 
her pails, the Fox went up to her, and brushed himself against one of the milk-pails. In con- 
seqxience of this contact, the milk became so tainted with the smell of the Fox that the dairy- 
maid did not venture to bring it to the house, and rather thoughtlessly poured it out into a 
vessel, and gave it to the Fox. The crafty animal took advantage of the circumstance, and 
watched for the coming of the maid with her pails, in order to repeat the process. Several 
times he succeeded in his project, but when he found that the spoiled milk was given to the 
pigs, instead of being appropriated to his own use, he ceased his nefarious attempts. 

He detested all ragged beggars, and was so energetic in his hostile demonstrations, that 
he realized the truth of the proverb, " Set a thief to catch a thief." The horses hated him with 
as thorough a detestation as that in which the cats held him. His presence in the stable would 
set the horses in confusion, and make them plunge about in a restless and uneasy manner. 

The Fox resides in burrows, which it scoops out of the earth by the aid of its strong dig- 
ging paws, taking advantage of every peculiarity of the ground, and contriving, whenever it is 
possible, to wind its subterranean way among the roots of large trees, or between heavy stones. 
In these "earths," as the burrows are called in the sportsman's phraseology, the female Fox 
produces and nurtures her young, which are odd little snub-nosed creatures, resembling almost 
any animal rather than a Fox. She watches over her offspring with great care, and teaches 
them by degrees to subsist on animal food, which she and her mate capture for that purpose. 

The color of the common Fox is a reddish-fawn, intermixed with black and white hairs. 
The hair is long and thick, being doubly thick during the colder months of the year, so that 
the fur of a Fox which is killed in the winter is more valuable than if the animal had been 
slain in the hot months. The tail, which is technically termed the "brush," is remarkably 



THE AMERICAN FOX. 269 

bushy, and partakes of the tints which predominate over the body, except at the tip, which is 
white. The height of this animal is about a foot, and its length about two feet and a half, 
exclusive of the tail. 

THERE are several species of Foxes, which are found in various parts of the globe, some 
of which, such as the AMERICAN Fox, or MAKKEESHAW, sometimes called the Cross Fox, the 
Kit Fox, . and the Arctic Fox, are tolerably familiar animals. The American Fox is very 
variable in the color and markings of its fur, some specimens being of a pale yellow, some 
being blackish in their general tinting, and some of a reddish-fawn, while some specimens are 
remarkable for the manner in which the black, the white, the yellow, and the fawn are dispersed 
over the body and limbs. In almost every specimen there is a darkish transverse stripe over 
the shoulders, giving to the animal the title of Cross Fox. 




8ILVEU FOX OF OUR SOUTUEUN STATES.- Vulpa fulmu. 

This animal has its full share of the crafty spirit which is so notable in the nature of all 
Foxes. One of them, on whose track the hounds had been often laid, used always to baffle 
them at one particular point, the crest of a rather steep hill. Up to this spot the scent was 
perfectly good ; but at that particular spot the scent vanished, and so the Fox was lost. One 
of the disappointed hunters was so indignant at his repeated failures that he determined to 
lay aside the chase for a day, and to devote himself to the discovery of the means by which 
the creature could so invariably escape f rom the hounds and men. He therefore concealed 
himself near the charmed spot, and watched with much interest the proceedings of the hunted 
animal. 

The Fox, after being driven from his cover, led the hounds a long chase through woods, 
ponds, and thickets, and at last came at full speed towards the crest of the hill. As soon as 
lie had reached the spot, he laid himself down and pressed himself as closely as possible to the 
ground. Presently the hounds came along in full cry, and with a blazing scent, darting over 
the hill in hot pursuit, and never stopping until they reached the bottom of the hill. As soon 
as the last hound had passed, the Fox resumed his legs, crept quietly over the brow of the 
lull, and returned to his covert at leisure. 

Another of these creatures made use of a very cunning device for the same purpose. In 
this instance, he always led his pursuers to the edge of a cliff that rose perpendicularly for 
several hundred feet, and then disappeared. The hunters had often examined the spot, and 
unsuccessfully, for it seemed that no wingless animal could venture to take such a fearful leap. . 
The secret was, however, at last discovered by a concealed spy. The crafty Fox was seen 
coming quite at his leisure to the edge of the cliff, and then to look down. Some ten feet 



2 TO THE AMERICAN FOX. 

below the edge there was a kind of break in the strata of stone, forming a kind of step about a 
foot in width. By means of his claws the Fox let himself down upon this step, and then dis- 
appeared in a hollow which was invisible from above. 

A man was lowered by ropes to the spot, and found that there was a wide fissure in the 
rock, to which the stony step formed an entrance. On searching the cavern, it was found to 
have another and an easy outlet upon the level ground above. The Fox, however, never used 
this entrance when the hounds were on his trail, but cut off the scent by scrambling over the 
cliff, and then emerging at the other outlet without danger of discovery. 

Mr. C. W. Webber narrates an equally ciirious instance of the cunning of a Fox in escap- 
ing from his pursuers : 

" There was a certain briary old field of great extent, near the middle of which we could, 
on any morning of the year, start a gray Fox. After a chase of an hour or so, just enough to 
blow the dogs and horses well, we invariably lost the Fox at the same spot, the fence-corner of 
a large plantation, which opened into a heavy forest on one side of this old field. The fre- 
quency and certainty of this event became the standing joke of the country. Fox-hunters 
from other neighborhoods would bring their pack for miles, to have a run out of this mys- 
terious Fox, in the hope of clearing up the mystery. But no. They were all baffled alike. 
We often examined the ground critically, to find out, if possible, the mode of escape, but 
could discover nothing that in any way accoxinted for it, or suggested any theory in regard to 
it. That it did not fly was very sure ; that it must escape along the fence in some way was 
equally so. My first idea was, that the animal, as is very common, had climbed upon the top 
rail of the fence, and walked along it to such a distance, before leaping off, that the dogs were 
entirely thrown out. I accordingly followed the fence with the whole pack about me, clear 
round the plantation, but without striking the trail again, or making any discovery. 

" The affair now became quite serious. The reputation of our hounds was suffering ; and, 
besides, I found they were really losing confidence in themselves, and would not run with half 
the staunch eagerness which had before characterized them. The joke of being regularly 
baffled had been so often repeated that they now came to consider it a settled thing that they 
were never to take another Fox again, and were disposed to give up in despair. Some of the 
neighbors had- grown superstitious about it, and vowed that this must be a weir Fox, who 
could make himself invisible when he pleased. 

" At last I determined to watch at the fence-corner, and see what became of the Fox. 
Within about the usual time I heard him heading towards the mysterious corner, as the voices 
of the pack clearly indicated. I almost held my breath in my concealment, while I watched 
for the appearance of this extraordinary creature. In a little while the Fox made his appear- 
ance, coming on at quite a leisurely pace, a little in advance of the pack. When he reached 
the corner, he climbed in a most unhurried and deliberate way to the top rail of the fence, and 
then walked along it, balancing himself as carefully as a rope-dancer. He proceeded down 
the side of the fence next to the forest in which I was concealed. 

"I followed cautiously, so as to keep him in view. Before he had thus proceeded more 
than two hundred yards, the hounds came Tip to the corner, and he very deliberately paused 
and looked back for a moment, then he hurried along the fence some paces farther, and when 
he came opposite a dead but leaning tree which stood inside the fence, some twelve or sixteen 
feet distant, he stooped, made a high and long bound to a knot upon the side of its trunk, up 
which he ran, and entered, a hollow in the top where it had been broken off, nearly thirty feet 
from the ground, in some storm. I respected the astuteness of the trick too much to betray 
its author, since I was now personally satisfied ; and he continued for a long time, while I 
kept his secret, to be the wonder and the topic of neighboring Fox-hunters, until at last one of 
them happened to take the same idea into his head, and found out the mystery. He avenged 
himself by cutting down the tree, and capturing the smart Fox. 

"The tree stood at such a distance from the fence that no one of us who had examined 
the ground ever dreamed of the possibility that the Fox would leap to it ; it seemed a physical 
impossibility, but practice and the convenient knot had enabled cunning Reynard to overcome 
it with fissured ease." 



THE ARCTIC FOX. 



Ill 



ONE of the most celebrated species of the Foxes is the ARCTIC Fox, called by the Russians 
PESZI, and by the Greenlanders TERKIENNIAK. This animal is in very great repute in the 
mercantile world on account of its beautifully silky fur, which in the cold winter months 
becomes perfectly white. During the summer the fur is generally of a gray, or dirty brown, 
but is frequently found of a leaden gray, or of a brown tint with a wash of blue. Towards 
the change of the seasons the fur becomes mottled ; and by reason of this extreme variableness 
has caused the animal to be known by several different titles. Sometimes it is called the 
White Fox, sometimes the Blue Fox, sometimes the Sooty Fox, sometimes the Pied Fox, and 
sometimes the Stone Fox. 

This animal is found in Lapland, Iceland, Siberia, Kamschatka, and North America, in 
all of which places it is eagerly sought by the hunters for the sake of its fur. The pure white 




pF 

AECT1C FOX. Vvlpes lagopu*. 

coat of the winter season is the most valuable, and the bluish-gray fur of the summer months 
is next to the white the color that is most in request. The soles of the feet are thickly covered 
with hair, from which circumstance it has derived its name of Lagopus, or hairy foot. 

It is found that this animal possesses the power of imitating the cries of the birds on which 
it loves to feed, and it is probable that it employs this gift for the purpose of decoying its 
prey to their destruction. Although it is sufficiently cunning in obtaining its food, it seems 
to be remarkably destitute of the astute craft which aids the generality of the Foxes to avoid 
hidden dangers or to baffle their foes. It is easily induced to enter a trap, and will generally 
permit a hunter to approach within range of an easy shot. It is true that, when a human 
being approaches their burrows, the inmates retire into their homes ; biit as they continually 
protrude their heads and yelp at their foe, the precaution is to very little purpose. 

In size, the Arctic Fox is not the equal of the English species, weighing only eight pounds 
on an average, and its total length being about three feet. The eye is of a hazel tint, and very 
bright and intelligent. It lives in burrows, which it excavates in the earth during the summer 
months, and prefers to construct its simple dwellings in small groups of twenty or thirty. 

The Vulpine, or Fox-like group, is distinguished by having the eye pupil elliptical, and 
a more slender head. Some important anatomical differences are noticed. 



272 



THE ASSE. 



The American Fox was long regarded identical with the Red Fox of Europe ( Vulpes 
mdgaris). Differences exist, though slight. The American Fox has a more silky, softer, and 
longer fur. The muzzle is longer ; the eyes are placed nearer together, and the feet are larger. 

The Cross Fox a variety is so called on account of a more or less distinct band of a 
darker color crossing another on the shoulders. It is common in New York, but is not often 
seen south of Pennsylvania. It is larger than the Red variety, and has a more bushy tail. 

The Prairie Fox ( Vulpes macrourus) is regarded as the finest species known. It is the 
largest. Its color is much like that of the Red Fox. The muzzle is more pointed than in any 
other species. Its total length, from nose to tip of tail, is thirty -three inches. The ears are 
very large and acutely pointed. Lewis and Clark called it the Large Red Fox of the Plains. 
Audubon and Bachman named it Vulpes utah. 

The Kit Fox, or Swift Fox ( Vulpes veloz), is the Silver-gray Fox of earlier writers. It is 
quite distinguished from the Red Fox, and others, by its broader head, smaller ears, and 




OTOCYON. Otocyon lalandii. 



It is 



shorter legs, cylindrical and bushy tail. Its litter of young varies from four to eight, 
common to the Western States. 

The Arctic Fox is an exceedingly beautiful creature, being of a pure snowy white in every 
part of its pelt. It inhabits the region of the Arctic Circle, and is seldom seen farther south. 

The Gray Fox ( Urocyon cinereo argentatus, Schreb, Coues) is common to the Middle 
States, California, and the North Western States. It is distinguished by having a concealed 
mane of stiff hairs. Its general aspect is of a handsome silver-gray. The pelt is less soft and 
bushy, and the body, -therefore, seems somewhat smaller than of other species. 

The Coast Fox ( Vulpes littoralis) is another of this group, distinguished by the staffer 
hairs. Sometimes called the Short-tailed Fox. It is hardly more than half the size of the 
preceding species. The tail is only about one third the length of the body. Its pelt above 
is hoary and black. The sides of the neck, fore-legs and fore part of thighs are of a dull cin- 
namon color. The chin and sides of the muzzle, black. The tail has a concealed mane of stiff 
hairs. This little Fox is singularly tame. 

THE LITTLE animal which is known by the name of the ASSE, or the CAAMA, is an inhabit- 
ant of Southern Africa, and is in great request for the sake of its skin, which furnishes a very 
valuable fur. 

It is a terrible enemy to ostriches and other birds which lay their eggs in the ground, and 
is in consequence detested by the birds whose nests are devastated. The ingenuity of the 
Caama in procuring the contents of an ostrich's egg is rather remarkable. The shell of the 



THE FENNEC. 



273 



egg is extremely thick and strong ; and as the Caama is but a small animal, its teeth are 
unable to make any impression on so large, smooth, hard, and rounded an object. In order, 
therefore, to obviate this difficulty, the cunning animal rolls the egg along by means of its 
fore-paws, and pushes it so violently against any hard substance that may lie conveniently in 
its path, or against another egg, that the shell is broken and the contents attainable. 

The fur of this animal is highly esteemed by the natives for the purpose of making 
"karosses," or mantles. As the Asse is one of the smallest of the Foxes, a great number of 
skins are needed to form a single mantle, and the manufactured article is therefore held in high 
value by its possessor. Indeed, so valuable is its fur, that it tempts many of the Bechuana 
tribes to make its chase the business of their lives, and to expend their whole energies in cap 
turing the animal from whose body 
the much-prized fur is taken. 

The continual persecution to 
which the Caama is subjected, has 
almost exterminated it in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Cape Town, where 
it was formerly seen in tolerable 
plenty. Gradually, however, it re- 
treats more and more northward 
before the tread of civilized man, 
and at the present day is but very 
rarely seen within the limits of the 
colony. 

THE TWO animals which now 
claim our attention bear a consider- 
able external resemblance to each 
other, albeit that similarity extends 
not to their formation. So different 
are they from each other, that they 
have been placed in a distinct genera 
by the almost unanimous voice of 
systematic naturalists. 

The former of these animals, the 
OTOCYON, or Eared-dog, derives its 
name from the very great propor- 
tionate length of its ears. It is 
smaller than the Fox, and is of a 
tolerably uniform gray color, except 

on the tail, which is covered with long black hair, and on the limbs, which are of a darker 
hue than the body. The ears are erect, well covered with fur, and nearly equal to the head 
in length. It is an inhabitant of Southern Africa. In several anatomical points, especially 
in the arrangement and shape of its teeth, it may be distinguished from the following animal. 

THE FENNEC, or ZERDA, is an inhabitant of Africa, being found in Nubia and Egypt. It 
is a very pretty and lively little creature, running about with much activity, and anon sitting 
upright and regarding the prospect with marvellous gravity. The color of the Fennec is a 
very pale fawn, or "isabel" color, sometimes being almost of a creamy whiteness. The tail 
is bushy, and partakes of the general color of the fur, except at the upper part of the base and 
the extreme tip, which are boldly marked with black. The size of the adult animal is very 
inconsiderable, as it measures scarcely more than a foot in length, exclusive of the bushy tail, 
which is about eight inches long. 

It is said that the Fennec, although it is evidently a carnivorous animal, delights to feed 
upon various fruits, especially preferring the date. Such a predilection is according to vulpine 




FENNEC. Vvlpet zaarensit. 



274 THE FENNEC. 

and canine analogies, for the common Fox is remarkably fond of ripe fruits, such as grapes or 
strawberries, and the domestic dog is too often a depredator of those very gardens which he 
was enjoined to keep clear from robbers. But that the animal should enjoy the power of pro- 
curing that food in which it so delights is a very extraordinary circumstance, and one which 
would hardly be expected from a creature which partakes so largely of the vulpine form and 
characteristics. The date-palm is a tree of a very lofty growth, and the rich clusters of the 
fruit are placed at the very summit of the bare, branchless stem. Yet the Fennec is said to 
to be able to climb the trunk of the date-palm, and so procure for itself the coveted luxury. 

This creature presents so strange a medley of characteristics that it has proved a sad stum- 
bling-block to systematic zoologists, and has been so frequently transferred by them from one 
portion of the animal kingdom to another, that its position in their catalogues seems to vary 
as often as the different lists are published. One celebrated naturalist considers the Fennec to 
belong to the civets and genetts ; another ranks it with the hyenas ; while a third believes 
that its true position is among the Galagos. Xow, however, it finds a resting-place in the 
genus Vulpes, being a congener with the various foxes of the Old and New Worlds. 

It must here be remembered that the generic distinction of dogs and foxes can hardly be 
regarded as a settled matter, and that many practical naturalists favor the opinion that the 
foxes ought to be included in the genus "Canis." That the dog and the fox will produce a 
mixed offspring is now generally allowed. There are many authenticated accounts of such 
mixed breeds, dating from the earlier part of the present century up to the present time. 
Moreover, it has been found that the offspring of the dog and the fox is capable of reproduc- 
tion when it is again crossed with the dog. Should this experiment be successfully conducted 
to a still further extent, and the vulpo-canine offspring of both sexes be found capable of 
mutual reproduction, the difficult question to which we have referred will be finally solved. 

Like the veritable foxes, the Fennec is accustomed to dwell in subterranean abodes, which 
it scoops in the light sandy soil of its native land. Bruce, who claims the honor of introducing 
this curious little animal to zoological science, avers that it builds its nest in trees. Ruppell, 
however, who may lay claim to more scientific knowledge than was possessed by Bruce, dis- 
tinctly contradicts this statement, and asserts that it lives in "burrows" like other foxes. 

This curious little animal is not entirely without its use to man ; for its fur is of consider- 
able value among the native tribes of the locality wherein it is found. The skin of the Fennec, 
called "motlose" in the native dialect, is said to furnish the wannest fur in Africa, and is 
highly prized for that quality. And as, on account of the diminutive size of the animal, a 
single skin forms but a very small portion of a garment, a mantle which is composed of "mot- 
lose" fur is valued very highly, and can with difficulty be purchased from its dark owner. 

As is the case with the greater number of predaceous animals, the Fennec is but seldom 
seen during the daytime, preferring to issue forth upon its marauding expeditions under the 
friendly cover of night. Even when it has spent some time in captivity, it retains its restless 
nocturnal demeanor, and during the hours of daylight passes the greater portion of its time in 
semi-somnolence or in actual sleep. On a comparison with the Otocyon, the Fennec appears 
at first sight to bear so close a resemblance to that animal that either of the two creatures 
might easily be mistaken for the other. The slender body, the bushy tail, the sharply pointed 
snout, and the extraordinarily long ears, are so conspicuously notable that the two animals 
have frequently been confounded together, and actually figured under the same title. Yet 
the distinguishing characteristics are so strongly marked as to justify their separation, not 
only into different species, but into different genera. 

It is a quaint little creature in its aspect, and wears an air of precocious self-reliance that 
has quite a ludicrous effect in so small an animal. The color of its eyes is a beautiful blue, 
and the "whisker" hairs which decorate its face are long and thick in their texture, and 
white in their color. The honor of introducing the Fennec into Europe is claimed by two 
persons ; the one being Bruce, the celebrated traveller, and the other being a Swedish gentle- 
man of the name of Skioldebrand. The latter writer was certainly the first person who pub- 
licly brought the Fennec before the zoologists of Europe, but is supposed to have succeeded in 
his ambition by means which were hardly just or honorable. 



THE WEASEL. 



275 



The Fennec is identical with the fox-like animal that is named " Zerda" by Ruppell, and 
"Cerdo" by Illiger. 

JUST as the Aard-Wolf appears to form the link between the civets and the hyenas, being 
with some difficulty referred to either group of animals, so the Hunting-Dog seems to be the 
connecting link between the dogs and the hyenas. Its position, however, in the scale of 
animated nature is so very obscure that it has been placed by some zoologists among the dogs 







HYENA-DOG, OR HUNTING-DOG. Lycaon irictus. 

and by others among the hyenas. As, however, the leading characteristic of its formation 
appears to tend rather towards the canine than the hyenine type, the Hunting-Dog has been 
provisionally placed at the end of the dogs rather than at the end of the hyenas. 

There are many names by which this animal has been called ; in the writings of some 
authors it is mentioned under the title of the Painted Hyena, while by others it is termed the 
Hyena -Dog. The Dutch colonists of the Cape of Good Hope, where this creature is generally 
found, speak of it by the name of Wilde Hund, or Wild Dog ; and it is also known under the 
names of Sitnir and Melbia. 



WEASELS, SKUNKS, BADGERS, ETC. 



WEASELS. 

NEXT in order to the dogs, is "placed the large and important family of the WEASELH, 
representatives of which are found in almost every portion of the earth. There is something 
marvellously serpentine in the aspect and structure of the members of this family the Mus- 
telidje, as they are called, from the Latin word mitxfrfrt, which signifies a Weasel. Their 
extremely long bodies and very short legs, together with the astonishing perfection of the 



276 



THE PINE MARTEN. 



muscular powers, give them the capability of winding their little bodies into the smallest pos- 
sible crevices, and of waging successful battle with animals of twenty times their size and 
strength. 

FIRST on the list of Weasels are placed the agile and lively MARTENS, or MARTEN -CATS, 
as they are sometimes termed. Two species of Martens are generally admitted into catalogues, 
although the distinction of the species is even as yet a mooted point. The chief distinction 
between the Pine and the Beech Martens is the different tint of the throat, which in the former 
animal is yellow, and in the latter is white. But it is said by many observers that this varia- 
tion of tint is not of sufficient importance to warrant a separation of the species, and that the 




PINB MARTEN. Mustela martee. 

different sexes of the same species are marked by varying depth of color in the throat, the 
male possessing a darker tinge of yellow than the female. There is also a slight difference of 
size between the two sexes. Taking, however, the arguments which have been adduced on 
both sides of the question, the balance of probabilities lies strongly on the side of those who 
consider the yellow-throated and the white-throated Martens to belong to different species. 

THE PINE MARTEN is so called because it is generally found in those localities where the 
pine-trees abound, and is in the habit of climbing the pines in search of prey. It is a shy and 
wary animal, withdrawing itself as far as possible from the sight of man ; and although a 
fierce and dangerous antagonist when brought to bay, is naturally of a timid disposition, and 
shuns collision with an enemy. 

It is a tree-loving animal, being accustomed to traverse the trunks and branches with won- 
derful address and activity, and being enabled by its rapid and silent movements to steal 
unnoticed on many an unfortunate bird, and to seize it in its deadly gripe before the startled 
victim can address itself to flight. It is a sad robber of nests, rifling them of eggs and young, 
and not unfrequently adding the parent birds to its list of victims. 

The fur of the Pine Marten is rather valuable, especially if the animal be killed in the 
winter. A really fine skin is but little inferior to the celebrated sable, and can hardly be uis- 



THE SABLE. 



277 






tinguished from it by inexperienced eyes. It is thought not to be so prolific an animal as the 
Beech Marten, seldom producing above three or four at a birth, while the latter animal has 
been known to nurture six or seven young at the same time. If this circumstance be generally 
true, it goes far towards proving that the Beech and the Pine Marten are really distinct ani- 
mals. The head of this creature is smaller than that of the Beech Marten, and the legs are 
proportionately larger. 

The length of the Pine Marten is about eighteen inches, exclusive of the tail, which meas- 
ures about ten inches. The tail is covered with long and rather bushy hair, and is slightly 
darker than the rest of the body, which 
is covered with brown hair. The tint, 
ho\vever, is variable in different speci- 
mens, and even in the same individual 
undergoes considerable modifications, ac- 
cording to the time of year and the part 
of the world in which it is found. It has 
rather a wide range of locality, being a 
native of the northern parts of Europe 
and of a very large portion of Northern 
America. 

THE BEECH MAKTEN seems to be of 
rather more frequent occurrence than 
the Pine Marten, from which animal it 
may be distinguished by the white tint 
of the fur on its throat and the upper 
portion of its breast. On account of this 
circumstance, it is sometimes called the 
White-throated Marten. A slight yellow 
tinge is sometimes observed on its throat. 
There are several names by which this 
animal is known, such as the Marter^n, 
the Martern, and the Stone Marten. 

In its destructive habits and its 
thirst for blood, it resembles the animal 
which has already been described, and 
has earned for itself the title of "do- 
mestic," which was applied to it by 
Gesner, because it is in the habit of 
prowling about human habitations, and 
of concealing itself in the barns and 
outhouses, for the purpose of gaining access to the poultry. 

The Marten seems to be easily tamed to a certain degree, but beyond that point its wild 
instincts are too firmly 1'ooted for speedy eradication. One of these creatures was procured 
when young by a shoemaker, and remained with him until it had reached maturity. It then 
escaped from its adopted home, and commenced a series of depredations among the fowls 
which were kept by the neighbors, returning every night, and concealing itself in the house. 
Its destructive energies became so troublesome that it was at last sentenced to death by the 
united voices of those who had suffered from its depredations, and paid the penalty of its 
many robberies. 

ONE of the most highly valued of the Weasels is the celebrated SABLE, which produces 
the richly tinted fur that is in such great request. Several species of this animal are sought 
for the sake of their fur. They are very closely allied to the Martens that have already been 
described, and are supposed by some zoologists to belong to the same species. Besides the 




BEECH MARTEN. Mwtela faina. 



278 



THE SABLE. 



well-known Maries zibellina, a North American species is known, together with another which 
is an inhabitant of Japan. These tAvo creatures, although they are very similar to each other 
in general aspect, can be distinguished from each other by the different hue of their legs and 
feet : the American Sable being tinged with white upon those portions of its person, and the 
corresponding members of the Japanese Sable being marked with black. 

The Sable is spread over a large extent of country, being found in Siberia, Kamtschatka, 
and in Asiatic Russia. Its fur is in the greatest perfection during the coldest months of the 
year, and offers an inducement to the hunter to brave the fearful inclemency of a northern 
winter in order to obtain a higher price for his small but valuable commodities. A really 
perfect Sable skin is but seldom obtained, and will command an exceedingly high price. An 




((*. 

%f>r^ 






SABLE. Uartes zitfUina. 



ordinary skin is considered to be worth from five to thirty dollars, but if it should be of the 
very best quality, is valued at fifty to sixty dollars. 

In order to obtain these much-prized skins, the Sable-hunters are forced to undergo the 
most terrible privations, and often lose their lives in the snow-covered wastes in which the 
Sable loves to dwell. A sudden and heavy snow-storm will obliterate in a single half -hour 
every trace by which the hunter had marked out his path, and, if it should be of long con- 
tinuance, may overwhelm him in the mountain "drifts" which are heaped so strangely by the 
fierce tempests that sweep over those fearful regions. Should he not be an exceedingly experi- 
enced hunter, possessed of a spirit which is undaunted in the midst of dangers, and of a mind 
which is stored with the multitudinous precepts of hunters' lore, he is certain to sink under 
the accumulated terrors of his situation, and to perish by cold and hunger in the midst of the 
snow-sea that rolls in Irage white billows over the face of the country. 

At the best, and when he meets with the greatest success, the privations which he is called 
upon to undergo are of the most fearfxil character, and he rarely escapes without bearing on 
his person the marks of the terrible labor which he has performed. 

The Sables take up their abode chiefly near the banks of rivers and in the thickest parts 
of the forests that cover so vast an extent of territory in those uncultivated regions. Their 
homes are usually made in holes which the creatures burrow in the earth, and are generally 
made more secure by being dug among the roots of trees. Sometimes, however, they prefer to 
make their nests in the hollows of trees, and there they rear their young. Some authors, 



THE POLECAT. 



279 



however, deny that the Sable inhabits subterranean burrows, and assert that its nest is always 
made in a hollow tree. Their nests are soft and warm, being composed chiefly of moss, dried 
leaves, and grass. 

Their food is said to partake partially of a vegetable and partially of an animal character, 
according to the season of the year. In the summer time, when the hares and other animals 
are rambling about the plains and forests, the Sable takes advantage of their presence, and 
kills and eats them. But when the severity of the winter frosts has compelled these creatures 
to remain within their domiciles, the Sable is said to feed upon the wild berries that it finds 
on the branches. The hunters assert that the Sable is not content to feed only on the hares 
and such like animals, which constitute the usual prey of the larger Weasels, but that it is in 
the habit of killing and devouring the ermine and the smaller members of the Weasel tribe. 
Even birds fall victims to these agile and voracious animals, being often overtaken in their 
flight among the branches of trees by a well-aimed leap and a sharp stroke of the fore-paws. 

THE PEKAN, more popularly termed the WOOD-SHOCK, is a native of Canada and other 
parts of America, and is of some value on account of its fur, which is nearly as useful, although 
not so valuable, as that of the sable, with which animal it is very closely allied. The color of 




WOOD-SHOCK, OE PEKAN. Martes canadeneie. 

its fur is generally of a grayish-brown, the gray tint being found chiefly on its back, head, 
neck, and shoulders, and the legs, tail, and back of the neck marked with a much darker 
brown. 

Its habitation is usually made in burrows, which it excavates on the banks of. rivers, 
choosing that aqueous locality on account of the nature of its food, which consists of fish and 
various quadrupeds which live near the water. Hunting the Wood-shock is a diversion which 
is greatly in vogue, as is especially followed by the younger portions of the community, who 
find in this water-living, earth-burrowing, sharp-toothed animal, a creature which affords 
plenty of sport to themselves and their dogs, while it is not a sufficiently powerful antagonist 
to cause any great danger to its foes, if it should be driven to despair and assume the offensive, 
instead of yielding in sullen silence. 

THE POLECAT has earned for itself a most unenviable fame, having been long celebrated 
as one of the most noxious pests to which the farmyard is liable. Slightly smaller than the 
marten, and not quite so powerful, it is found to be a more deadly enemy to rabbits, game, 
and poultry, than any other animal of its size. 

It is wonderfully bold when engaged upon its marauding expeditions, and maintains an 
impertinently audacious air even when it is intercepted in the act of destruction. Not only 
does it make victims of the smaller poultry, such as ducks and chickens, but attacks geese, 
turkeys, and other larger birds with perfect readiness. This ferocious little creature has a 
terrible habit of destroying the life of every animal that may be in the same chamber with 
itself, and if it should gain admission into a hen-house will kill every one of the inhabitants, 



280 



THE FERRET. 



although it may not be able to eat the twentieth part of its victims. It seems to be very fond 
of sucking the blood of the animals which it destroys, and appears to commence its repast by 
eating the brains. If several victims should come in its way, it will kill them all, suck their 
blood, and eat the brains, leaving the remainder of the body untouched. 

EVEN those unpromising animals, the weasels, can be subjected to the wondrous super- 
eminence of the human intellect. The FEEKET is well known as the constant companion of 
the rat-catcher and the rabbit-hunter, being employed for the purpose of following its prey 
into their deepest recesses, and of driving them from their strongholds into the open air, 
when the pursuit is taken up by its master. The mode in which the Ferret is employed will 
be presently related. 

Some writers have thought the Ferret to be identical in species with the polecat, and have 
strengthened this opinion by the well-known fact that a mixed breed between these two ani- 
mals is often employed by those who study the development and the powers of the Ferret. 




THE POLECAT. -Putorius fatidua. 

However, the most generally received opinion of the present day considers the Ferret to 
be a distinct species. Mr. Bell, in his work on the British Quadrupeds, remarks that the dif- 
ferent geographical range which is inhabited by these creatures is one of the most striking 
arguments in favor of the distinction of the species. The polecat is found in the northern 
parts of Europe, bearing the severest cold with impunity, and able to track its prey for many 
miles over the snow. But the Ferret is originally a native of Africa, and is most sensitive to 
cold, often perishing if it be exposed to the frosts of winter. When the Ferret is kept in a 
state of domestication, the box or hutch in which it resides must be amply supplied with hay, 
wool, or other warm substances, or the creature will soon pine away and die. 

It sometimes happens that a Ferret escapes from its owners, and making its way into the 
nearest wood or warren, remains in its new quarters until the end of autumn, living quite at its 
ease, and killing rabbits and game at its leisure. But when the cold weather draws near, and 
the frosty nights of autumn begin to herald the frosty days of winter, the Ferret will do its 
best to return to its captivity and its warmer bed, or, failing in its attempt, will die. That a 
Ferret should escape is by no means an unlikly circumstance, for the creature is so active of 
limb and so serpentine of body that it can avail itself of the very smallest opening, and, when 
once at liberty, can conceal itself with such address that it is very rarely recovered. 



THE FERRET. 



281 



Some years ago, an escaped Ferret was discovered in its usurped burrow, and most gal- 
lantly captured by a young lad who was extremely courageous for Ms years. He was prowl- 
ing round a small, thickly-wooded copse, in search of birds' nests, when he saw a sharply- 
pointed snout protruding from a rabbit-hole in the bank which edged the copse, and a pair of 
fiery little eyes gleaming like two living gems in the semi-darkness of the burrow. Being a 
remarkably silent and reticent lad, he told no one of his discovery, but went into the village, 
and presently returned, bearing a little dead kitten which had just been drowned. He then 
crept to the foot of the bank which overhung the burrow, and holding the dead kitten by its 
tail, lowered it into the hole. The Ferret made an immediate spring at the prey which had 
made so opportune an arrival, and was jerked out of the burrow before it could loosen its hold. 

The lad grasped .the Ferret across the body, 
but as he was lying in such a manner that he 
could only use his left arm, the enraged animal 
began to bite his hand in the most furious man- 
ner. However, the young captor could not be in- 
duced to let the Ferret escape, and with great 
presence of mind whirled the creature round with 
such rapidity that it was soon rendered almost 
senseless by giddiness, and gave him an opportu- 
nity of grasping it with his right hand. The Ferret 
could not bite while thus held, and was borne tri- 
umphantly home, in spite of the wounds which 
had been inflicted on the hand. The bite of an 
enraged Ferret is of a very severe character, and, 
probably in consequence of the nature of its food, 
is difficult to heal and extremely painful. 

It is a fierce little animal, and is too apt to 
,\ iurn upon its owner, and wound him severely be- 
fore he suspects that the creature is actuated by 
any ill-intentions. I once witnessed a rather curious 
example of the uncertainty of the Ferret' s temper. 
A lad who possessed a beautiful white Ferret had 
partially tamed the creature, and thought that it 
was quite harmless. The Ferret was accustomed 
to crawl about his person, and would permit itself 
to be caressed almost as freely as a cat. But on 
one unfortunate morning, when its owner was 
vaunting the performances of his protegee tor it 
was a female the creature made a quiet but rapid 
snap at his mouth, and drove its teeth through 
both his lips, making four cuts as sharply defined as if they had been made with a razor. 

Still, the Ferret is really susceptible of kind feeling, and has been often known to be truly 
tamed. One of these animals was accustomed to accompany its master when he took a walk 
in the country, and was permitted to range at will. Round its neck a little bell was hung, so 
as to give indications of its presence, but it was so extremely tame that this precaution was 
hardly needed. It would follow its master like a dog, and if he ran away would hunt his 
footsteps, anxiously and eagerly seeking for his presence. This was a Polecat-ferret. 

When Ferrets are used for the purpose of hunting rabits, their mouths are securely muz- 
zled before they are permitted to enter the burrows ; as, if their teeth were at liberty, they 
would in all probability kill the first rabbit which they met, and remain in the burrow for the 
purpose of sucking its blood. They are purposely kept without their ordinary meals before 
they are taken into the field, and are therefore especially anxious to secure their prey. Several 
modes of muzzling the Ferret are in vogue : some of them being as humane as is consistent 
with the act of fastening together the jaws of any animal, and others being most shamefully 




FERRET.-j/iiste/a furo. 



282 THE POLECAT-FERRET. 

cruel. Not many years ago, it was the general custom to sew up the lips of the poor creature 
every time that it was used for hunting, and elaborate descriptions of this process are given 
in the sporting books of the period. Leathern muzzles are made especially for the purpose, 
and are the best that can be adopted ; but in their absence, the Ferret's mouth can be effect- 
ually closed by means of two pieces of string, one of which is placed round the neck and the 
other under the jaws, and the four ends tied together at the back of the neck. 

Almost any Ferret will enter a rabbit-burrow and drive out the inmates, for the rabbits do 
not even think of resisting their pursuer, and flee before him with all their might. But there 
are comparatively few Ferrets that will venture to enter a rat-hole, especially after they have 
suffered once or twice from the sharp teeth of those voracious rodents. If the Ferret is accus- 
tomed to chase rabbits, it becomes totally useless for the purposes of the rat-catcher, for it 
will not venture even to face a well-grown and vicious old rat, and much less will it dare to 
enter the burrow. After suffering from the bite of a rat, the Ferret is seized with a very great 
respect for a rat's teeth, and will not willingly place itself within reach of those sharp-edged 
weapons. As has been graphically said by a practical rat-catcher, to force such a Ferret into 
a rat-hole is "like cramming a cat into a boot, and as for hunting, it is out of the question." 

When a Ferret is possessed of sufficient skill and courage to face its long-tailed foes, and 
has been perfectly trained to the service, it can achieve wonders in open light, and is a most 
valuable animal. As a general fact, a large gray old rat will beat off a Ferret, if it can only 
back itself into a corner, so as to prevent an attack from behind ; but when the Ferret is well 
trained to the business, it becomes a most destructive rat-slayer. There is a very graphic 
narrative in Mr. J. Rod well's work on rats, which not only shows the wonderful powers of the 
Ferret, but gives a good description of the modes of attack and defence which are practised 
by both animals. 

"One evening I called upon an acquaintance of mine, and found him just going to decide 
a wager respecting a large male Ferret of the polecat breed, which was to destroy fifty rats 
within the hour. It must be borne in mind that this Ferret was trained for the purpose. 

" The rats were placed in a large square measuring eight or ten feet from corner to corner. 
The Ferret was put in, and it was astonishing to see the systematic way in which he set about 
his work. Some of the larger rats were very great cowards, and surrendered with scarcely a 
struggle ; while some of the smaller, or three-parts-grown ones, fought most desperately. One 
of these drew my particular attention. The Ferret, in making his attacks, was beaten off sev- 
eral times, to his great discomfiture ; for the rat bit him most severely. At last the Ferret 
bustled the fight, and succeeded in getting the rat upon its back, with one of his feet upon the 
lower part of its belly. In this position they remained for some minutes, with their heads 
close to each other and their mouths wide open. The Ferret was rather exhausted with his 
former conflicts, and every move he made the rat bit him. At last he lost his temper, and 
making one desperate effort, he succeeded in getting the rat within his deadly grasp. He 
threw himself upon his side, and drawing the rat close to him, he fixed his teeth in its neck. 

"While thus engaged, a rat was running . carelessly about. All at once, when near the 
Ferret, it threw up its head as if a new idea had struck it : it retreated until it met with 
Another, and it was astonishing to see the instantaneous effect produced in the second. Off 
ehey ran together to the corner where the Ferret lay. The fact was, they scented the blood of 
either the rat or the Ferret, which in both was running in profusion. Without any further 
ceremony they seized the Ferret fast by the crown of the head, and drew themselves up for a 
comfortable suck of warm blood. The Ferret, feeling the smart, thought it was his old oppo- 
nent that was struggling in his grasp, and bit his lifeless victim most furiously. Presently he 
let go the dead rat and seemed astounded at the audacity of the others. He began to struggle, 
and they seemed quite offended at being disturbed at their repast. He very soon, however, 
succeeded in catching hold of one of them, and the other ran away ; but only for a few seconds. 
The Ferret demolished the whole fifty considerably under the hour." 

Two kinds of Ferrets are employed for the purpose of hunting game ; the one, a creamy- 
white creature, with bright pink eyes, and the other a much darker and fiercer-looking animal, 



THE MINE. 



283 



which is the mixed offspring of the polecat and the Ferret. This is the animal which is called 
the Polecat-ferret in the above-mentioned anecdote. 

The same author mentions several curious instances of single combat between rats and 
Ferrets, in which the latter animals were successfully resisted. On one occasion, when he was 
walking in the fields, accompanied by the tame Ferret which has already been described, a 
sharp conflict took place between the Ferret and a female water-rat which was defending her 
young. Not seeing the first attack, the owner of the Ferret thought that his favorite had 
wounded its nose against a spike, for it was bleeding profusely, and seemed to be in great dis- 
tress. Presently, however, the cause of its 
wounds became apparent, in the person of 
a large rat, which darted fiercely at him 
from the cover of a bunch of grass, and 
with the force of her spring fairly knocked 
him off his legs. 

When the grass-tuft was removed, a 
litter of young rats was seen, over whom 
the mother was keeping such undaunted 
watch. She did not attempt to escape, 
but ever and anon, as the Ferret drew 
within a certain distance, she flew at him, 
and knocked him over, inflicting a fresh 
bite on every attack, so that the assailant 
was being worsted. At last, being encum- 
bered with the weight of two little rats, 
which clung too firmly to their parent, she 
made a false leap, and was seized in the 
fatal embrace of the Ferret, who would 
soon have .put an end to the valiant 
' defender of her young had not the owner 
of the Ferret come to the rescue and disen- 
gaged the cruel teeth from their hold. But 
so furious was the mother rat, that when 
she was released from her foe she again 
flew at it, and inflicted several severe 
bites. Its owner then held the Ferret by 
its tail, and was carrying it away, when 
the rat, after making several ineffectual 
springs, actually leaped upon him, ran up 
his legs and body, and along his out- 
stretched arm, so as to get at her hated enemy, on whom she inflicted another bite and fell to 
the ground. A second time she attempted this manoeuvre, and when frustrated in her wishes 
set up her back and bade defiance to man and beast. 

To the honor of the human spectator, he took a great interest in the valiant little animal, 
and regularly supplied her with food until her offspring were able to shift for themselves. 

Ox account of its water-loving propensities, the MINK is called by various names that bear 
relation to water. By some persons it is called the Smaller Otter, or sometimes the Musk 
Otter, while it is known to others under the title of the Water-Polecat. It also goes by the 
name of the NUREK VISON. 

The Mink is spread over a very large extent of country, being found in the most northern 
parts of Europe, and also in North America. Its fur is usually brown, with some white about 
the jaws, but seems to be subject to considerable variations of tinting. Some specimens are of 
a much paler brown than others ; in some individuals the fur is nearly black about the head, 




MINK.-Ffcon lutreola. 



284 THE WEASEL. 

while the white patch that is found on the chin is extremely variable in dimensions. The size, 
too, is rather variable. 

It frequents the banks of ponds, rivers, and marshes, seeming to prefer the stillest waters 
in the autumn, and the rapidly flowing currents in spring. As may be supposed from the 
nature of its haunts, its food consists almost wholly of fish, frogs, crawfish, aquatic insects, 
and other creatures that are to be found either in the waters or in their close vicinity. The 
general shape of its body is not quite the same as that of the marten or ferret ; and assumes 
something of the otter aspect. The teeth, however, are nearer those of the polecat than of the 
otter ; and its tail, although not so fully charged with hair as the corresponding member in 
the polecat, is devoid of that muscular power and tapering form which is so strongly charac- 
teristic of the otter. The feet are well adapted for swimming, on account of a slight webbing 
between the toes. 

The fur of this animal is excellent in quality, and is by many persons valued very highly. 
By the furriers it passes under the name of "Moenk," and it is known by two other names, 
" Tutucuri " and " Noers." As it bears a great resemblance to the fur of the sable, it is often 
fraudulently substituted for that article a deception which is the more to be regretted, as the 
fur of the Mink is a really excellent one, handsome in its appearance, and extremely warm in 
character. By some authors, the identity of the Mink with the water-polecat has been 
doubted, but, as it appears, without sufficient reason. 

THERE is hardly any animal which, for its size, is so much to be dreaded by the creatures 
on which it preys as the common WEASEL. Although its diminutive proportions render a 
single Weasel an insignificant opponent to man or dog, yet it can wage a sharp battle even 
with such powerful foes, and refuses to yield except at the last necessity. 

The proportions of the Weasel are extremely small, the male being rather larger than the 
opposite sex. In total length, a full-grown male does not much exceed ten inches, of which 
the tail occupies more than a fifth, while the female is rather more than an inch shorter than 
her mate. The color of its fur is a bright reddish-brown on the upper parts of the body, and 
the under portions are of a pure white, the line of demarcation being tolerably well defined, 
but not very sharply cut. This contrast of red and white renders it an exceedingly pretty 
little animal. The tail is of a uniform tint with the body, and is not furnished with the tuft 
of jetty hairs that forms so conspicuous a decoration of the stoat. 

The audacity of this little creature is really remarkable. It seems to hold every being 
except itself in the most sovereign contempt, and, to all appearance, is as ready to match itself 
against a man as against a mouse. Indeed, it carries its arrogant little pretensions so far, 
that, if elephants were inhabitants of this country, the Weasel would be quite willing to dis- 
pute the path with them. I remember being entirely baflied by the impertinence of one of 
these animals, although I was provided with a gun. While I was walking along a path that 
skirted a corn-field, a stir took place among some dried leaves by the hedge-side, and out ran 
something small and red along the bottom of the hedge. I instantly fired, but without success, 
at the moving object, which turned out to be a Weasel. The little creature, instead of running 
away, or appearing alarmed at the report and the shot, which tore up the ground around it, 
coolly ran into the middle of the path, and sitting up on its hind legs, with its paws crossed 
over its nose, leisurely contemplated me for a moment or two, and then quietly retired into 
the hedge. 

It is a terrible foe to many of the smaller rodents, such as rats and mice, and performs a 
really good service to the farmer by destroying many of these farmyard pests. It follows them 
wherever they may be, and mercilessly destroys them, whether they have taken up their sum- 
mer abode in the hedgerows and river-banks, or whether they have retired to winter quarters 
among the barns and ricks. Many farmers are in the habit of destroying the Weasels, which 
they look upon as " vermin," but it is now generally thought that although the Weasel must 
plead guilty to the crime of destroying a chicken or duckling now and then, it may yet plead 
its great services in the destruction of mice as a cause of acquittal. The Weasel is specially 
dreaded by rats and mice, because there is no hole through which either of these animals can 



THE WEASEL. 



285 



pass which will not quite as readily suffer the passage of the Weasel ; and as the Weasel is 
most determined and pertinacious in pursuit, it seldom happens that rats or mice escape when 
their little foe has set itself fairly on their track, 

Not only does the Weasel pursue its prey through the ramifications of the burrows, but it 
possesses in a very large degree the faculty of hunting by scent, and is capable of following its 
prey through all its windings, even though it should not come within sight until the termina- 
tion of the chase. It will even cross water in the chase of its prey. When it has at last 
reached its victim, it leaps upon the devoted 
creature, and endeavors to fix its teeth in the 
back of the neck, where it retains its deadly 
hold in spite of every struggle on the part of 
the wounded animal. If the attack be rightly 
made, and the animal be a small one, it can 
drive its teeth into the brain, and cause instan- 
taneous insensibility. The gamekeeper has some 
reason for his dislike to the Weasel, as it is very 
fond of eggs and young birds of all kinds, and 
is too prone to rob the nests of eggs or young. 
It is said that an egg which has been broken by 
a Weasel can always be recognized by the pecu- 
liar mode which the little creature employs for 
the purpose. Instead of breaking the egg to 
pieces, or biting a large hole in the shell, the 
Weasel contents itself with making quite a 
small aperture at one end, through which it 
abstracts the liquid contents. 

So determined a poacher is the Weasel 
that it has been seen to capture even full-grown 
birds. A Weasel has been seen to leap from the 
ground into the midst of a covey of partridges, 
just as they were rising on the wing, and to 
bring one of them to the earth. When the spec- 
tator of this curious occurrence reached the spot, 
he found the Weasel in the act of devouring 
the bird, which it had already killed. This 
adventure took place about the end of the month 
of October. The birds were more than two feet from the ground when the attack was made 
upon them. 

Another Weasel was seen to capture and kill a rook in a somewhat similar manner. The 
rooks had discovered the Weasel in a field, and after their custom on such occasions, had 
gathered round it, and commenced mobbing it. Suddenly, just as one of the rooks made a 
lower stoop than usual, the Weasel leaped at its tormentor and dashed it to the ground. The 
dissonant cries of the rooks as they scolded the Weasel attracted the attention of a horseman 
who was passing by, who arrived at the spot just as the bird had been killed. It lay on the 
ground dead, from a wound in its neck ; its murderer having taken shelter in a neighboring 
hedge. As soon, however, as the horseman withdrew, the Weasel emerged from its hiding- 
place, and dragged the dead rook under the shelter of the bushes. 

Although the Weasel proved the victor in this instance, it does not always meet with 
equal success, especially when it matches its mental powers against those of a superior kind. 
The predilection of this animal for eggs has already been mentioned, and the Weasel will take 
great pains in order to secure the coveted luxury. A gentleman, who had discovered a furtive 
nest made by one of his hens in a hedgerow, was witness to a curious scene. Just as the hen 
had laid an egg, she issued from her nest, cackling triumphantly, as is the manner of hens' 
upon such occasions. A Weasel, which had been observed at a great distance stretching its 




WEASEL.- Muntela vvlgaris. 



286 THE WEASEL. 

neck as if watching for its prey, darted towards the spot, but just before it reached the nest it 
was anticipated by a crow, which seized the egg and bore it off in triumph. Desirous of inves- 
tigating the matter further, the proprietor of the plundered fowl would not remove her nest, 
but took up. his station on the succeeding day, in order to see whether crow or Weasel would 
return to the at